Developmental Psychology Midterm 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
conservation
although apperance has changed physical characteristics remain the same
According to longitudinal studies, children who become successful, intelligent, happy, and generous adults generally have parents who were:
authoritative.
organization
1. rearranging of schemas
2. not influenced by environment
CHROMOSOMES
are rod-shaped sections of DNA organized into 23 pairs.
An opportunity for perceptions and interaction that is offered by people, places, and objects in the environment
affordance
The __________ level emphasizes rewards and punishments; while the ___________ level emphasizes moral principles.
Preconventional; postconventional.
Brofenbrenner recommended a (an):
Ecological systems approach.
Prefrontal Cortex
responsible for the executive functions, which include mediating conflicting thoughts, making choices between right and wrong or good and bad, predicting future events, and governing social control — such as suppressing emotional or sexual urges.
Who created the moral stages of development?
Kohlberg
How are babies eyesight when born?
legally blind
MISCARRIAGE
embryo detaches from wall of uterus and is expelled. 15-20% of all pregnancies end.
Which of the five characteristics of development identified by the text did Brofenbrenner emphasize?
Multicontextual.
Boys who bully tend to:
use physical aggression.
achievments of operational
1. conservations (decentration and reversability) 2. heirarhcial classification 3. spatial reasoning 4.seriation-biggest to smallest 5.spatial reasoning
If a person is over controlling (retentive) or out of control (expulsive), what type of fixation do they have?
Anal fixation.
BEHAVIORAL GENETICISTS
explore the effects of heredity on behavior and psychological characteristics.
A perceptual experience that helps a person recollect an idea or experience, without testing whether the person remembers it at the moment
reminder session
The condition whereby a teratogen is relatively harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once exposure reaches a certain level
Threshold effect
A source of pride develops in preschoolers when they predict that they can accomplish impossible tasks. This is sometimes called:
protective optimism.
Nucleus Accumbens
Important part of the reward system, emotional learning, operant conditioning, motivation, self-reference; sympathy/ preference (unknown faces); empathy/ friendship; craving
Disorders,Addiction, Depression; Bipolar Disorder S
Androgens
A male sex hormone that promotes the development and maintenance of the male sex characteristics. The major one is testosterone
During what age does the sensorimotor stage occur?
from birth-2 years
what is the stage of morality that not all people achieve
postconventional
A disorder that results from damage to the brain's motor centers; difficulty with muscle control, which can affect speech or other body movements
Cerebral Palsy
To say something is empirical means that it is:
based on data.
Family _______ refers to the legal and genetic relationships of related people living together, and family ____________ refers to the way a family works to care for its members.
structure; function.
Hypothalamus
Is an area of the brain that produces hormones that control: Body temperature, Hunger, Moods, Release of hormones from many glands, especially the pituitary gland, Sex drive, Sleep, and Thirst
limitations of operational
1. operate only on concrete objects 2. horizontal dealcage
According to Mary Ainsworth's observations, when does secure attachment occur?
When an infant confidently explores the novel environment while the parents are present, are distressed when they leave, and come to parents when they return.
When can a baby stand on its own?
approx. 8-9 months
The infant explores a range of new activities, varying responses as a way of learning about the world
Tertiary circular reactions
Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus's program to reduce bullying included the interventions of:
teaching students to befriend lonely children.
Instrumental Purpose and Exchange
At this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs.
What does Fetal Alcohol Syndrome cause?
small, malformed skulls and mental retardation due to heavy drinking while pregnant
The term "culture of children" means:
The particular habits and styles reflecting rules and rituals that are distinct from those of adult society.
How does motor control develop?
as neurons in the brain connect with one another and become myelinated
DIZYGOTIC TWINS (2 separate ova
@ fertilized by two separate sperm @ no more genetically similar than 2 siblings. @ average of 50 percent of genes in common.
Psychosocially, one of the most important tasks of a middle-school child is to:
Learn how to get along with peers.
What is a criticism of Piaget's stages of developments?
that our abilities to memorize, interpret, and perceive does not occur in distinct stages, but fluidly
Approval of Others: “The Golden Rule”
At this stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations and roles. There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice," and consideration of how choices influence relationships.
The signs of a psychological disorder in children are usually first evident in their:
lack of impulse control, are unable to exercise enough control over their emotions, are unable to develop control.
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Term:
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