Earth Science 23 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
H
hydrogen
hottest stars
blue
pangea
ancient super continent
silicate minerals
most common minerals
Lunar
Relating to the moon
topography
the shape of the land
Geology
the study of the earth
crest
highest point of a wave
Stalagmite
An upside-down, cone-shaped formation caused by dripping of calcite on the cavern floor
mineral
A naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition
standard unit of measurement for length
meter
solifluction
slow movement of water logged material, in regions of permafrost
collision boundary
convergent boundaries that are continent/continent (india and asia)
Mauna Loa
________________is a shield volcano and is one of Earth's most active volcanoes.
physical weathering
When minerals remian chemically unchanged, and rock fragments simply break off of the solid rock along fractures or grain boundries
shrink
if subduction occurs faster than oceanic crust can be created, an ocean will _____
asteroid vs. meterorite
meteorite enters the atmosphere
evaporation
the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
Backswamp
- Poorly drained area on floodplain, blocked by levee
- Floodplain deposit
High- pressure system
______________ usually brings clear skies and calm air or gentle breezes.
mountain
A landform with high elevation and high relief.
magnetic reversal
when Earth's magnetic poles change places
Organic
Limestone and coquina are examples of what type of sedimentary rock?
Salinity
The total amount of solid material dissolved in water
supercooled water
water droplets having tempatures below freezing that remain in liquid state
temperature inversion
atmospheric condition in which warm air traps cooler air near the earth's surface
convection
heat transfered by movement of fluids liquid or gas particles of liquid and gas move faster when heated and will spread apart from each other, the particles will rie pushing cooler particles down, the cooler particles will heat up and rise while the warmer particles will cool down and sink, this cycle will create a current.
aa
a solidified basaltic lava flow on land that has formed with rough,jagged sufaces
change
change can be described as the occurance of an event
The heliocentric model of the solar system was championed by
Copernicus
lava
magma or melted rock that has flowed out onto the surface of the Earth
Continental Volcanic Arch
Mountains formed by igneous activity associated with the subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath a continent
types of soil conservation
contour plowing, conservation plowing, crop rotation
countercurrent
a surface ocean current that flows in the opposite of the wind-related current
dark matter
23% - composition of the universe; explains mismatch between gravitational mass and luminous mass in galaxies and clusters of galaxies (pulling force - are there new particles?)
mid-oceanic ridge
The longest mountain range in the world; all along the center of the Atlantic Ocean; formed by active volcanoes through sea floor spreading
element
a substance like gold that cannot be broken down into other substances
inertia
the tendancy of a moving object to keep moving in a straight line
Pyroclastic Flow
The expulsion of ash, cinders, bombs, and gases during an explosive volcanic eruption
dike
a slab of volcanic rock formed when magma forces itself across rock layers
recurrence interval
The average time interval between the occurence of two ruptures on the same fault that produce earthquakes of approximately equal magnitude.
natural seletion
organisms are more adaptable to the enviroment than others
rock
hard substance made of one or more mineral or mineral like substances
What does Hydrology consist of?
The Scientific study of Water
flood basalt
Flows of basaltic lava that come from fissures and cover big areas of land hundreds of meters thick
control group
the group that does not receive the experimental treatment.
Gnomonic Projection
Projects points from a globe onto a piece of paper that touches a globe at a point
Drift
The word ____ is a general term for any kind of glacial deposit.
Mantle Convection
a process by which heat from Earth's inner and outer cores is transferred through the mantle
how can hot spots be helpful
they measure plate movement
hight risk cities
Seattle, Portland, New York, Salt Lake City, St. Louis, Tacoma, Las Vegas, Anchorage, Boston, Reno, Memphis, Charleston, S.C., Albuquerque, Newark, Honolulu and Atlanta.
volcanic island arc
a chain of volcanic islands generally located a few hundred kilometers from a trench where there is active subduction of one oceanic plate beneath another
Carolus Linnaeus
One of the first people to classify plants and animals
Southern hemisphere has more water
Concerningthe ditribution of land and water on Earth, which statements is true?
Black Smoker
A thing at the depths of the ocean that sprays out chemicals that plants down there use for chemosynthesis. Not at all powered by the Sun's rays., These are geyser-like structurs underwater that emit hot, mineral rich water that flows into the cool sea
ozone
is a gas molecule that is made up of three oxygen atoms and that absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun
Laser-Ranging device
A device that uses a laser beam to detect even tiny fault movements.
circumpolar stars
stars that can be seen at all times of the year and all times of night.
Greater velocity = greater energy = ?
greater ability to transport material
the summit of a volcano collapsed
Crater Lake in Oregon was produced when ___
What scale do we use to measure the hardness of a mineral?
The Mohs Scale of Hardness
Which of the following does NOT occur at a subduction zone?
a) the leading edges of both plates are bent downward.
b) oceanic crust is pushed down into the mantle.
c) one oceanic plate moves into another oceanic plate
d) one continental plate moves in
the leading edges of both plate sare bent downward
cline
incline
quartz
(SiO2); hardness 7
hydrosphere
all the water
pegmatitic
Extremely coarse-grained, with crystals generally >1 cm in length
earth's temperature
increases with depth
viscosity
a liquid's resistance to flow
sorted deposits
Characteristic of sediments transported by water and wind. User-contributed
 
Canyon
Deep valleys with steep sides.
gravitation
the attractive force that exists between any two objects in the Universe
parallax
change in direction of an object
troposphere
Ozone is found in the ____________.
water vapor
water in the gas phase
mas movement
downhill movement of weathered materials caused by gravity
altostratus
middle atmosphere, flat boring but thick
colors of visible light
ROY G BIV
The study of the Earth
Earth Science
Trench
A deep, steep-sided canyon in the ocean floor.
Longer
In winter, a shadow would be this.
accuracy
a description of how close a measurement is to the true value
liquefaction
the process by which an earthquakes violent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud
fold
when rock becomes altered or bent (similar to folding or bending a piece of paper)
Which of the following processes will increase permeability of materials
Fracturing
Forms caves.
Erosion and dissolution by acidic groundwater.
Creep
slow downhill movement of soil and regolith
crystallization
a mental synthesis that becomes fixed or concrete by a process resembling crystal formation
radio telescope
astronomical telescope that picks up electromagnetic radiations in the radio-frequency range from extra-terrestrial sources
earthquake
violent and sudden movement of the earth's crust
because of the eccentric orbit, when is the earth closest to the sun
winter
Chlorophyll
The pigment or coloring that gives plants their green color
Constant
variable that is not changed in an experiment
Plate tectonics
the branch of geology studying the folding and faulting of the earth's crust
gravity
The force that causes objects to fall toward the Earth.
Orbit
the earth's path as it revolves around the sun. It is not quite circular
Steps of Scientific Method
question, hypothesis, test hypothesis, draw conclusion
plates
large pieces of earths crust that move due to convection currents
prevailing wind
a wind that consistently blows from one direction more than from another
Clastic (Sedimentary)
Made of rock and mineraal fragments produced by weathering
Neutron Star
a star that has collapsed under gravity to the point that the electrons and protons have smashed together to form neutrons
atmosphere
a unit of pressure: the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at sea level and 0 degrees centigrade
crystal habit
The shape in which a mineral's individual crystals or aggregates of crystals grow.
What doe glaciers do to earth's materials?
Redeposit them
unconformity
when older rocks are in direct contact with much younger rocks
Geosphere
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle
Dam
a barrier to obstruct the flow of water
a residual soil
has the underlying bedrock as its parent material
Oil and Natural Gas
microscopic plankton floating in ocean water, organic matter deposited on ocean floor, slow burial and conversion of organic matter into oil and natural gas, once formed, oil and gas move through porous rock and are trapped in reservoirs
Convection Current-2
The movement of a fluid, caused by differences in temperature, that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another.
Mirrors are used to focus light in a ______. (refracting or reflecting telescope)
reflecting
streak
color of a mineral when it is in powdered form
air pollution
The increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has altered the carbon cycle and contributed to global warming—the unnatural warming of the lower atmosphere.
What is the most widely accepted explanation for the formation of the universe?
Big Ban Theory
asthenosphere
the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
chemical weathering
the transformation of rock into one or more new compounds
Where do volcanos originate from?
reverse faults or hot spots
Coriolis effect
curving of the path of oceans due to Earth's rotation; causes gyres to form
death rate
# of deaths in a population in a certain amount of time
The Sun is made almost entirely of which two elements?
Hydrogen and Helium
1st law of thermodynamics
energy can never be created or destroyed
tilted axis and revolution
the seasons on earth are caused by these
Give the location of most asteroids
Between Mars and Jupiter "Asteroid Belt"
Earths circumfernce, equator, and density.
There are 360 degrees in a circle, 40,074km around earths equator, and earths average density is 5.5g/3cm.
What is a solar eclipse?
when the moon moves in front of the sun
rate of stream in relation to size of particles it can carry
the faster a stream, the larger size particles it can carry
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