Acids/Bases Flashcards

Terms Definitions
5
Penta
lemon
acid
-
...
HNO3
Nitric Acid
strong acid
pH1
H2SO4
SULFURIC ACID
Nitric Oxide
NO
CsOH
cesium hydroxide
Base
taste bitter
Phosphoric Acid
H3PO4
NH3
Weak Base
LiOH
Strong Base
(l)
symbol for liquid
triprotic
3 hydrogen ions
lewis base
electron donator
Bronsted-Lowry base
proton acceptor
HCl, HBr, HI
Strong Acids
REMOVE CO₂
REACTIONS SLOWS DOWN
(CH3)2NH (dimethlyamine)
Weak Base (B)
acid
acids can neutralize bases
Acids
turn blue litmus red
neutralization
acid reacts with a base
Arrhenius
Acid- release H+
Base- release OH-
triprotic acids
3 ionizable hydrogens (H3PO4)
Diprotic Acids
Only donate 2 H+
amphoteric
describes water and other substances that can act as both acids and bases
HCL- hydrochloric acid is ____
stomach acid
indicator
(chemistry) a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance
A hydrogen ion acceptor.
Bronsted Lowry base
monoprotic acids
those having one acidic proton
The kidney usually excretes______ urine and retains _______
acidic, bi-carbonate
pH
The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.
organic acids
contain COOH. and are weak acids
Indicators
substances that can be used to determine whether a solution is an acid or base.
According to Bronsted-Lowry, a base is an H+ _____
acceptor
Strong Base
A base that completely dissociates into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution.
weak electrolyte
any compound whose dilute aqueous solutions conduct electricity poorly; this is due to the presence of a small amount of the dissolved compound in the form of ions
acidic soluiton
an aqueous solution that produces hydrogen atoms
Distillation
the process by which a solution is heated to its evaporation point, so that the solvent vaporizes which is subsequently captured and cooled to its condenstion point to produce a pure distillation
Arrhenius model
Which model says that "Base are substances that, when dissolved in water, increase the concentration of OH- ions."?
0
the strongest acids would be at what number on the scale?
basic solution
solution in which [OH-] is greater than [H+]
acid ionization constant
the equilibirum constant for a reaction in which an acid donates a proton to water
phenolphthalein
pink in a base, clear in an acid
Bronstead and Lowry
acid will be a proton donor
titration
a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration is added to a known volume of a second solution until the reaction between them is just complete
Arrhenius acid
acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution H+
acidic
having a pH of less than 7, reflecting more dissolved hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
salt hydrolysis
the cations or anions of a dissociated salt remove the hydrogen ions from or donate the hydrogen ions to water
Solvent
is the part of a solution present in the largest amout.
Group 1 and most of Group 2 form
strong bases
Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction
the transfer of protons from one reactant (the acid) to another (the base)
weak acid
an acid that is only slightly ionized in aqueous solution
Measuring Acids
The pH of acids is less than 7.
conjugate base
a particle formed when an acid loses a H+
Acids (HA) lose a proton to form a
conjugate base (A-)
if the CO2 level increases less than expected, then there is a _________?
primary respiratory alkalosis
saliva, pH 7, neutral
breaks down carbs and makes the food MUSHY
buffer capacity
the amount of acid or base that can be added to a buffer solution before a significant change in pH occurs
half equivalence point
HA = A-, 50/50
pKa = pH at half equiv (recall H-H!!)
In any givin volume of pure water, a very small but constant number molecules will be? or dissociated by what?
ionized, hydrogen and hydroxide ions
A conjugate acid is the species that
remains after an acid has given up a proton
pH=
-log[H+]
C6H5COOH
weak acid
H2S
hydrogen sulfide
Ca(OH)2
Strong Base
STRONGEST BASE
OH
HC₂H₃O₂
acetic acid
HClO4
strong acid
H2CO3
weak acid
Bases feel
Slippery
HNO2
Nitrous Acid W
Group 1,2
Strong bases
NaOH
sodium hydroxide SB
acids react with
metals
HCOOH
Formic acid weak acid
Cr(OH)3
amphoteric metal hydroxide: chromium
conjugate acid of HCO3
H2CO3
HClO3
chloric acid :strong acid
hydrogen ion donor
an acid
dissociate
to separate and form ions
insoluble salts
written in molecular form
OH- (hydroxide ion)
Stong Base (OH-)
Red Litmus
Turns Blue in Base
Vommiting causes what metabolic disturbance?
Alkalosis.
bases
electrolytes that release ions that combine with hydrogen ions in water
Lewis Definition of Base
electron pair donater
Sorensen
Danish chemist; 1909; used logarithmic function in scale
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
METABOLIC ACIDOSIS
NORMAL ANION GAP
water
What does sulfuric acid remove from substances very easily?
corrosive
A chemical which destroys something by reacting with it... to make something else.
OH LiOH NaOH CsOH KOH Ba(OH)2 Ca(OH)2
bases
logarithms
what is the pH scale based on?
Glucose is a monomer, while cellulose is a polymer
true
identify base by
bitter taste, slippery feel,reaction with acids
Acetic acid is found in significant quantities
Vinegar
equivalence point for equally strong acid-base titrations
pH= 7
Bronsted-Lowry acid
donates an H+; has a conjugate; weak
NH3 + H2O + salt
base + ammonia salt
Physical Properties
Any characteristic of a material that can be observed without charging the indentify of the material itself
The [H+] of an acidic solution is greater than 1 x 10^? M
-7
salt
an ionic compound formed when an acid reacts with a base
Antiacid
You usually take this to help calm stomach acids down because it is a base and neutralizes the stomach acids.
properties of ionic compounds (salts)
form crystals
high melting pt
very soluble
conduct electricity when dissolved in H2O
base ionization constant
the value of the equilibrium constant expression for the ionization of a base
bronsted lowry base
substance that accepts a proton, needs a nonbonding electron pair
Oxide
Nearly all of the =-===== in a strong base attract hydrogen ionsand form hydroxide ions?
what will litmus paper do under acid? base?
acid=red base=blue
acidic substances
What substance has a pH of 7 and less?
HClO4, HI, HBr, HCl, H2SO4, HNO3
Which are the strong acids?
Common Ion Effect
what is the lowering of the solubility of a substance by the addition of a common ion?
In water, hydroxides of Group 2 metals
are all strong bases
what is the Ka equation for aweak acid in water monoprotic
Ka = [H30+][A-]/[HA]
NaVa = NbVb
NaVa = NbVb ; where Na & Nb = normality of acid and base solutions, Va & Vb = volume of acid and base solutions
use the pH scale
how do we find out if a substance is an acid or a base
What are some causes of Hyper natremia?
DI ( not enough ADH), excessive Na intake, fever, heatstroke, pulmonary infections, burns, diarrhea.
pOH
-log[OH-].
HI
SA
Ethane
C(2)H(6)
H₂SO₃
sulfurous acid
acid:
loses H+
Hydrochloric Acid
HCl
phenothalean clear
acid
Arrhenius Acids
Donates Hydrogens
Caesium Hydroxide
CsOH (strong)
Lewis Acids
Accepts electron pairs
Blue
Base turns litmus paper
another name for protonated H₂O
hydronium
HCl
hydrochloric acid; pickling agent, cleaning bricks and concrete, digesting food
compounds
substances created with unique chemical characteristics due the the loss, gain or sharing of valence electrons.
Sodium Hydroxide
Base: NaOH
Used in oven cleaner
salt plus water
acid plus base produces
Vinegar
An example of a weak acid.
Electrolytes
conduct electricity when dissolved in water
weak electrolytes
Compounds that dissociate partially in solution ; weak acids and bases
Respiratory Alkalosis
pH ↑ = [HCO3]/ [CO2] ↓
true
phenophalian turns deep pink in bases tf
-log of [H30+]
pH= the ____ __ ______
Weak acid/base
Does not ionize in water, weak electrolyte
In a conjugate acid-base pair, molecules or ions __________.
donate/accept 1 H+
False
True or False, acids turn red litmus blue
chemical bonds
when atoms combine these hold them together
nuetralization reaction
acids and bases react to form water and a salt.
What is Metabolic Acidosis?
-Increases production of organic acids (lactic acid, ketones seen in alcoholism, diabetes)
-Ingestion of acidic drugs (aspirin)
-Loss of base (chronic diarrhea, laxative overuse)
neutralization reaction
when acids and bases come together to form water
Arrhenius (Traditional) Bases
bases that contain and release OH- ions when dissolved in water
reactions between metal and acid form ______________ and ____________
hydrogen gas and salt
In neutral, acidic, or basic solutions,
the Kw
is always 1.0 x 10−14.
titration curve
a graph of pH versus volume of acid or base added
According to the BrØnsted-Lowry theory,
acids donate a proton (H+) and bases accept a proton (H+).
What happens when an acid reacts with metal carbonate?
Metal salt and carbon dioxide and Water
HCIO3
strong
R2NH
WB
Heptane
C(7)H(16)
RbOH
Strong Base
Hydrobromic HBR
STRONG
HClO₄
Perchloric acid
HSO3-
Weak Acid
pH paper
Indicates pH
Al(OH)3
aluminum hydroxide; antacids
Potassium Hydroxide
KOH (strong)
Molartiy
Molar concentration [ ]
HF (Hydroflouric Acid)
Weak Acid
acid + alkali
salt + water
3 indicators
litmus, cabbage juice, phenolphthalein
Arrheius
What has acids that start with hydrogen ion and dissolve in water?
acidic solution
contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
What color do acids turn litmus paper?
RED
Arrhenius base
a substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions, OH-, in aqueous solution
What is the formula for Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate?
NaHCO3
Which of the following products might have a pH of 10.8?
Coffee or Windex?
windex
CHCOO-
The level of conductivity in weak acids is partly due to its low concentration of C______
Examples of bases:
Lye, detergent, ammonia, antacids (and examples from the lab)
Fermentation of plants produce what
Vinegar containing Acetic Acid
net ionic equation
represents only species that are actually reacting
indicator paper
indicates whether a substances is an acid or a base. Litmus
large
Kc for acids donating protons in water is very _____
Bronsted acid
any substance that can donate a proton (H+)
rain,sleet,snow
acid rain can be in the form...,... or ...
Conjugate Acid
The molecule or ion formed when a base accepts a proton is called the
weak base
a base that reacts with water to form the hydroxide ion and conjugate acid of the base (not completely ionized)
sig figs for logs
sig figs of original numbers match number of decimals, e.g. 1.0 (2 SFs) x 10^/7 = -7.00 (2 decimals)
How fast is the respiratory system buffer?
within minutes, limited quantity- rapid
What acid is essential to plants and animals
Phosphorus (along with Nitrogen and Potassium)
Why is the ionization constant subsequently smaller after each H+ is removed?
with each step, removing an H+ from an increasingly negative ion
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