Acids, bases, and salts Flashcards

Terms Definitions
pOH
-log[OH-]
HXO3
ic
-log[OH-]
pOH equals...
HXO
hypo ous
Svante Arrhenius
Swedish Chemist
cation
Positively charged ion
Acidic pH
less than 7
base
pH greater than 7
bases are _______in aqueous solutions
electrolytes
Steel can be cleaned with
hydrochloric acid
weaker
proton transfer reactions favor the production of the ____ acid and the ____ base
standard solution
a solution of known concentration
acids
phth (phenolphthalein) is CLEAR in the presence of ________
Arrenhius base
compounds that ionize to yield hydroxide ions.
Acid
any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions in a solution
neutralization
chemical reaction that occurs when the H30+ ions from an acid react w. the OH- ions from a base to produce water molecules
ion
Atoms with more electrons than protons or less electrons than protons
alkaline solution
another term for a basic solution
many bases are
crystalline solids in pure undissolved state
Salt
an ionic compolund that forms when a metal atom or a positive radical replaces the hydrogen of an acid
conjugate base
formed when acid loses a hydrogen ion
weak acid
any acid that only partly dissociates in solution
neutral solution
aqueous solution in which [H+] and [OH-] are equal
weak base
any base that does not dissociate completely in solution
conjugate acid-base pair
consists of two substances related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion
conjugate acid
the species that is formed when a Bronsted-Lowry base gains a proton is the ___ of that base
amphoteric
a substance that can act as both an acid and a base
OH¯ ion
A hydroxide ion composed of an oxygen atom and a negative hydrogen ion.
Lewis acid
an atom, ion, or molecule that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent bond
neutral atom
when an atom has an equal number of protons and electrons, its electrical charges are balanced and the atom has a neutral electrical charge
end point
the point in a titration at which an indicator changes color
How is Carbon Dioxide tested?
Limewater turns milky when Co2 is present
H2O (water/HOH) and a salt (any ionic compound)
acid + base -> what two products?
NH3
base
soap
...
Hydrochloric Acid
HCl
hydronium ion
...
bromothymol blue neutral
green
bases turn litmus paper
blue
universal indicator pH
all pH
pH
(chemistry) p(otential of) H(ydrogen)
sulfuric acid
an effective dehydration agent
Disinfectant
a chemical substance that kills harmful bacteria or viruses
nonelectrolyte
a substance whose aqueous solution does not conduct electricity
buffer
solutions that resist changes to pH when limited amounts of acid/base are added
Bronstead Laury
acids are proton donors
bases are proton accepters
Acidity
A measure of the hydrogen (hydronium) ion concentration of a solution
strong base
any base that dissociates completely in solution
basic solution
any solution in which the hydroxide-ion concentration is greater than the hydrogen-ion concentration
medium pink
a BASE is ____ in phenol red
litmus base
red litmus turns blue in a base
base ionization constant
the equilibrium constant for the reaction of a weak base with water
monoprotic acids
any acid that contains one ionizable proton (H+ ion); ex: HNO3
monoprotic acid
acid that can only donate only one hydrogen ion
protons (H+)
An acid is a substance that donates ____ in an aqueous solution.
Lewis base
any substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
What is a base? (Proton)
Hydrogen ion acceptor (Proton Acceptor)
Bronsted-Lowry base
a molecule or ion that is a proton acceptor
sulfuric acid is used in
car batteries and the manufacturing of fertilizers
it is a single replacement reaction, the metal replaces the acidic hydrogen(s) at the front of the acidic compound
when an acid reacts with a metal, what kind of reaction happens and what does the metal do?
H3PO4
acid
bases feel
slippery
Nitric Acid
HNO3
NH₄ClO₄
ammonium perchlorate: salt
neutral
pH of 7
H₂SO₄
sulfuric acid: strong acid
yogurt and buttermilk contain
lactic acid
What do bases taste like?
bitter
molecules
when electrons are shared between atoms. covalent bonds
acidic solution
contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
What is Hydrochloric acid (HCI) used for?
pickling
triprotic acids
acids that contain three ionizable hydrogens
buffer capacity
amount of acid/base a buffer solution can absorb without a significant change in pH
alkaline solutions
have a lower H+ concentration and therefore a higher ph (basic:ph 7.01-14)
chemical reaction
A change in the chemical composition of a substance
hydroxide (OH-)
a BASE releases a _____ ion in solution
Neutralization Reaction
When an acid and base are mixed together, a salt+water is the product
Brønsted-Lowry acid
a substance that can donate a proton (H+ ion) to some other substance
Lewis theory
an acid accepts a pair of electrons during a reaction, while a base donates a pair of electrons
phosphoric acid is used to manufacture
detergents, fertilizers, and soft drinks
acid-base neutralization chemical reaction
the chemical reaction between an acid and a hydroxide base in which a salt and water are the products
equivalent point (end point)
the point when the moles of the unknown substance equal the moles of the known substance
How is the Strength Determined?
Determined by how well the acid or base will dissociate when dissolved in water
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Term:
Definition:
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