Development 18 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Cognitive Development Theory
Adolescent Identity Theory-4 stages
social-emotional relationship between child and caregiver
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
Piaget-stage 2-inabiliyt to think through a series of events or mentla operations and then mentally reverse the steps
prenatal period
developmental period before birth
Characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity.
genetic makeup of an individual
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month in which major body systems develop.
Continuity view
Perspective that development is graudal and continuous.
contact comfort
stimulation and reassurance derived from physical touch
primary sex characteristics
sex organs and genitals
Early Puberty
Boys- better athletically, more popular, more self-confident, more delinquency, more alcohol abuse.Girls- higher self-esteem, have sex earlier, sexual harassment, lower grades, poor body image.
By professional training, Sigmund Freud was a
A. philosopher
B. sociologist
C. physician
D. literary scholar
E. counselor
C. physician
in ecological systems theory the activities and interaction patterns in the person's immediate surroundings
age-graded influences
influences on lifespan development that are strongly related to age and therefore fairly predictable in when they occur and how long they last
intermodal perception
perception that combines information from more than one modality or sensory system
an orderly integrated set of statements that descries explains and predicts behavior
one's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
morality at this level of Kohlber'gs theory is determined by approval seeking and law and order. Right and wrong is determined by society's rules. There is respect for authority and majority rule.
animistic thinking
preoperational mode of thought where inanimate objects are assumed to have life
forces work together or influence each other in the interaction between nature and nurture
primitive form of learning where young animals follow and for an attachment to the first moving object they see
Moral Intuition
Moral judgements are the consequences of emotional reactions; our judgements justify our feelings. Some things just feel wrong. Empathy: the ability to share feelings with others.Delayed gratification: rejecting small immediate gain for later larger gain.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator labels a person who is sympathetic, appreciative, and tactful as a(n) ____________ type.
A. thinking
B. judging
C. feeling
D. intuitive
E. projective
C. feeling
The failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers.
the process of cell duplication in which each new cell receives an exact copy of the original chromosomes
effortful control
the self regulatory dimension of temperament that involves voluntarily suppressing a dominate response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response. Variations in effort full control are evident in how effectively a child can focus and shift attention. inhibit impulses and engage in problem solving to manage negative emotions
correlational design
a research design that gathers information on individuals generally in natural life circumstances without altering their experiences and that examines relationships between variable.
in this Kohlberg level right and wrong determined by society's rules which are viewed as fallible rather than absolute or by abstract ethical principles that emphasize equality and justice
theory of mind
An awareness that other people's behavior may be influenced by beliefs, desires, and emotions that differ from one's own.
fluid intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
Vygotsky's Approach
Cognitive development is a result of children's interaction with members of their own cultures rather than interaction with objects. Zone of proximal development- a range of skills that any child is capable of acquiring at any age.
object permanence
a child's realization that an object exists even when they cannot see, hear, or touch it
authoritarian family
these are the rules, don't explain why, very strict, attempt to control the family according to a certain set of rules
Freud suggested that a boy's identification with his father during the phallic stage illustrates the process of
A. unconditional positive regard.
B. self-transcendence.
C. free association.
D. conflict resolution.
E. collective unconscious.
D. conflict resolution.
the tendency to focus on just one property of an object to the exclusion of all others.
increased likelihood of schizophrenia, antisocial disorder.
Consequence of food deprivation
stranger anxiety
the infant's expression of fear in response to unfamiliar adults. appears in man babies after 6 months of age
infantile amnesia
the inability of most older children and adults to remember events that happened before age 3
naturalistic observation
an approach designed to reduce pain and medical intervention and to make childbirth a rewarding experience for parents
separation anxiety
an infant's distressed reaction to the departure of the familiar caregiver
cross-sectional study
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.
Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
As people age, they devote attention toward emotionally satisfying goals.Less time thinking about future, more time thinking about present. Preference for positive over negative information.
if you touch the side of a baby's mouth, they turn their head toward that direction
In the long run, people who practice self-regulation through physical exercise and time-managed programs experience an increase in
A. unconditional positive regard.
B. self-transcendence.
C. the spotlight effect.
D. self-control.
E. reaction formatio
D. self-control.
small for date
infants whose birth weight is below their expected weight when length of pregnancy is taken into account. some are full term; others are preterm infants who are especially under weights
information processing
an approach that view the human mind as a symbol manipulation system through which information flows that often uses flowcharts to map the precise series of steps individuals use to solve problems and complete tasks and that regards cognitive development as a continuous process
preoperational stage
Piaget-stage 2-(from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
authoritative leader
a person who assigns all the tasks and makes all the decisions in a group
Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years)
Infant experiences world through movement and senses, develop schemas, begins to act intentionally, and shows evidence of understanding object permanence.
ethological theory of attachment
a theory formulated by Bowelby that vies the infant's emotional tie to the mother as an evolved response that promotes survival
lower birth weights, perceptual and attentional problems.
Consequences of tobacco usage during pregnancy and/or second-hand smoke
intentional or goal-directed behavior
a sequence of action in which schemes are deliberately combined to sole a problem
expressive style of language learning
a style of early language learning in which toddlers frequently produce pronouns and social formulas such as "stop it" "thank you" and "I want it" they use language mainly to talk about the feelings and needs of themselves and other people
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