Earth Science Exam 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Desert: Precipitation
forest mountains jurassic
solid part of Earth
Building block of minerals
(Blank) are small, extraterrestrial particles that glow brightly and burn up as they travel through Earth's atmosphere.
bigger waves
fetch, trough, and breakers
frontal boundaries
cloudiness, precipitation, and storms
describes dense, dark-colored igneous rock formed from magma rich in magnesium and iron poor in silica
The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
A huge, arching column of gas
Makes up the continental landmasses
Continental Crust
mixture made from gasoline and alchohol. can be used as a fuel for cars
feathery cloud composed of ice crystals that has the highest altitude of any cloud in the sky
An elocated mountain belt arrayed around a continental craton and formed by a later episode of compressive deformation.
between the crust and the mantle
concept that some variations make individuals better adapted to their environment
the percentage of sunlight that is reflected from the earth
structures formed when magma flows out through cracks in earth's surface
condition in which the earth's surface is worn away by the action of water and wind
the layer within the meosphere and thermosphere that is electrically charged
Sediment settles out of the moving material
the layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core
mixture at the atomic level- solute dissociates in solvent
small stream that flows into streams and reivers
cinder cone volcano
Steep-sided, loosely packed volcano formed when tephra falls to the ground
great mass of falling snow and ice
a mineral is always a ____________ because it has defients volume and shape
polar front
the stormy frontal zone separating cold air masses of polar origin from warm air masses of tropical origin
What happens when large amounts of water cover land that is normally dry?
El Nino
occurs when cold eastern Pacific water is naturally warm
the ability of a material to allow water to pass through it
a sedimentry rock that forms when rock fragments are squezed togather
Parabolic Dune
A crescent-shaped dune whose open side faces into the wind
the inner layer of the suns atmosphere that gives off its visibvle light's the suns' surface
resistance of a liquid to sheer forces (and hence to flow)
metamorphic rock
rock that forms when exisdting rocks are changed by heat and pressure
when the earth makes 1 complete turn on its axis (every 24 hours)
The study of earth and its matter, processes and history
polar easterlies
prevailing winds that blow from east to west between 60 degrees and 90 degrees latitude in both hemispheres
What is the transfer of energy through a heated substance
Order of Electromagnetic Radiation
Radio, Micro, Infrared, Visible, Ultraviolet, X-Ray, Gamma
an avalanche of volcanic water and mud down the slopes of a volcano
one of the layers in the mantle (bottom)
Ultraviolent Radiation
Causes sun burn and other injuries, has more energy than visible light.
modified mercalli intensity scale
the scale for measuring earthquakes intensity in Canada and the U.S
p wave
a type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground
t or f total solar eclispes occur 70 times per 100 years
a measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched
satellite image
Pictures of the land surface based on computer data collected from satellites.
Discharge area -
an area where subsurface waters are discharged into streams or lakes
convergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other
passive continental margin
margin that consists of a continental shelf, continental slope, and continental rise. they are not associated with plate boundaries and therefore experience little volcanism and few earthquakes
Variable star
Star in the giant branch of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram that pulsates in brightness due to its outer layers expanding and contracting.
The transfer of heat by movements of a heated fluid.
fourth step of the scientific method
experiment to test the hypothesis
evidence of the big bang
Radiation that interferes with radio antennae, called cosmic background radiation, which results from the big bang; astronomers also observe "red shifts" where objects in the universe move away from one another
the point on the surface directly above the focus
What is an epicenter?
What is the third step in the life cycle of a star?
Main Sequence
the 2nd law of thermodynamics
is the concept that all natural processes proceed toward a state of greater disorder called entrophy things start to run down and wear out which is called degeneration
what changes denity of substences
a change in tempurture
a change in pressure
How does air temperature relate to the amount of water vapor the air can hold?
warm air holds more water
What are the 8 parts of the Water Cycle?
1 Precipitation2 Surface Runoff3 Infiltration or Percolation4 Absorption5 Groundwater6 Evaporation7 Transpiration8 Condensation
Describe the eruption at Mt St Helens
Lots of tephra and gases not a lot of lava- explosive rattled windows 160 km away.
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