Earth Science 42 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
velocity
speed
shortest waves
Gamma
cumulus
big puffy clouds
bryce canyon landscape
differential landscape
Geocentric Scientist
Ptolemy (150 A.D.)
3 kinds fossils
imprints, molds, cast.
petroleum
Liquid fossil fuel or oil.
irrigation,
eight categories :
public supply,
domestic,
...
livestock,
aquaculture,
industrial,
mining, and
thermoelectric power.
barometer
instrument that measures atmospheric pressure
Troposphere
Bottom layer of atmosphere; "weather sphere"
farenheit
tempurature scale on which water freezes at 32 degrees and boils at 212 degrees
seismicwaves
Waves produced by earthquakes that help us study the inner layers of earth.
ex. of hot spots
hawaii and yellowstone
Coal deposits
significant about the Mississippian and Pennsylvania periods
Wave-
a disturbance that transfers energy that without transferring energy.
angular unconformity
subsidence and renewed deposition; tilted layers under "new" horizontal layers
A geostationary satellite orbits Earth at a _________ altitude than a polar-orbiting satellite
higher
porosmatic
large and small crystals in igneous rocks
Blocky lava
Forms jumbled heaps of sharp chunks
Erratic
A large rock transported from a distant source by a glacier
___ circulation is the process whereby surface water becomes denser with time and eventually sinks in large masses to greater depths
thermohaline
Reflecting Telescope
Telescope using a dish-shaped, or concave, mirror instead of a lens.
Are offspring uniform same or diverse in sexual reproduction?
diverse
humidity
amount of water vapor in the air
element that most stars are made of
hydrogen
Upper mantle
the upper part of the mantle
moraine
ridge of sediment deposited by a glacier
granite
the continental crust is made of this
Sulfide
Fool's gold (pyrite), a mineral of iron and sulfur, is classified as a ___________.
stratification
The process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers.
Relative humidity of a sealed flask of air can be changed by changing the airs temperature or by A. shining light on the flask. B. adding or removing water vapor. C. bringing the flask to a different latitude. D. adding or removing particles of soil.
B
active continental margin
usually narrow and consisting of highly deformed sediments. they occur where oceanic lithosphere is being subducted beneath the margin of a continent
regolith
the layer of loose rock resting on bedrock, constituting the surface of most land
delta
a low triangular area where a river divides before entering a larger body of water
manganese nodules
hydrogenous and are maganese and other metals, silver not resource
El Nino
occurs when cold eastern Pacific water is naturally warm
spectral class of our sun
medium main sequence star
What is a fault?
break in the earth's crust
Percolation
The water seeps through the soil and ends up in the water table. It then flows into the streams, lakes, oceans, and other bodies of water. The process is then repeated again and again.
benthic environment
also known at the bottom environment, is the ocean floor and all the organisms that live on or in it
felsic lava
a thick (more viscous) type of lava
Core
The center part of the Earth, beneath the mantle.
gully erosion
when a channel becomes deep and wide
glacier
a large ice mass that moves slowly down a mountain or over land
plant cycles
4 stages: seed, seedling, mature plant w/ flower, fruit w/ seed inside
specific gravity
the density of a substance relative to the density of water
gradient
the rate of change from place to place within the fields (slope)
Index Fossil
Fossils of a species that existed for a relatively short period of time, were abundant, geographically widespread, and are currently extinct.
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleous of an atom.
terminal moraine
Ridge at the farthest point reached by a glacier
Where can you find info about teh length of a day on Mars?
Reference table
what stress situation results in folding of flat lying sediemntary strata
horixontllly directed compressive stresses
In mining what from mine pits can be dangerous?
runoff
The sun is most intense at an angle of
90°
contact metamorphism
a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to contact with magma
sea stacks
are pillars of stone in the sea tht form from headlands
tropical rain forest climate
climate closest to the equator, lots of precipitation all year
Earth Systems Science
An emerging science of earth as a complete entity (physical, chemical, biological, planetary change, etc.)
what's created when plates are subducted/melts
seamounts, island arcs of volcanoes, guyots, mid-ocean ridges, volcanoes etc
main sequence stars
stars that are in the main part of their lifecyle
What are the 5 basic map parts?
Date, title, scale, legend/key, and compass rose.
What is the suns rotation rate?
25+ days at equator, 34 days near poles
How do clouds heat up and cool down the surface?
clouds trap heat and block out heat
lebanon
beirut
HR diagraim
temperature brightness
An educated guess
Hypothesis
felsic
light colored and weight
Difference between a mobile/stationary/natural pollution source?
car/factory/volcano
landforms
surface features on the crust
Cirro-
A prefix that means "curly"
conglomerates
coarse-grained fragments with rounded particles, sediment transport happened in the past
reflects light to the object
mirror
clastic sedimentary
group that conglomerate belongs to
geologic features
influences landscapes, create drainage patterns
damage to well built structures, severe damage to poorly built structures
6-6.9
Brachiopods
Most abundant and diverse marine animal during the Ordovician Period in the Paleozoic era.
cyclic change
events occuring in repeating pattern
recycling
Conservation method in which old materials are processed to make new ones
SLIDE END
FROM sUpeRvOlCaNo:
ASH IS DISRUPTIVE TO JUST ABOUT EVERYTHING --> 1MM REQ TO CLOSE AN AIRPORT
******FROM MOVIE*****CAN KILL A PERSON BY GETTING IN LUNGS, MIXING WITH MOISTURE THERE, AND DROWN IN CONCRETE MIXTURE
environmental geosciences
Scientific field concerned with applying the findings of geologic research to the problems of land use and civil engineering
Plate tectonics
Pieces of earth's lithosphere (plates) that move slowly on the asthenosphere
3 main groups of rocks
igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
slab pull
denser oceanic lithosphere that sinks beneath the continental lithosphere
Subduction
the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary
geyser
heated ground water that erupts and the earth surface
sill
a sheet of intrusive igneous rock forced between rock layers parallel to the rock layers it intrudes.
Isotherms
Lines that connect points of equal temperature
IPAT model
represents the total impact (I) population (P) affluence (A) and technology (T)
discharge
quantity of water flowing past a certain point in a stream per unit of time
spring
a flow of groundwater that emerges naturally at the ground surface. form when an aquitard blocks downward movement of groundwater and forces it to move laterally
erosion
the removal and transport of weathered materials
tide
the reaching point of the collapsed wave
epicenter
the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus
planetary accretion
the gradual growth of planets by collison and sticking
sea-floor spreading
the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
amplitude
distacne from middle length of wave to crest or trough.. shows amount of energy
the mantel is made up of....
magnesium and iron
occurs in stream deltas where larger sediments are dropped first as the stream slows
horizontal sorting
niche
the status and role of an organism within its environment and community
Deposition
the natural process of laying down a deposit of something
What are some characteristics of intrusive rocks?
Cool slower
Coarse texture
mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
Magnetic field
the lines of force surrounding a permanent magnet or a moving charged particle
Geocentric Model
stated that the earth was stationary at the center of the solar system.
flood plain
wide valley through which a river flows.
Embryology
the branch of biology dealing with the development of living things from fertilized eggs to its develped state.
An American named _________ was the first to hypothsize that new crust is forming at the ocean ridges, due to magma oozing upward.
Harry Heist
model that show the complex feeding relationships among organisms in a community
food web
prominence
A loop of gas that protrudes from the sun's surface, linking parts of sunspot regions
chemical weathering
changes rock into one or more new substances
sedimentary rock
type of rock where most fossils are found
constructive forces
a force that shapes the surface by building up mountains and landmasses
deep ocean trench
a narrow, elongated depression on the floor of the ocean
Shadow zones
Areas on the surface where no seismic waves are detected, caused by refraction of wave through the core, or stopping of S wave at outer core.
water table
Is the upper surface of the aquifer( zone of saturation)
Theory of Plate Tectonics
The Earth's outermost surface consists of several tectonic "plates" that are constantly and slowly moving and interacting.
Find the volume of an irregular solid
Displacement of water(ml)
Artesian Aquifers
If a well is drilled in aquifer, high pressure due to elevation occurs and causes water to rise without being pumped
(erosion by) streamflow
the water discharge that occurs in a natural channel. A more general term than runoff, streamflow may be applied to discharge whether or not it is affected by diversion or regulation.
convection zone
where gases near the core of the sun go and cool
half-life
Time it takes for half the atoms of an isotope to decay
inner core
very center of the earth; ball of hot solid metals
Abrasion and plucking generally involve what part of a glacier?
the basal (in contact with bedrock), sliding zone
2 interesting facts about deserts
not all deserts have dunes. Some deserts can be covered by a very thin layer of salt.
How is the Northern Hemisphere titled in relation to the sun when it is summer?
The Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards to the sun
magma pushes up from the asthenosphere and drives plates apart.
how are volcanoes formed in mid ocean ridges?
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