Development over the Life Span Flashcards

Terms Definitions
fetal stage
8 weeks
menarche
the onset of mensturation
intimacy vs. isolation?
early adulthood
maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience
identity crisis
distress and disorientation (especially in adolescence) resulting from conflicting pressures and uncertainty about and one's self and one's role in society
Piaget distinguished between four stage of development that occur in an invariant sequence: During the ______ stage, thought is based on action.
sensorimotor
In infants, breathing becomes ineffective at rates of higher than ____ breaths per minute because the air moves only in the upper airway, never reaching the lungs.
60
Assimilation
Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one existing schemas.
Authoritarian
parents impose rules and expect obedience
Death-Deferral Phenomenon
spirit affects life expectancy; depression causes poor health and early death; more people die 2 days after Christmas than before
authoritative parenting style
democratic;Baumrind's term for parenting style blending respect for a child's individuality with an effort to instill social values.Baumrind's term for parenting style blending respect for a child's individuality with an effort to instill social values
Harlow's research with rhesus monkeys suggests that ______ comfort is more important for attachment than oral gratification.
contact
By four months, infants begin babbling, which involves the repetition of single ______ sounds.
consonant-vowel
independent variable
the variable that researchers manipulate in the experiment
Puberty
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
Crystallized intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
Intimacy
In Erikson's theory, the ability to form loving relationships; a primary development task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
Autism
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
Fetal alcohol syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking
teratogens
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Cross-Sectional Studies
study where researchers compare people of various ages
parentese
"baby talk" parents help babies find the "melody"
object perminance
realises that things continue to exist evenwhen no longer present
the basic cell of the nervous system
neuron
Social learning theory prpoposes that gender-role development is the result of ____ and differential reinforcement.
observational learning
information processing approaches
cognitive developmentalist seek to identify the ways individuals take in, use, and store information
attachment
emotional bond that develops in the first year of life that makes human babies cling to their caregivers for safety and comfort
Basic trust
According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
Primary Sex Characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
fluid intelligence
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
Preoperational Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. [Myers Psychology 8e p. 150]
what are the research designs?
cross-sectional research-groups of people, diff from other in age, similar in other ways, are comparedlongitudinal research-same people studied over long time to measure both change & stability as they agecross-sequential research-combines cross-sectional & longitudinal research.
Formal operational
11 years and upCan think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systemtically Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems
movement of legs when held upright with feet touching the floor
stepping reflex
The use of power assertion is most characteristic of _______,
authoritarian
Annie points to teh door after her father leaves for work and says "He go." This is an example of _____ speech.
telegrphic
cognitive perspective
*focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world
*emphasizes how people internally represent and think about the world
What are the three levels of moral development?
Pre-conventional
Conventional
Post-conventional
peer group
a network of same-aged friends and acquaintances who give one another emotional and social support
Which of the newborn's senses is the most fully developed at birth?
Touch
Longitudinal Study
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
Theory of Mind
People's ideas about their own and others' mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict. [Myers Psychology 8e p. 151]
fetal alcohol syndrome
a combination of birth defects caused by the mother’s consumption of alcohol during pregnancy.
disorder in which infants stop growing due to a lack of stim and attention as a result of inadequate parenting
nonorganic failure to thrive
by _____ , most children exhibit a stable preference for the right or left hand.
4 years
Psychodynamic Perspective (Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson)
Behavior throughout life is motivated by inner, unconscious forces, stemming from childhood, over which we have little control
Psychodynamic Perspective (Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson)
Example: A young adult who is overweight has a fixation in the oral stage of development
Define pre-conventional reasoning
The stage of moral developmet during which children respond mainly to cultural control to aviod punishment and attain satisfaction. They obey in order to avoid punishment.
midlife crisis
a time when adults discover they no longer feel fulfilled in their jovs or personal lives and attempts to make a decisive shift in career or lifestyle
sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2)
learning through concrete actions, movemnts become more purposeful, and they learn object permanence
The current status of the nature/nurture controversy is best reflected in which of the following statements:a. experience and maturation are additive factorsb. experience interacts with maturationc. maturation underlies experience
b. experience interacts with maturation
Contextual Perspective (Urie Brofenbrenner, Lev Vygotsky)
Development should be viewed in terms of the interrelationship of a person's physical, cognitive, personality, and social worlds
Contextual Perspective (Urie Brofenbrenner, Lev Vygotsky)
Example: Being overweight is caused by a number of interrelated factors in that person's physical, cognitive, personality, and social worlds.
anxious ambivalent
want to be put down, can be angry w/ mother
An infant's ability to acquire new skills and knowledge in the first year of life is due largely to an increase ina. the number of neuronsb. hemispheric communicationc. myelina\ization adn dendritic growthd. sensory perception
c. myelinization and dendritic growth
What are six factors that affect bone development and growth?
Nutrition
Exposure to sunlight
Growth hormone
Thyroid hormone
Genetic factors
General health
Carol Gilligan suggests that a major task for teachers and parents of adolescent girls is to help them:a. coordinate the often conflicting demands of parents and peersb. plan for their future in the adult worldc. develop an internal loc
d. staying connected to themselves and others - Gilligan argues that adolescent females experience a "relational crisis" that involves separation from themselves, others, and the world due to pressures to conform to sterotypes of femininity. A major task for parents and teachers is to help them resist disconnection
when is a correlation positive & negative?
positive if occurrence of one variable makes it more likely that the other will occurnegative if the occurrence of one makes it less likely that the other will occur
A 14yo is in a car accident and, as a result, has a noticeable scar on his forehea. He feels that everyone is staring at him because of the scar. This is an example ofa. identity moratoriumb. adolescent centrationc. personal fable
d. imaginary audience
True or false: An infants airway is less easily obstructed than an adults because it is more shorter and narrower.
False. An infants airway is shorter, but it is also more narrow and less stable. An infants airway is more easily obstructed than at any other stage of life.
Which of the following is not a risk associated with failing to have a child immunized?
The child may become immune to the diseases
Habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
Levinson's developmental theory (seasons of a man's life) emphasizes the _____ from one period to the next.
transition
Secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
Accommodation
Adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information. [Myers Psychology 8e p. 148]
the sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli involving the sense organs
perception
TrueFalse Recent research confirms Hall's contention that adolescence is a period of storm and stress for most teens.
False
Self-Concept
central to the person's behavior, consists of a person's beliefs/feelings about himself at any given time
11 months babies learn this ___
gesturing
separation anxiety
excessive and persistent anxiety about being separated from one’s home or parents that interferes with normal activities.
while _____ parents exhibit low levels of both warmth and control.
indulgent-uninvolved
mesosystem (Brofenbrenner)
*provides connections between the various aspects of the microsystems
*binds children to parents, students to teachers, employees to bosses, friends to friends
Schema
A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
Social Clock
The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement. [Myers Psychology 8e p. 186]
Intimacy vs. Isolation
young adult; relationships; young adults must develop marriage-seeking relatinships while combating feelings of isolation (Should I share my life with someone else or remain alone?)
Ambivalent/Resistant Insecure Attachment
characterized by emotional ambivalence in child and resistance to mom; child is hesitant to separte from mom and is quick to show distress in an unfamiliar situation; child shows anger for mom at the same time that they're expressing their need for comforting
Concrete operational
Age 7-11Can think logically about objects and events Achieves conservation of number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9) Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size.
Developmental Issuescontinuity vs discontinuity
Continuity: gradual, cumulative changes that occur from conception to death (quantitative)Discontinuity: Distict stages of development (qualitative) that a child moved from not being able to think abstractly to being able to, like out of 'nowhere' it happens.
Their children are often irritable and aggressive and have low self-esteem and low _____.
academic achievement
field study
a research investigation carried out in a naturally occurring setting
Peak physical condition occurs between the ages of ____ and ____, when all body systems are at optimal performance levels.
19, 26
social identity
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships
sensorimoter stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
Disorganized/Disoriented Insecure Attachment
infants show many confused and contradictory behaviors; rare
Kohlberg's 3 stages of moral development
preconventional, conventional, postconvetional
Life-Span PerspectiveDefine Development is life-long
individual continues to develop and change from conception to death
Phenotype refers toa. genetically-determined characteristicsb. environmentally-determined characteristicsc. observable and measurable characteristics
c. observable and measurable characteristics - often reflect a combination of genetic and environmental influences
from ages 8 through 10, trust and assistance become critical elements; and beginning at about age 11, _____ and loyalty are important factors.
intimacy
The posterior fontanelle usually closes in ____ or ____ months, and the anterior one closes between ____ and ____ months.
2, 3, 9, 18
During the toddler years, the brain is now at ____% of adult weight.
90
language acquisition device
a hypothetical neural mechanism for acquiring language that is presumed to be "wired into" all humans
Emerging adulthood
For some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to early twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
Formal Operational Stage
begins at 12 and continues on; children start to think logically about abstract concepts; solving hypothetical questions and deducing consequences; solving if-then problems; improved critical thinking and problem solving abilities; those who took science courses are always in this stage
Piagets Theory2 ways we adapt
Assimilation: person incorporates new info into existing knowledgeAccomodation: person adjust to new information
At birth, the brain is only about 25% of its adult weight but, following birth, it grows quickly and by age 2 it has reached _____ of its adult weight.
80%
Define sucking reflex
A sucking movement caused by an infant's lips being stroked.
If a person has one gene for cystic fibrosis but does not have the disease, cystic fibrosis must be a _______ disorder.
Recessive
preoperational stage
age 2 to 7use of symbols and language accelerates. But lack cognitive abilities for understand abstract principles.
APA ethical guidelines for research
*protect participants from physical or psychological harm
*obtain informed consent from participants before their involvement in the study
*using deception must be justified and cause no harm
*privacy must be maintained
Little Kashif held his empty cup up to his mother and said, "milk!" His use of this word is labeled _________.
A holophrase
Behavioral and Social Cognitive TheoriesDefineSkinner's Operant conditioning
Behavior followed by a reward stimuli is more likely to recur, where as a behavior followed by a negative stimuli will less likely recur
Cognitive Perspective (Jean Piaget)
Emphasis on chages or growth in the way people know, understand, and think about the world affect behavior
Cognitive Perspective (Jean Piaget)
Example: A young adult who is overweight hasn't learned effective ways to stay at a healthy weight and doesn't value good nutrition.
Autonmoy vs. Shame and Doubt
1 yr- 2 yr; toilet training; child's energies directed to phsycial skills. child learns these along with healthy dose of shame and doubt. (Can I do it myself or do I need others to do it for me?)
Severe malnutrition during prenatal development:a. has little impact on the developing brainb. can result in fewer neurons and connections between neuronsc. produces malformed cells, especially in the nervous systemd. is reversibl
b. can result in fewer neurons and connections between neurons
For Erikson, a tyo child is facing which psychosicial crisis:a. autonomy vs. shame and doubtb. trust vs. mistrustc. industry vs. interiorityd. initiative vs. guilt
a. autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Until at least 4 weeks, babies are "_________ breathers."
nose; Because infants are nose breathers, a slight obstruction, often due to a viral respiratory infection, can cause difficulty breathing, sepecially during feeding.
a BABY PICKS UP A SPOON FOR THE FIRST TIME AND SAYS "RATTLE." fROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF pIAGET'S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, THIS REPRESENTSA. ASSIMILATIONB. ACCOMODATIONC. DISEQUILIBRIUMD. irreversibility
a. assimilation - the baby incorporates info from the environment into an existing cognitive schema (his knowledge of the similar properties of a rattle).
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