Earth Science Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
meta
change
inference
interpretation of observations
condensation
gas to liquid
mineral
naturally occurring, inorganic solid
hemisphere
one-half of a sphere
glassy
no visiable grain: grain size
age of universe
14.7 billion years
soil erosion
prevented by no-till farming
Adaptation
Any structural or behavioral characteristic organisms have developed over time that helps them survive in a particular environment.
Rocks containing calcite are most easily weathered by the chemical process of
carbonation
adaptations
A behavior or physical characteristic that helps and organism to survive in an environment.
Venus and Mars
Which planet has volcanos?
pangea
large supercontinent that existed 250 million years ago
Lithosphere
Earth's rigid outer shell, including the crust and the solid, uppermost part of the mantle.
basalt
A fine-grained, dark, mafic igneous rock composed largely of plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene. The extrusive equivalent of gabbro.
Nuclear Decay
the natural spontaneousbreakdown of the nucleus of unstable atoms into more stable atoms of the same or different elements; releasing energy/small subatomic particles
Rocks
formed from one or more minerals
Theory
A well-tested and widely accepted view that explains certain observable facts
lava plateaus
What type of non-volcanic igneous features are extrusive?
Hipparchus
location of "fixed" stars and the length of the year
the Sun
driving force behind the water cycle
Temperate Marine Climate Region
Marine West Coast
Marine Mediterranean
Marine Humid Subtropical
snow line
elevation above which snow survives all year
shale
sedimentary rock that can be changed into schist
chemical
the force that holds together elements in a compound
cirque
created at the point where valley glaciers start
Deformation
Bending, tilting, and breaking of the earth's crust
deposition
The process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind that is carrying it.
food web
(ecology) a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
Parrellel veins in their leaves and fibrous roots are fetures of
monocots
what does slow cooling and intrusive cooling make?
large crystals
Plates
sections of crust and mantle that move on a plasticlike layer of the mantle
chemical weathering
the type of weathering if the characteristics and chemical composition of rock materials are altered
subduction zones
places where plates are pushed down into the upper mantle
rockslide
a sheet of rock moves downhill, smooth surface
Which of the following is caused by wave deposition? .. sandbars, sea stacks, sand dunes, or sea arches
sandbars
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
Compound
a substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined
unconformity
when older rocks are in direct contact with much younger rocks
photosynthesis
the process by which plants and algae produce carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water
Wilson cycle
A general plate tectonic cycle that comprises 1) rifting during the breakup of a supercontinent, 2) passive-margin cooling and sediment accumulation during seafloor spreading and ocean opening, 3) active-margin volcanism and terrane accretion during subduction and ocean closure, and 4) orogeny during the continent-continent collision that forms the next supercontinent.
Examples of renewable resource
oxygen, trees, food, solar energy
Reflection
a change in direction of waves when the waves strike the surface of a material, in which the waves leave the surface at the same angle at which they arrived
frost wedging
the mechanical breakup of rock caused by the expansion of freezing water in cracks and crevices
Lichen
A plant that consists of both fungi and algae
Intrusive Igneous Rock
rocks formed when magma cools beneath the surface
natural resoures
any material from the Earth that is used by humans
3 things that affect air pressure
(HAT) humidity, altitude, temperature
Mountain Stream
Sand grains that have not been carried far from the source rock have a wide variety of sizes and colors, are not well rounded or sorted and have many sharp edges
When is the angle of insolation the lowest?
At sunset
relative age
dating an object based on the rocks around it
How many seismic stations are needed to locate and earthquake center?
> = 3
Plastic Deformation
is like clay, moveable, does not cause earthquakes
sedimentary rock
a rock that forms over time as sediment is squeezed and cemented together
Law of superposition?
oldest rocks are on the bottem, younger rocks are on top.
Scientific inquiry
the term for the many ways in witch scientists study the natual world and propose explanations based on the evdince gathered
cold front
a front along with a cold air mass thrusts beneath a warmer air mass
Continental Rise
A raised wedge at the base of the continental slope
What is the difference between an antiform and an anticline?
Age distribution of layers
What is a scientific theory?
A well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations.
What causes lightning and thunder?
positive charges in a cloud meet the positive charge of the ground through negative charged snow/ice crystals. Thunder is the rapid cooling of the air.
What is the "Prime Meridian"?
The imaginary line that makes a half circle from the North Pole to the South Pole and passes through Greenwich, England.
how does the atmosphere regulate temp extremes b/t the polar and equatorial regions
the hot air stays inside the atmosphere at the equator, but moves towards the cooler ares (the poles)
this creates a vacuum for cool air to flow into from the poles
2 things that would make the force of gravity between two planets greatest?
The size of the planet and the distance between
iod
resembling
river
a large stream
Volatiles
gaseous component of magma
crust minerals
quartz and feldspar
trough
lowest point of a wave
Uplift
If the movement is vertical
lithification
converts sediment into rock. Compaction caused by pressure generated from weight of overlying sediment. Cementation is binding of sediment by mineral agents. Common cementing agents hematite, limonite, calcite and silica User-contributed
How are the layers divided?
Temperature
Jovian planets are primarily made of
GAS
letters used to classify spectral class
obafgkm
coal
Most widely used to create electricity: _______
wind
Horizontal movements of air parallel to Earth's surface
till
rock material deposited by a glacier
Continental glacier
Glaciers that cover broad, continent-sized areas.
levels of CO2 directly effect
atmospheric temperature
Step three - sm
Designing an Experiment
Waveheight
The vertical distance from the crest of a wave to the trough.
Sea breeze
This breeze occurs during the day.
fact
a concept whose truth can be proved
focus
the point beneath earths surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earhquake
glaciation
the changing of landforms by slowly moving glaciers (sheets of ice)
Which of the following processes will reduce porosity of materials?
compaction
Soil texture
relative proportions of clay, silt, and sand in a soil. Texture strongly influences the soil's ability to retain and transmit water and air
biogeochemical cycles
process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
reflecting telescope
an optical magnifying instrument that uses a concave mirror in the base of the telescope to focus light from an object and form an image at the focal point
_________ is when a mineral breaks evenly along flat surfaces.
Cleavage
porosity
does not depend on size of particles
Stomata
Pores on the underside of the leaf
Oceanography
the scientific study of the oceans and oceanic phenomena
Impact Craters
Tool for determining age of planetary surfaces: the more craters, the older the surface.
-Mercury & Moon -heavily crated surface means little geologic activity since formation
Prphyritic
A rock that has grains of two different sizes is_____________.
Gravity
it is a force that attracts all objects toward each other.
4 Branches of earth science
geology, oceanography, meteorology, astronomy
modeling
a preliminary sculpture in wax or clay from which a finished work can be copied
subpolar low
low pressure located at about the latitudes of the Arctic and Antarctic circles
Rock Cycle (All)
Continous changing and remaking of rocks
Quasar
a starlike object that may send out radio waves and other forms of energy; large red shifts imply enormous recession velocities
geosphere
The mostly soild, rocky part of the earth; extends from the center of the core to the surfaceof the crust.
contact metamorphism
Changes in the mineralogy and texture of rocks resulting from the heat and pressure in a small area, such as the rocks near and in contact with an igneous intrusion.
Melting blocks of ice left by glacier form what?
Kettles
transform boundary
when two plates grind past each other
Carbon cycle
the organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again
Volcano
A mountain that forms as molten rock flows through a crack onto Earth's surface
Seafloor spreading
Movement of the ocean floor away from either side of a mid-ocean ridge
Ice Cores and Climate
Annual layers (500,000 years): sample atmospheric gases and indicate precipitation
Inner Core-1
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth.
In order for the first oceans to form, Earth had to become smaller, cooler, less dense, or denser?
cooler
igneous rock
rock that forms from the cooling of magma
slump
is the downward movement of a block of material along a curved surface.
What is the most massive object in our solar system?
Sun
C horizon is
between B horizon and unaltered plant material
What is the Atomic Mass?
number of protons and neutrons
Desert Soils
Has little to no organic matter and a very thin horizon.
birth rate
# of births in a populations in a certain amount of time
23.5 degrees S latitude
the location of the tropic of capricorn
24 hours of sun for the north pole in which season
summer
main sequence
the sun is in this stage of its life now
Describe the parts of a comet
nucleus, coma, tail(points away from sun)
What is a dome mountain?
formed from magma that pushes up rock layers
What is a partial eclipse?
when a moon passes over only part of the sun's disk
where on Earth would you weigh the most
more at sea level than at the poles b/c Earth is oblate spheroid
physical weathering
cold/humid
hardness of glass
5.5
Doppler effect
shifting of wavelengths
Monominerallic
Made of 1 mineral
physical environment
all non-living things
doppler radar
plots speed of precipitation
more eccentric
flat close to 1
oxygen
gas necessary for breathing, relatively heavy, diatomic mass 32
Living environmental features are ___.
biotic
sill
(geology) a flat (usually horizontal) mass of igneous rock between two layers of older sedimentary rock
Wegner's Evidence
Rock Formations, Fossils, Climatic Evidence, and Jigsaw Puzzle Theory
Equation for vaporizing or condensing
Q=mHv. C=2260j/g
volcanic neck
an isolated, steep-sided, erosional remnant consisting of lava that once occupied the vent of a volcano
Climate
the pattern of temperature and precipitation typical of an area over a long period of time
Laterite
form in hot, wet trpical areas
explosivity
rate of volcanic explosion. high rates= more dangerous
How does a normal fault form?
tension
Dike
igneous intrusion with a tabular or sheet like shape that cuts across (is discordant to) existing layering in the country rock
Faith
What does Theology look for in truth?
Seismogram
The record of an earthquake's seismic waves produced by a seismograph
stratosphere
the second lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere;contains high cencentrations of ozonee; planes fly in this layer(no weather, no turbelence)
Lateral Slipping
Plates move sideways against each other, doesn't make or destroy crust
Weather
the daily condition of the atmosphere (sunny, cool, or wet)
surface wave
another way of saying "L wave"
What causes redshift?
galaxies moving away from us
gravitation
the force of attraction that is present between any two objects in the universe
how sedimentary rocks form
weather, erosion, deposition, cementation
Punctuated equilibria
According to this theory, species evolve during short periods of rapid change.
geology
the study of the structure of earth
Shearing
Stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions. in a sideways movement.
Slightly Elliptical
This is the shape of Earth's orbit.
Seafloor Resources
The seafloor holds vast potential for resource exploration. Limitations for developing seafloor include politics, economics, & technology. As land based reserves become increasingly stressed & depleted, seafloor reserves become more attractive for development and exploitation. Resources include energy and a wide range of minerals
core
a bar of magnetic material (as soft iron) that passes through a coil and serves to increase the inductance of the coil
what air mass is dry and cold
continental polar
3 kinds of models
physical model, mathematical model, conceptual model
zone of saturation
groundwater completely fill all pores of a material
hypothisis
A possible explanation for a set of observations
basin shape
primary factor that accounts for some areas only experiencing one high and one low tide daily
A collision between two pieces of continental crust at a converging boundary produces what geological feature?
Mountain range
Instruments
Any device that improves the power or accuracy of the senses
Blue shift
light indicates the star is moving towards us
All living organisms on Earth, in the air, on the land, and in the waters.
Biosphere
Destructive Force
A force that slowly wears away mountains and other features on the surface of Earth.
divergent boundary
when two plates move apart, mid ocean ridges
Modified Mercalli Scale
This measure, called the intensity of an earthquake, rates the type of damage and other effects of an earthquake
Geothermal
of or relating to the heat in the interior of the earth
Elliptical Galaxy
-Contains some of the oldest stars in Universe
-Ranges in shape from a perfect sphere to an elongated but flattened ellipse
Loma Prieta
This quake in Santa Cruz caused 5 Billion dollars of dammage
contintal crust
thick made moastly of granite light in color coarse texture
meanders
a curve or bend in a stream formed when a stream's slope decreases, water builds up in the stream channel, and moving water erodes away the sides of the stream
termporary local base level
temporary resistant area which water flows over in a river
atomic mass
the average of the mass numbers of the isotopes of an element
hanging wall
the block of rock that forms the upper half of a fult
atmospheric stability
the ability of an air mass to resist rising
rain shadow
An area of low rainfall on the leeward slope of a mountain range.
When the Sun, Earth, adn the Moon are lined up and the full moon moves into Earth's shadow, a(n) ___ occurs.
lunar eclipse
molten rock
rock that is so hot it is a very thick, slow-moving liquid.
How do weathering processes affect deserts?
Water and wind cause mechanical weathering and make angular rocks, flat canyon walls and pebble-covered ground.
Trace fossils are....(NOT what kinds are there)
Fossils that show indirect evidence of life.
Name two proofs that the Earth is rotating on its axis
The Focault Pendulum and the Coriolis Effect
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