Developmental Psychology 16 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Punishment and Obedience/Instrumental Purpose and Exchange
Agents and conditions, including viruses, drugs, chemicals, stressors, and malnutrition, that can impair prenatal development and lead to birth defects or even death
Concrete Operational Period
7 - 11 years
What type of research uses participants of different ages to compare how certain variables may change over the life span?
Patterns of arousal and emotionality that represent consistent and enduring characteristics.
Eleven-year-old Eric raised thousands of dollars for Katrina disaster victims. He believes that his efforts will help to improve some victims living conditions. He is demonstrating:
Social efficacy.
Children who master ________________ have learned when and how to express emotions.
emotional regulation.
the female sex hormones, including estradiol, estriol, and estrone. In humans, the estrogens are formed in the ovary, adrenal cortex, testis, and fetoplacental unit, and are responsible for female secondary sex characteristic development
What theory states there differences between male and female brains?
Biopsychological (neuropsychological)
___________ can disrupt the development of the fetus.
The story about the author's nephew David illustrates:
Which of the following is a characteristic of development named by your text?
consequences of abstract thinking
1. self conciousness a)imaginary audience b)peronal fable 2. idealismo and criticism 3. problems with decision making
Who concluded that we assimilate, or incorporate out experiences into existing schema?
Jean Piaget
During what moral stage are moral choices made based on how others will view them?
conventional stage
Why is Fetal Alcohol effect less severe than the syndrome?
moderate drinking
Who was the neo-freudian who developed the psychosocial theory that emphasized that personality was influenced by experiences with others?
Erik Erikson
determines the nature of every cell in the body and how it will function.
The process of getting used to an object or event through repeated exposure to it
Teratogens that can harm the prenatal brain, affecting the future child's intellectual and emotional functioning
behavioral teratogens
According to your text, one common cause of children both internalizing and externalizing problems is:
ineffective parenting.
Behavioral Avoidance System
It activates inhibitory behaviors in response to signals of punishment, non-reward, novel stimuli, and innate fear stimuli.
What similarities do common people have with babies?
similar tastes and smell
What is Authoritative parenting?
When parents have set consistent standards for behavior, but the standards are reasonable and explained.
A pacifier is placed into an infant's mouth and the infant immediately begins to suck on it. What is this called?
Sucking reflex
Perception that is primed to focus on movement and change
Dynamic perception
Freud postulated that young boys have an unconscious desire to replace their fathers and win their mother's exclusive love. He called this:
the Oedipus complex.
The belief in one's own ability, a personal estimate of success and worthiness is called:
self esteem.
Pituitary Gland
Is a pea-sized gland located at the base of the skull between the optic nerves that secretes hormones
limitations of preoperational
1. can't perform mental operations 2. egocentrism 3. cannot conserve (centration, irreversability) 4. lack hierarchial classification
What is permissive parenting?
Parents do not set clear guidelines for their children
the result of many traits; a combo of multiple gene pairs leads to a particular traits. these genes are neither dominant nor recessive, but instead are a combination.
According to research, children of all ages who watch violence on television:
become more violent themselves.
Punishment and Obedience
At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute. Obeying the rules is important because it is a means to avoid punishment.
According to Freud's psychosexual stages, what is fixation?
When a person remains preoccupied with the behaviors associated with one of the psychosexual stages
What is the period of calm between six and puberty in which there is low psychosexual anxiety?
the latency stage
Longitudinal research has shown that:
depending on the content of TV programs, content can facilitate learning.
When can a baby roll over on its own?
approx. 5 1/2 months
MONOZYGOTIC TWINS (genetically identical)
@ form when cluster of cells in the ovum splits off within the first 2 weeks following fertilization. @ preferred subjects for nature versus nurture studies.
Which of the following statements concerning bullying is true?
Efforts to reduce bullying have rarely been successful; Programs to reduce bullying that appear to be good might actually be harmful; Intervention is less effective in the higher grades than in the younger grades.
What is a grasping reflex?
When an object is placed into a baby's palm or foot pad, the baby will try to grasp the object with his or her fingers or toes.
Why would a scientist repeat a research study with a different group of participants, using the same procedures that were used in the original study?
To verify or dispute the original study's conclusions.
What is metacognition and when does it develop?
thinking about how we think. formal operational stage
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