Definitions 40 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Correlation
anomolous relationship
folkways
considered polite behavior
Race:a.Means having distinctive cultural characteristics.b.Means having inherited physical characteristics that distinguish on group from another.c.People who are singled out for unequal treatment.d.Relatively easy to deteremine.
B.
crime
Something that’s socially constructed, violation of a law, our idea of crime changes over time with change in deviance
eliminating discrimination
voluntary associtions
2. governmental agencies and policies
critiques of bureaucracies
* alienation*ritualism*structured inequality
personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
culture shock
Public Opinion
Widespread attitudes about controversial issues
emile durkheim
French sociologist and philosopher.
Hyperreality
Television does not just "represent" the world to us, it increasingly defines what the world in which we live actually is.
Values
ideas and things considered important by a given group of people
expectation that members of society should politely respond to greetings by others is called
folkway
Corporate Crimes
false advertising, selling faulty products, workplace discrimination, hazardous working conditions
Beliefs
Shared ideas held collectively by people withina given culture
Out groups
one is disconnectedantagonism and contempt\"them\", \"those people\"minority, less powerful
Societal-reaction approach
Another name for labeling theory.
3 main sociological theories
structural functional
social conflict
symbolic interacting
the self
not inherant, formed through interaction w/ other people, experiences w/in an environment
culture
the totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior
communism
means of production publicly owned, but there are no social classes
William Sunner
Man who introduced Folkways, Mores, and Taboos
3 social sciences (not sociology)
anthropology, psychology, economics
self 
the unique human capacity of being able to see our-selves “ from the outside”; the views we internalize of how others see us
Society
a large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural elements including objects and ideas from one culture to another
subordinate group
group whose members, because of physical or cultural characteristics, are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by the dominant group and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination
cultural universals
features common to all cultures because all humans have the same basic needs
What is heterosexism?
prejudice and discrimination against gay and bi
Emile Durkheim works
Division of Labor in SocietySuicide
gesture, object, or word that forms the basis of human communication
symbol
conflict perspective
approach emphasiving the role of conflict,competition,and constraint within a society
institutional discrimination
the arrangements or practices in social institutions and their related organizations that tend to favor one category or group of people over others.
4th Amendment
protection against illegal search and seizure
Tradition
Values and beliefs passed from one generation to the next
sanctions
a penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm
gatekeeping
when a relatively small number of people in the media industry control what material eventually reaches the audience
Sociologica Imagination
making a connection between personal experiences and larger social influences/institutions
extended family
extended family members living w/in the household. -tend to have more money and more of a support system
cultural transmission
Crime is learned through daily interactions, you grow up in media you are exposed to (determine your criminal behavior) , interactionist
social control
the enforcement of conformity by society upon its members, either by law or by social pressure.
social categories
groupings of persons who share a social characteristic
theory that suggests that the dynamics of society, both of social order and social resistance, are the result of the conflict among different groups
conflict theory
language 
defined as a set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another 
Social Mobility
The movement of individuals and groups between different class positions as a result of change in occupation, wealth, or income.
Lipsitz argument
-racism has changed since Jim Crow
- new form has increased political,social,economic value of whiteness today
- past 2 decades of the gap increasing stems from liberal's individualism making it hard to understand one's advantage corresponds to another's disadvantage
culture trait/item
refers to a singular characteristic of the culture
Verstehen
a principle used by Max Weber that means empathetic understanding;
Parkinson's law
"work expands to fill the time available for its completion."
patriarchy
a form of social organization in which males dominate females
Self
A distinct identity that sets us apart from others.
NEWLY INUSTRIALIZING ECONOMIES
rapidly growing economies of the world, East Asia and Latin America
T/F Basic components of a culture vary from society to society
false
Charles Horton Cooley
focused on research of small groups
census
a periodic head count of the entire population of a country
racism
The belief of a superiority of one race, system of power relations that are institutionalized through power structure
sapir-whorf hypothesis
concerning the role of language in shaping our interpretation of reality, language is culturally determined
relative deprivation approach
Individuals decide to mobilize for social change if they feel they are deprived of a right they should have- gay rights= people deprived of a right to marry
social distance
the extent to which individuals or groups are removed from or excluded from participating in one another's lives
The 1st out of 7 Realities
Human beings are insignificant
Karl Marx
roots of human misery lay in class conflict (exploitation of workers by those who own the means of production), social change was inevitable via overthrowing the capitalists by the workers, influence conflict theorists
invasion
takes place when a new type of people, institution, or actitvity encroaches on an an area occupied by a different type
Cultural Tranmission Theory
deviance is learned in primary groups (gang behavior) you can also learn deviant behavior from other groups such as your own family.
Tendency of people to refrain from contributing to the common good when resources are available
Free Rider Problem
Self looking glass
1) act towards others2) others act towards us3) reactions of others
Sudan Conflict and Genocide
Groups: Arabs (Nomadic herders) vs. Africans (Farmers)

Events:
1. Drought (1980s and 1990s): less land for grazing, herders encroached on farmlands leading to a turf dispute. Africans grew sick of Khartoum indifference.

2. Protest (2003): Sudanese Liberation Army (African Rebels) killed 75 Sudanese Government soldiers and kidnapped the air force chief as a protest against government’s neglect of Darfur Africans.

3. Government Response (2003): Sudan government commissioned Darfur Arabs (Janjaweed) to put down insurgency. The Janjaweed went on village killing spree leading to 2 million refugees -> 200k to Chad, 180k deaths

4. Ceasefire (2004): African Union declared ceasefire agreement

5. Starvation (2004-2006): Starvation is primary killer. Janjaweed continue violence. It spills into border camps into Chad.

6. International Response (2009): International Criminal Court issued arrest warrant for President of Sudan on charges of war crimes and humanity crimes verse Darfur. 1st time a nation leader was indicted by the court. Sudanese refused to acknowledge the jurisdiction and killed Sudanese who cooperated.
working class
The social class that is composed of people who own little or no property, who sell their labor for a living, whose jobs give them middle-to-low income and prestige, and who have little or no authority.
Concentric Zone Theory: functionalist perspective
Functionalist perspective
Center (or nucleus) is a city’s business district

As city grows, there are expanding circles moving outward that represent each zone (residential, commercial, etc.)

This worked for awhile, but people starting moving away from the inner city
routine activities theory
Deviance or crimes happen when you have a particular set of circumstances conjoined come together, 1- motivated perpetrator, 2- environment conducive to carrying out crime
Interactionist perspective
How people relate to one another and what that demonstrates in societies as a whole. - family dinners
false consciousness
Lack of an understanding btw your own class and the social situation that created it, connect class and influence of powerful social structures
patterns of intergroup relations
1- genocide- 1 majority group systematically kills minority group, 2- expulsion- major group gets rid of minorities (deport), 3- amalgamation- major and minor intermarry, creating a new group, 4- assimilation- minority adapts to major, 5- segregation- physical separation, 6- plurism- intergroup relations which force people to accept others
social class
a broad group in society having common economic, cultural, or political status.
If Hitler Asked You to Execute a Stranger, Would You? What experiment is this?
The Milgram Experiment
Margie is on an educational trip to a village in Africa. One evening her African hosts served a stew containing giant red ants and other insects. After dinner, Margie asked what was in the delicious stew she just enjoyed. When her host told her, Margie be
Culture shock
primary deviant
is a person who had behaved such that people identify him as deviant
social construction of reality
the process by which people create through social interaction a certain idea, feelings, or belief about their environment
how does Weber understand class?
1) economic standing 2) status (hierarchy) 3) power
functionalist view of stratification
There are differences, but they are necessary- economic rewards act as a motivator in society, ex: brain surgeons make a lot of money to compensate for all their hard work
conflict perspective on deviance
Deviance tends to support the interest of the wealthy, white collar crimes have less harsh punishment, where you go- how much you spend
Reputational Method (determining social class):
ask people what the reputation is of other people (breaks down in large communities)
length of time most people spend in poverty
one year or less
anticipatory socialization
one is trained for a future role to be played in society
significant other
a person, as a parent or peer, who has great influence on one's behavior and self-esteem
What does Kara propose each individual to do to be part of the solution?
1. Raise awareness
2. Donate to anti-trafficking NGOs
3. Community vigilance: participate and/or establish
4. Write a letter to politicians
McIntosh's research of white privilege
Race is voluntary for whites, so they have hidden privileges- understand race only when they have to, socialized into white privilege, 1- whites are generally around other whites, 2- white ppl treated differently (ex- retail), 3- white standard norm is parenting (socializing), 4- whites don’t have the pressure of representing their race
What is socialization?how is it a process?
Socialization is a lifelong process by which individuals learn the culture of their society and develop their capacities for complex thought and action.
What are the POSITIVES of Erikson's Psychosocial theory?
1. Look at how society, culture, and history mold you
2. How this theory has a cultural basis:
a. Resolution of each crisis depends on the person's interaction with culture
b. Notes the importance of history and how immediate it is
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