Earth Science - Geology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Where weather occurs
subsurface point of failure
The illuviated (deposited) accumulation of calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate in the B and C soil horizons.
80% of earth's volume is
supercontinent when continents were joined together
The undulations and configurations, including its relief, that give Earth's surface its texture; portrayed on topographic maps.
Body Fossil
A fossil containing an organism
a massive, concordant lens-shaped mass emplaced in a near-surface environment is termed
Streams round rock and sediment directly by
Air Pressure
Pressure exerted by the atmosphere
A depositional landform related to glaciation that is composed of till (unstratified, unsorted) and is streamlined in the direction of continental ice movement - blunt end upstream and tapered end downstream with a rounded summit.
The process whereby weathered, wasted, and transported sediments are laid down by air, water and ice.
A light-sensitive pigment that resides within chloroplasts (organelles) in leaf cells of plants.
An explosively ejected rock fragment launched by a volcanic eruption; sometimes described by the more general term tephra.
Absolute age
The actual age of a rock.
about every million years, poles are flipped
Igneous rocks are classified on the basis of their mineral composition and
Mercalli scale
measures damage of an earthquake (I-XII)
different shapes the moon seems to have when viewed from Earth
Hazards associated with earthquakes
Landslides, liquefaction, fire, tsunamis
Physical Weathering
The breaking and disintegrating of rock without any chemical alteration; sometimes referred to as mechanical or fragmentation weathering.
Mid-Ocean Ridge
A submarine mountain range that extends more than 65,000 km (40,000 mi) worldwide and averages more than 1000 km (600 mi) in width; centered along sea-floor spreading centers.
Hot Spot
An individual point of upwelling material originating in the asthenosphere, or deeper in the mantle, tends to remain fixed relative to migrating plates; some 100 are identified worldwide, exemplified by Yellowstone National Park, Hawaii, and Iceland.
The transport of sand grains (usually larger than 0.2mm, or 0.008 in) by stream or wind, bouncing the grains along the ground in asymmetrical paths.
Exfoliation Dome
A dome-shaped feature of weathering, produced by the response of granite to the overburden removal process, which relieves pressure form the rock. Layers of rock slough (sluff) off in slabs or shells in a sheeting process.
Refers to soil flow in periglacial environments, a progressive, lateral movement; a type of solidfluction formed under periglacial conditions of permafrost and frozen ground.
A drowned glaciated valley, or glacial trough, along a seacoast.
The process of mountain building that occurs when large scale compression leads to deformation and uplift of the crust; literally, the birth of mountains.
constructive forces
shape the surface by building up mountains and landmasses
fossil continuity
mesosaurus fossils found on S. America and S.Africa. barriers did not exist (oceans)
plate tectonics
theory that states Earth's crust (or lithosphere) is broken into plates which move due to convection currents in the mantle (or asthenosphere)
Ground water
provides drinking water for more than half the population of North America.
phase just before or after the new Moon
Happens to Seismic Waves as they travel away from the epicenter
Energy lessens
Medial Moraine
Debris transported by a glacier that accumulates down the middle of a glacier, resulting from two glaciers merging their lateral moraines; forms a depositional feature following glacial retreat.
The drop in elevation from a stream's headwaters to its mouth, ideally forming a concave slope.
Wrangellia Terrane
One of many terranes that became cemented together to form present-day North America and the Wrangell Mountains, arriving from approximately 10,000 km (6200 mi) away; a former volcanic island arc and associated marine sediments.
Differential Weathering
The effect of different resistances in rock, coupled with variations in the intensity of physical and chemical weathering.
When two oceanic plates converge, the sinking plate drags the sea floor down to create
an oceanic trench
Loma Prieta Earthquake
1989 Earthquake, m7.1, caused by San Andreas Fault
Dip Slip Faults
Fault planes that slope on an angle
Braided Stream
A stream that becomes a maze of interconnected channels laced with excess sediment. Braiding often occurs with a reduction of discharge that reduces a stream's transporting ability or with an increase in sediment load.
Thrust Fault
A reverse fault where the fault plane forms a low angle relative to the horizontal; an overlying block moves over an underlying block.
the act of passing judgment as to the merits of anything.
eruption cloud
heated column of ash and gas over a volcano reaching up to 12 miles into the atmosphere; danger to planes
Artesian aquifers develop
where the water table in the lower part of the aquifer is under pressure.
Processes by which air is lifted
Orographic Lifting, Frontal Wedging, Convergence, Localized Convective Lifting
Mohorovicic Discontinuity (Moho)
The boundary between the crust and the rest of the lithospheric upper mantle; named for the Yugoslavian seismologist Mohorovicic; a zone of sharp material and density contrasts.
the deeper the quake...
...the more displaced it is at the surface
Earthquakes occur along the mid-oceanic ridge because
blocks of oceanic crust drop downward as the rift valley opens
What happens East of Rocky Mountains (EC)
Energy released from an earthquake does not dissipate as quickly as the saves travel outward from the focus
how do you calculate distance from an epicenter?
differences in arrival time between P and S waves.
If erosion stripped the top off a dome one would find:
the oldest rocks were exposed at the center
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