Acids vs. Bases Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ephedrine
WB
base
NaOH
?
...
H2SO4
Sulfuric Acid
hydrofloric
disovles glass
H2CO3
CARBONIC ACID
OH-
hydroxide ions
LiOH
lithium hydroxide
weak acid
HC2H3O2
Nitric Acid
HNO3
H3PO4
Phosphoric Acid W
Acid
Hydrogen ion donar
Acids pH range
1-6
Acids taste _________.
sour
6 Strong Bases
CH3O-
OH-
CO3-
NH3
HCO3
CH3COO-
salt
KBr is a _______
PH SCALE 7< ??
BASE
neutral
neither acidic nor basic
Plants store carbohydrates as
starch
Which of the amphoteric
H2O
Do acids react with carbonates?
yes
conjugate base
acid minus a proton
iodine
starch (dark purple or black)
Amino Acids
building blocks of protein
what is strength?
the degree of ionization
HSO3-
name the conjugate base of H2SO3
Ionization
Ionization occurs when a molecular compound (made up of covalent bonds) produces ions when in water.
Arrhenius acid
dissociate to form hydrogen ions
As H increases pH does what?
Decreases
Arrhenius base
produces OH- ions in a solution
diprotic acids
acids that have two ionizable hydrogens like sulfuric acid H2SO4.
Acidosis
Abnormally high acidity (low pH) of the blood and body tissues. Can be brought about by . . .
Severe lack of oxygen, excess carbon dioxide (hypoventilation).
diabetes - accumulation of acidic ketone bodies.
Kidney disease - over-excretion of bicarbonate.
Severe diarrhea - loss of bicarbonate.
HSO4-
amphoteric- can donate and accept a proton.
Indicator
changes color in an acid or base
Disinfectant
Is a substance that kills harmfull bacteria and viruses.
Strong Bases
NaOH, KOH, LiOH, Ba(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, (CH3)4NOH
amphoteric
hydroxides of metals like Zn, Al, and Cr capable of reacting as either an acid or base
Strong acids
___ are acids that completely ionized in water.
Base dissociation constant (Kb)
? = [B+][OH-] / [BOH]
pH
-log[H+]. ((The scale) goes from 1 to 14).
Carboxylic Acids
Acids that contain a carboxyl group whose relative strengths depend on polarity, meaning that CH3COOH is weaker than CH3COOCl because Cl is more electronegative and thus the molecular structure is more polar.
Concentration
the amount of particles dissolved in a particular amount of solution
According to Arrhenius, an acid is an H⁺________
producer
titration
a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration is added to a known volume of a second solution until the reaction between them is just complete
neutral solution
an aqueous solution in which the concentrations of hydrogen and hyroxide ions are equal
Basic Anhydrides
Compounds that when added to H2O form bases. Metallic oxides.
Soap
A substance that is used as a cleaner and that dissolves in water.
pH scale
used for measuring strength of acid or base
conjugate acid-base pair
consists of two substances related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion
Example of a saturated solubility
sponge (with too much water)
Lewis Acid-Base Reaction
the formation of one or more covalent bonds between an electron pair donor and an electron pair acceptor
GENERAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS
they dissociate into ions in water, their aqueous solutions conduct electricity, they have sour taste, change the color of litmus paper into red, they react with active metals and produce hydrogen gas, they react with bases
Reactions in which an acid and a base react in an aqueous solution to produce a salt and water are called
neutralization reactions
they increase the concentration of hydroxide ions in aqueous solution
Which statement about Arrhenius acids is false?
neutralization reaction
the reaction of an acid and a base to form a neutral solution of water and a salt
The weaker the H-X bond and the more polar the bond...
the stronger the acid.
What type of salt produces a basic solution? One that contains ________ ____ _____ _______ ____________ _____ __________
negative ions that attract protons from water
molarity of acid x volume of acid = molarity of base x volume of base; tiltration
Whats does "MaVa=MbVb" mean? What is it used for?
8
Octa
Lactic Acid
Milk
strong base
pH14
HCL
HYDROCHLORIC ACID
pH 3
cola
Sulfuric Acid
H2SO4
HNO3
Strong Acid
Hydrogen
Most acids contain
phenolphtalein orginal color
clear
A weak acid
HF
Solution is Acidic
pH<7
PH = ?
H₃0 LOG-
Bronsted Lowry base
proton acceptor
Animals store carbohydrates as
glycogen
reacts with certain metals
acid
Kb
Equilibrium constant for weak bases
increase in oxygen atoms
increases acidity
From [H+] to pH
-log [H+]
Organic Acids
"carboxyl group" all organic
Acids
electrolytes, sour taste, turn litmus red, react with metals to form H2 gas
ex: vinegar, milk, soda, apples, citrus fruits
inorganic acids include:
hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric
strength
Quantitative tests measures the ____ of an acid or a base on a pH scale.
Arrhenius Bases
substances that increase the concentration of hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions
solvent
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
Phosphorus has an inverse relationship with?
Calcium
equivalence point
The stoichometric point in a titration.
Strong acid
ionizes completely in an aqueous solution
properties of bases
taste bitter
cause indicators to change color
react with acids to produce neutral solutions
dissociate in water
feel slippery (like soap)
triprotic acids
acids that have three ionizable hydrogens like phosphoric acid H3PO4
bases
What is a substance that is characterized by bitter taste, slippery feel, and a pH of 8 or higher?
Hair/Shampoo
Hair consists of strands of protein called kertain and shampoo does not take out all of the grease and oils because you still need some natural oils and greases in your hair.
Solution
mixture in which one substance is evenly mixed with another substance
Lewis acid
an electron pair acceptor; any species that will bond to an unshared pair of electrons
Weak acids
___ are acids that partly dissociate in water having a mixture of acid molecules and component ions.
Acid dissociation constant (Ka)
? = [H3O+][A-] / [HA]
metals
what substance can acids react with to produce hydrogen gas?
get stronger as go down group
Halogen acid trend
Brønsted-Lowry Theory
1923, Acid: proton donor, Base: proton acceptor
Name the buffer system involving dihy--
dihydrogen phosphate ion-hydrogenphosphate ion,
dehydrating agent
a substance that remove water from materials
monoprotic acid
any acid that contains one ionizable proton
Hydronium ion
an ion consisting of a proton combined with a molecule of water; H3O+
Stay Together
Strong acids break apart in water and weaks acids ____ in water (stay together/ break appart)
base ionization constant
the value of the equilibrium constant expression for the ionization of a base
Bronsted-Lowy Acid
a molecule or ion that is a proton donor
Le Chatelier's principle
a change in any of the factors determining equlibrium will cause the system to adjust to reduce the effect of the change
The product of the concentrations of the hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in water is called the (long name)
ion-product constant for water
A diluted substance
Only has a little bit of a solute
bases and some metals
acids turn blue litmus paper red with _____ to form salts
Acid strength is related to...
bond strength (since a proton must be lost).
The purpose of titration is what?
To find the strength of an unknown solution
How are teh substances in a conjugate acid-base pair related to each other?
by the donating and accepting of a single proton
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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