Early Rome Flashcards

Terms Definitions
gens
clan
lares
household deities
proprietas
property or ownership
paterfamilias
master of the household
Hannibal
Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.
regia
the dwelling of the king
plebian
A common farmer, trader, or craftworker in early ancient Rome.
Carthage
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E. Rome's main opponent in the Mediterranean in the early republic.
haruspices
Etruscan priests who interpret and divine
Gracchi
This name refers to two brothers (Tiberius and Gaius); they promoted giving land and voting reforms to the poor. Both were killed because they advocated these reforms.
Lucretia
A virtuous Roman noblewoman who was raped by the son of the king (7th king of Rome: Tarquinius Superbus). She committed suicide which inspired the Romans to outrage, and as a result the monarchy was overthrown and the Roman Republic was established.
aedile
4, curators of customary games, market and city
Senators
a position created by Romulus which one hundred men fill; they were the first of the patricians, which is why their name means "father" control treasury
Interrex
the one senator who rules between official kings during the five days of the interregnum.
Italian Peninsula
The Latin speaking people lived on what peninsula?
patrician
A member of the noble families who controlled all power in the early years of the Roman Republic.
753 BC
Name the date of the legendary founding of Rome.
peculium
amount of money for personal use given to children or slaves
centuriae
group divisions of 100 men for census purposes
Pomerium
the sacred space around the wall which was to be unpolluted by man
parilia
Feast of Pales, taks place on April 21
Arcadian Evander
a celebration where men often times get naked and pull pranks; that same ceremony where Remus was arrested, causing Romulus to have to kill the king Amulius.
Romulus and Remus
Name the legendary twins who founded Rome.
Servius Tullius
The 6th king of Rome. He Increased Rome to encompass all 7 hills. He held the first census, and he established classes of Romans based on wealth. He was murdered by his daughter Tullia and her husband Tarquinius Superbus.
Tarquinius Superbus
The "Proud" Etruscan king who was the last monarch of Rome before the Republic. He was overthrown after raping a Roman noblewoman. He is responsible for many building projects, though, including the cloaca maxima (sewers).
Dies natalis
day of birth, April 21 753 for Rome
Carthage must be destroyed.
Coined by Marcus Porcius Cato, a veteran of the 2nd Punic War, this slogan led to Rome's 3rd Punic War in which Carthage was wiped out.
Augury
the use of birds to divine the will of the gods.
Etruscan Inflluence on Roman Architecture
1. construction of temples, 2. town planning, 3. arrangement of tombs
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus - the fifth king of Rome (616 - 579)
During this time, Lucumo settled in Rome, he who was married to Tanaquil. His hat was taken off his head and replaced once more by an eagle - this was seen as augury, and when they reached Rome, Lucomo took the name of Lucius Tarquinius Priscius. He made himself indispensable to the current king, Angus, and becomes the king by overwhelming popular vote, despite the fact that he is essentially a foreigner. He was a man of outstanding character and nobility. He started off his rule right, campaigning against the Latins as kings have been known to do, and held opulent ceremonies, such as the Circus Maximus. The Sabines attacked him, and he expanded the cavalry and burned a bridge, defeating the Sabines. He then campaigned against the Ancient Latins, was successful, and peace ensued. This peace was a civic and a busy peace, however, full of industrious people. The people refortified the city and fixed temples.-eagle, Latins, Circus Maximus, Sabines and the bridge, ax-to-skull death
Romulus - the first king of Rome (April 21, 753 - 716)
Romulus began by fortifying the Palatine. He made sacrifices to the gods in the Herculean style. After having dealt with religious duties, he gave his new city law and a unified body politic. He created twelve lictors, which was a tradition in Etruria. Rome was expanding quickly, especially as he opened his doors to runaways and vagabonds, anyone who wanted a new start. He also created 100 senators. The next thing that occured was that there were plenty of men, but not enough women, so during the Consualia, Romulus invited the sabine women over, and so the rape of the sabines occurred. The Sabines and others who were present revolted, but Romulus put them in their place, and increased the population by taking in the Sabine women. Next came the attack of the men of Fidenae, who wanted to nip Rome in the bud. Veii then caught the war bug and raided the countryside. These defeats increased the respect deserved to Rome, as well as the population. Romulus had a mysterious death, and was believed either to have been taken up to heaven or ripped apart by senators. - warlike founder of Rome, Rape of the Sabines
The Founding of Rome: Romulus and Remus
Troy falls, and the Greeks continue to hold up hostilities against them all, save Aeneas and Antenor. Antenor founded Troy and Aeneas founded Lavinium. The Troy area of Aeneas and the Latins fell into a war. Rutuli, leader of the Etruscans, backs up the Latins when their leader, Latinus, dies. Aeneas dies in the march against the Etruscans. Aeneas's son Ascanius was the next in line for power, but Lavinia the widow acted as a reagant until he would come of age to rule. Ascanius left Lavinium to found a new settlement on the Alban hills - Alba Longa. There was a long line of succession leading to the brothers Amulius and Numitor. Numitor was supposed to be the ruler after his father, but Amulis strong armed him out of his rule, killed all of his male children, and forced his daughter, Rhea Silvius, to become a Vestal virgin. Despite Amulius's attempts to keep Numitor's line out of power, he ended up raping Rhea Silvius, who then had twins, Romulus and Remus. When the children were born, Rhea Silvia was thrown into jail and the twins were ordered to be drowned. Those charged with carrying out this task took into consideration that the Tiber was flooded, so they left the twins on the banks, figuring that the flood waters would rise and do their work. The waters, however, rededed, and legend tells that a she-wolf, hearing the cry of the babes, approached and fed them. This location is where the Ruminal fig tree grew. Faustulus found the babes, and gave them to his wife Larentia to nurse. They boys grew up nobly, and the father was always suspicious that they were nobility. At the Arcadian Evander, a celebration, the boys were celebrating and got themselves into trouble through someone's prank. Romulus was not arrested, but Remus was. Faustulus told Romulus that they were royalty abandoned by Amulius, and they killed the king and got Remus out of trouble. These actions were explained to the general populace, and they knew the boys were telling the truth. Romulus and Remus were suddenly struck with the feeling that they should found a settlement, so they decided to use augury, or the use of birds for divination of the purposes of the gods. Romulus took Palatine and Remus took Aventine. The first one to see a sign was Remus, who saw six vultures, but Romulus saw the sign directly after, and there were twelve vultures. It was undecided whether the earliest was the correct one or whether the one with more irds was correct. The people divided and called each one king, It is told that Remus angered his brother in a quarrel, or perhaps he jumped over the wall that Romulus was building. Whatever the case, Romulus ended up killing Remus, and therefore Romulus named the city Rome, after himself.
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