Earth Science Final Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
tentative explanation
the solid earth
rocks impacing the earth
frequency units
# of waves/time
solar energy
energy from the sun
the outer layer of Earth.
the (usually elliptical) path described by one celestial body in its revolution about another
Texture: contains gas bubbles (holes)
Formed: cooling during exolution of gas (mostly in volcanic rocks)
An instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure.
Main component in earths inner core
Type of chemical weathering that oxidizes iron found in rocks causing them to rust
thick layer of earth below crust
highly prized minerals because they are rare and beautiful
a slowly moving mass of ice
Struction of the Atmosphere (listed highest down to lowest)
A mineral has a ________ shape.
Outwash Plain
A relatively flat, gently sloping plain consisting of materials deposited by melt-water streams in front of the margin of an ice sheet.
the most effective agent at wearing down the earth.
texture of a metamorphic rock that does not have minerals crystals arranged in bands
____ are defined as glowing availanches of volcanic ash and gases
nuee ardentes
Deepocean trenches
Underwater cayons formed when the oceanic crust bends downward
Process that breaks down rock through physical and chemical changes.
a tabular igneous body that was intruded parallel to the layering of preexisting rock
The eroded rock and soil materials that are transported downstream by a river.
What is continental crust composed of ?
factional scale
ex. 1:25,000 printed on a map
A ___________ storm could disrupt or damage a compass, a computer, an electrical transformer at a power station, or telephone reception.
the phenomenon of sediment or gravel accumulating
The light energy that bounces off objects
Which of the following areas is NOT one of the three main regions of the ocean floor? A. ocean floor basin. B. continental margins. C. continental rock. D. mid ocean ridge
studying or working in only one part of a subject
hard substance made of 2 or more minerals
a downward fold in rock formed by compression in earth's crust
a solid transfers to gas or gas transfers to a solid
electromagnetic energy
type of energy radiated in transverse waves
Head ward erosion
lengthening and branching of a stream
if there were no Moon, then Earth would wobble more than it does today
transform boundary
when two plates grind past each other
means "shrinking" in th elit side LEFT SIDE of the moon
Which gas is used by plants and animals to break down glucose (food) for usable energy?
A formation similar to a cuesta with steep, narrow, more or less symmetrical ridges.
What is a possible reason for plates moving along the transform boundary?
color, luster, streak, cleavage, fracture, hardness, shape, density
Characteristics of a mineral
Igneous or sedimentary rock that has been changed by heat and pressure inside the Earth
Metamorphic rock
air pressure
the measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface
breaking wave
the result of waves dragging on the ocean bottom causing the water in the waves to fall forwardas the waves bunch together, rise up, and break against the shore
All the water at and near the surface of the earth, 97% of which is in oceans
Clast size
Diameter of clasts making up a rock. Coarsest to finest: Boulder, cobble, pebble, sand, silt, clay
Conic projection
formed when the contents of the globe are projected onto a cone and then displayed as a flat plane cone touches the globe at each line of longitudebut only 1 line of lattitude (best for mapping large pieces of land that have more area east to west)
Come apart or be shed from a surface in scales or layers.
Which of the following is not a land resource?
a) soil
c) forests
d) methane
What makes up the hydrosphere?
oceans, lakes, rivers, groundwater, glaciers, water vapor
La Nina
the name given to the periodic cooling of the ocean that occurs in the central and eastern Pacific; blows colder than normal air over Pacific Northwest
The main factor that determines what type of plants grow in a biome is __________
temperature and precipitation
relative humidity
the amount of water vapor in the air IN PERCENTAGE.
Abyssal Zone
1. Very few plants and animals live in this zone.
2. Largest ecological zone and can reach a depth of 4,000 m.
3. Animals (including crabs, sponges, worms, and sea cucumbers) live around hot-water vents called black smokers.
body waves
these are the s and p waves because they travel through the body of the Earth
celestial objects appear to move west
because of the earths rotation
volcanic bomb
A large lump of lava thrown out of a volcano during an eruption. A bomb usually starts as a flying blob of lava but solidifies as it falls to the ground.
What are the four main branches of Earth Science ?
Geology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Space Science
wherever water goes, (either through the ground or through our bodies, ) it takes along valuable chemicals, minerals, and nutrients.
* Water is called the "universal solvent" because it dissolves more substances than any other liquid. This means that ...
* Pure water has a neutral pH of 7, which is neither acidic nor basic.
What is a "delta"?
A delta is a landform built up where a river drops its sediment when it flows into a still body of water.
where would they weigh the least and why
they would weigh the least at the equator because they are farther from the center of gravity
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