Disabilities in Society Final 2 Flashcards

Developmental disability
Terms Definitions
Prejudice
attitudes and beliefs
IDEA
Individuals with Disabilities Education ActCovers public education from birth through 12th grade
Visitability
-an affordable, sustainable, and inclusive design approach for integrating basic accessibility features into all newly built homes and housing
Caregiving
-estimated 27 million non-paid caregivers in the US
-often a family member who sacrifices a major part of their life to care for another
-caregiver loses average of 650k in wages, benefits and social security income
Cognitive Disability
-learning disabilities, Traumatic Brain injuries (accidents, strokes)
-typically acquired or identified later
Psychiatric Disability
-includes mental illness
-last category to receive government service
-also includes chemical or substance abuse
-least understood by public
Handicapism
focusing on disability and limitationsbelief that PWD is responsible for adapting to the environment vs society is responsible for making environment accessible to all is handicapism
Cognitive Disabilities
Impairs perception, memory, information processing, reasoning, sensory discrimination and or attentionlearning disabilities, traumatic brain injuries (accidents, strokes
Rolling
Disability: all had immobilityIssues: getting powered wheelchair fixed, couldn't go to the bathroom, shoulders took a beating from transferring a lot, sidewalks were not wide enough
Assistive Technology
-also called adaptive devices
-refers to a tool or service that helps a person do the activities they have always done but must now do differently
unnecessary dependence
learned behavior. Individual might believe they can never play sports because they have a disability
People First Language
chose your language wisely
Parentification
an unhealthy process whereby children, in the absence of functioning parental and adult figures, take on psycho-emotional or caregiving tasks at inappropriately young ages
5 titles of the ADA
EmploymentTransportationAccommodations and servicesTelecommunications Miscellaneous
Nanette Shorter
Disability: traumatic brain injury, full body whip lashIssue: family not supportive, social circle changed
Stem Cell Research
-research involving the creation, usage and destruction of human embryonic stem cells
-concerns of cloning or designer babies
-does have the potential to cure or eliminate many disabilities
-ethical issue is that some believe it involves killing to gather the stem cells
Medical Model
-also known as the "professional" model which has an emphasis to find, treat, and cure
-the focus is not on the individual but on the disability or body part
-the recipient of medical help is thought to be passive on any treatment
-this is the most common with history (ex. the nazi's putting PWD into institutions and doing any tests that they please without regard to the person)
Key Models of Disability
1. Medical
2. Environmental
3. Functional
Seating Aids
-any modifications to regular chairs, wheelchairs, or motor scooters that help a person stay upright or get up and down unaided or that help to reduce pressure on the skin
(this could be as simple as an extra pillow or as complex as a motorized seat)
Title I: Employment
-covers all aspects of employment
-requires employers to provide "reasonable accommodations"
-employers can only consider the disability as it impacts essential functions of the job
Meritocracy
based on survival of fittest. Everyone receives what you've earned
Economic Threat
the source your concerned you're competing with somebody for money or a job. Drain on society
Lowered expectations
pwd should be excused, or indulged
Affective
how the individual feels about the disabilityhow the individual manages emotions
Model of Disability
-a set of guiding assumptions, concepts and propositions about the nature of the disability experience
Marriage/Divorce Issues
-marriages break up more often when there is a disability involved
-divorce may leave PWD without income, health insurance, or support at home
-divorce rates also higher when they have a child with a disability
Communication Equipment
-anything that enables a person to send and receive messages
Effect of P&D: Unnecessary Dependence
-dependence on people
-NOT unnecessary, but often viewed negatively
Factor that Influences Perceptions: Cause
-self-inflicted is most stigmatized
-heroes are least stigmatized
Impression Management
-PWD try to reduce discomfort when they meet new people
-try to reduce impact of these perceptions
-use humor, discuss disability upfront
Title V: Miscellaneous
-accessibility to wilderness areas and historical sites
-ensures that PWD are able to engage in outdoor activities
Title IV: Telecommunications
-individuals with speech and hearing disabilities have the right to rapid, efficient, nationwide telephone and telecommunications systems
Discrimination Health Impacts
Elderspea: belittling form of language used with eldersLittle insults can lead to more negative images of aging
Super-caregiver
a caregiver that is unable to accept help from others
Lack of associative community
have established and personal relationships with others so your needs are more likely to be remembered
Stage of Response to Disability: Shock/Initial Impact
-thinking is disorganized
-feeling overwhelmed and confused
-too much is happening to absorb or understand
Effect of P&D: Infantilization
-people associate a disability with being child-like
-often use "motherese" tone
Source of P&D: Spread of Overgeneralization
-widespread discounting and underrating of all the abilities of the PWD
3 Categories of Response to Disability
1. Cognitive
2. Behavioral
3. Affective
Sexual Abuse of PWD
-according to research, a greater number of people with disabilities will experience some form of sexual assault or abuse as compared to general population
-up to 80% of PWDD (developmental disability) are abused at some point in their life
-abuser is most likely someone who knows the victim
Transportation Assistance
-devices for the PWD that make it easier for them to get into and out of their cars or trucks and drive more safely, such as adjustable mirrors, seats, and steering wheels
Parenting with a disability
Need for assistanceneed for adaptive equipmentneed to reduce medications during pregnancy
Siblings of children with disability
guiltembarrassment of the sibling's behavior/appearancefear that they might develop the disabilityanger or jealousyisolationpressure to achieve in order to \"make up\" for sibling inabilities
12 Effects of Prejudice and Discrimination
1. Stereotyping
2. Role Entrapment
3. Lowered Expectations
4. Lack of Privacy
5. Hyper-visibility & Over-observation
6. Solo Status
7. Token Status
8. Infantilization
9. Paternalism
10. View PWD as Objects or Animals
11. Unnecessary Dependence
12. Lack of Equal Social Status
Response to Disability: Affective
-how the individual feels about the disability
-how the individual manages emotions
Societies Views of Sexuality and Disability
-PWD are unattractive and unappealing
-PWD do not want sexual intimacy
-PWD are unable to have sexual intimacy
-PWD are pregnancy/parenting concerns
Accumulative Community
-be a member of a community by your address, your profession, your life experiences
6 Factors of Disability that Influence Perceptions
1. Visibility
2. Aesthetics
3. Communication
4. Cause
5. Threats
6. Course
Stages model of response to disability
shock, initial impact, defensive retreat, denial, depression, mourning, regression, anger, personal questioning, integration, growth
Salience of a disability
disability is the most important or only aspect of that individual
Inferred emotional consequence
disability is the worst thing to ever happen
Physician assisted suicide
death with dignity, right to die. PWD widely divide on issueNearly all disability rights groups opposed
Hyper-visibility or over-observation
pwd are stared at, feel like a spectaclelife is an unending public performance
Factor that Influences Perceptions: Visibility
-can others immediately tell if you have a disability?
-sometimes it is the accommodation that is visible and not the disability
-either way, the PWD is outed
Being a Parent With a Disability
-fear of children being taken away
-parents provide insufficient stimulation for their children
-overprotection, insufficient affection, abuse, neglect, improper or unsafe care
-need for assistance
-need to develop new skills (varies with disability)
Title II: Public Transportation & State and Local Government Activities
-all forms of public transportation must be accessible to those with disabilities
-must provide schedules and routes that are available to everyone
-government agencies must ensure PWD have equal opportunity to benefit from all their programs, services and activities
-includes public education, government employment, public transportation, recreation, health care, social services, courts, voting, and town meetings
10 Sources of Prejudice and Discrimination
1. Economic Threat
2. Safety Threat
3. Ambiguity of Disability
4. Salience of Disability
5. Spread of Overgeneralization
6. Moral Accountability for Cause of Disability
7. Moral Accountability for Management of Disability
8. Inferred Emotional Consequence
9. Emphasis on Beauty, Fitness, and Youth
10. Fear of Acquiring Disability
Effect of P&D: Lack of Privacy
-people cross your boundaries more often, ask intrusive questions
-includes family, (sharing details of your life)
Need of the ADA
-there were few laws to protect the civil rights of PWD
-Poor enforcement of the prior laws
-Little accessibility to public places, transportation
Stage of Response to Disability: Depression or Mourning
-VERY FUTURE ORIENTED
-lack of energy or motivation to invest in rehabilitation program
-withdrawal, problems with sleeping, eating and concentrating
-cycles of no hope, apathy, depression
-may feel guilt or self-blame
Fear of acquiring disability
deal with fear by avoiding people with disability
Source of P&D: Moral Accountability for Management of Disability
-PWOD expect PWD to follow unspoken "rules"
Source of P&D: Economic Threat
-loss of tax dollars for PWD not working
-tax dollars spent on services for PWD
View of Justice: Receives What They Have Earned
-both rewards and penalties are earned
-goes with Meritocracy, based on survival of the fittest
-some people are superior and deserve greater rights and freedoms
-inferiority is deserved, it's your own fault
Section 504 of the Rehab Act
The law states that you can't discriminateOnly applies to group businesses who receive federal dollars
Cognitive responses to acquiring a disability
how one chooses to view the disabilitypositive: redefining reality, moving forwardnegative: denying it, ignoring it
Source of P&D: Emphasis on Beauty, Fitness, and Youth
-Assume PWD can't be beautiful, fit, or healthy
Everybody recieves what he or she has earned
both rewards and penalties are earned
moral accountability for management of disability
it is the person with the disabilities responsibility to take charge of their life
Harry Potter and the Allure of Separatism
Harry does not fit in at his Uncle's houseInvited to Hogwarts, be part of \"our world\"Many PWD wish for a world where they fit in
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