Earth Science Regents Prep Flashcards

Terms Definitions
This depends on temperature.
Weather associated with low.
The transportation of weathered pieces. (Wind, Water, Waves,Gravity and Glaciers)
Density differences and fluids circulate, spreading heat.
Glaciers form these shaped Valleys
Which air temperature is denser?
Source to Sink
High to low
Anything that can harm humans
Coriolis Effect
Why low goes counterclockwise.
Spiral Galaxy
Our galaxy is a...
low pressure arrows
inward and counterclockwise
Percentage of Empty Spaces (DOESN'T DEPEND ON PARTICLE SIZE)
This increases when particle size decreases. (Straw Lab)
All celestial objects, including the sun, seem to move this many degrees per hour.
These connect points of equal measure.
The initial cause of all erosion.
Warm front
Leads to ongoing, light rain
Metamorphic Rocks
These are sedimentary/igneous rocks that have been distorted by heat and or pressure.
Most changes in the environment are
Water is densest as a (blank).
plants release water into the air
All living things live in this sphere/Weather occurs in this sphere.
Satellite Photos
Best evidence that Earth is round.
Solid State
Most substances are densest in their
This dates really old rocks, because it's half life is long enough to date back to the origin of the Earth.
Very small particles are carried in streams in this.
Pressure conditions on leeward side of a mountain
The driving force behind all processes on Earth
Land breeze
This breeze occurs during the night.
Add 10
For station model format pressures less than 500.
The "supercontinent" of all of the continents together.
Low Pressure Mass
Inward, Counterclockwise (air is rising)
Moon's orbit
Reason for phases of the moon.
Ions are carried in streams in this.
Sol and Helio
Words referring to the sun
In winter, a shadow would be this.
Residual Soil
Soil made from the Bedrock beneath it.
Stream velocity
This increases as slope and stream discharge increase.
Marine fossils
When found on mountain tops, these fossils indicate that land has been uplifted.
Slightly Elliptical
This is the shape of Earth's orbit.
Intrusive Igneous Rocks
These have large crystals, because they cooled underground, slowly.
High tides are always (blank) the moon and the Earth.
Add 9
For station model format pressures 500 or greater.
There are 60 of these in a latitude/longitude degree.
Doppler Effect (Red Shift)
Evidence the universe is expanding
These two seasons both have the same path of the sun.
These are the two points used to measure eccentricity. The sun is ALWAYS one, and the closer the foci are, the less eccentric the orbit is.
4.6 billion
The Earth is this many years old.
These lines go North to South, and measure distance East and West. (Prime Meridian)
Inside of Curve
A river is always slowest here
This is the shape of all planets' orbits.
In this model, the Sun is the center of the Solar System. *This one is the actual model*
The (blank) a planet is to the sun, the higher its velocity is.
The closer this is to one, the more oval-like an ellipse will appear.
15 Degrees
Every (blank) of latitude WEST of New York is one hour earlier, and every (blank) of latitude EAST of New York is one hour later.
Outside of Curve
A river is always the fastest here
Compaction and Cementation
This is how sedimentary rocks are formed.
This is always on the inside of a meander in a stream.
Orographic Effect
Effect in which side of a mountain closest to wind/water is cold and wet, and the other side is hot and dry.
Waxing (growing bigger)
When the left side is lit it's
This is banding that is shown in many metamorphic rocks (ex.Gneiss).
Size of Droplets
When this is greater, chance for precipitation is greater.
Frost Action
This is a type of physical weathering in which liquid water gets into cracks, then freezes, expanding and making the cracks bigger.
Rounded and Frosted
Wind eroded sediments have these 2 characteristics.
how are caverns created?
limestone reacts with acid in water
Earth's rotation
Why the sun appears to move in the sky
Intrusions and Faults
These are always younger than the rock layer they affect, because of the law of superposition.
Heat of Vaporization
Quantity of heat needed to change a liquid to a gas
Solar Eclipse
The sun is blocked out by the moon's shadow- the moon must be in the New Moon phase.
More Space
The reason air moves from high to low pressure.
Relative Humidity
This is 100% if the dew point and actual temperature are the same.
Air,water,rock and living life
Match the spheres with the element they support. Atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere.
Oceanic Crust
This is the denser of the two crusts (3.0), less thick, and composed of Basalt.
Dynamic Equilibrium
This occurs in a place in a stream where there is no curve.
Center of Pages 8 and 9
Has all index fossils on them.
Universe , Galaxy, Star, Planet
Put these in size order: Universe, Star, Planet, Galaxy
Low specific heat
Land has this, so it heats quickly but loses the heat quickly.
The middle of a spiral arm
Our solar system is located on...
A black hole
It is believed that this is in the center of our galaxy
High specific heat
Water has this, and so it heats slowly but keeps the heat for a long time. (This is why coastal cities have a less extreme temperature range)
Oblate Spheroid (slightly flat at the poles and bulging in the center)
The Earth's actual shape is this.
Closest to the ridge
The age of the rock is youngest here, and it gets increasingly older as you move waay.
Main Sequence, Red Giant, Blue Supergiant, White Dwarf
Put these phases of stellar evolution in order: Red Giant, Blue Supergiant, White Dwarf and Main Sequence.
what type of material absorbs heat the easiest?
rough, dull, dark colored materials
Dew point is close to actual temperature
When this occurs, the chance for precipitation is greatest.
what occurred at the same time of first appearance of modern corals in earth's oceans?
the intrusion of the palisades sill
how can you tell which direction a river is flowing?
the pointy park of the V shape is pointing AWAY from the direction the river is flowing
Incoming Solar Radiation
Density Decreases
As temperature increases,
Density Increases
As pressure increases,
Southern latitudes (blank) see polaris.
The point directly above someone.
3 Days
Each moon phase lasts...
Winds, Ocean Currents, Projectiles appear to (blank) from their targets because of the Earth's rotation. (Coriolis Effect)
Primary (Compressional) Waves, always faster than S-Waves, can travel through solids and liquids.
24 Days
The whole cycle takes
Lines that show equal temperature.
More room
Why low goes inward.
high pressure arrows
outward and clockwise
how are earthquakes' magnitudes measured?
Large, round and dense particles settle (blank),
Spring/Fall Equinoxes
March 21st and September 21st
Contour Lines
Lines that show equal elevation.
Warm, Wet
Chemical Weathering is more common.
Surface of Water
Rivers are faster here
Cold, Wet
Physical Weathering is more common.
Pressure conditions on windward side of a mountain
Igneous rocks
These form from cooled magma/lava.
Cold front
Leads to sudden heavy rain/snow/thunderstorms
Earthquakes and volcanos occur in these and they line up along plate boundaries around the world.
Secondary Waves, slower than P-waves, can't travel through liquids.
Blue shift
Objects moving towards Earth, wavelengths closer together
Weather that occurs at frontal boundaries
Milky Way
Our galaxy is called the...
Season in which the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun (but farthest)
how hot is earth's plastic mantle?
Main Sequence
Our sun is a (blank) star.
This is the percentage of geologic time that the Precambrian eon takes up.
The closer the isolines, the (blank) the slope or gradient.
The breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces.
Phase change as a substance changes from a liquid to a gas.
The amount of seismograph stations you must have to find an earthquake's epicenter.
These are scratches left behind on glacially deposited sediments.
Phase change as a substance changes from a solid to a gas.
Page 9
Reference table page for geologic events and non-living things.
Page 8
Reference table page for living things.
Sea breeze
This breeze occurs during the day.
Solar Noon
This is when shadows are shortest.
Angle of insolation during the winter (closest from the sun)
Phase change as a substance changes from a liquid to a solid.
Summer Solstice
June 21st (longest day of the year)
A deep crevice in the ocean floor produced by downward warping of the ocean floor where plates collide.
Transported Soil
Soil that has been transported from another place by erosion/deposition.
Dry, Hot
Very little weathering takes place in a climate like this.
This has a relatively short half life, and so it's used to date things that were recently alive.
Winter Solstice
December 21st (shortest day of the year)
Extrusive Igneous Rocks
These have very small crystals/no crystals at all because they cooled fast above the Earth's surface.
Direction sun is always in (because NY is North of the Equator)
Heat from the sun is transferred in this way.
2 Objects are in direct contact with each other.
Side of a mountain that wind is directly blowing on/closest to a body of water
Divergent plate boundaries
Sea-floor spreads, creating new magma and a convection current.
Direction they come from
Winds are named for the
Direction that the sun's path is in June
Unequal heating of Earth's surface (differences in pressure and air densities)
Cause of winds
Nuclear Fusion
The process by which energy is released from stars
Same Density
The same substance always has the (blank), no matter what size it is.
Light and smooth
These surfaces are the best radiators.
This location always has 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night, no matter what day it is.
These lines go East to West, and measure distance North to South. (Equator)
Observer's latitude
Polaris's altitude is always equal to this
Wet Bulb
Temperature is always less than dry bulb temperature.
Black and Rough
These surfaces are the best absorbers and radiators.
In this model, the Earth is the center of the Solar System.
This is a better way to identify a mineral than color
Sedimentary rocks
These are the only rocks that can contain fossils.
Continental Crust
This is the least dense crust (2.7), thicker, and composed of granite.
Side of a mountain that wind is not directly blowing on
Sharp and angular
Gravity eroded sediments have these 2 characteristics.
what is one calorie equal to in joules?
4.2 joules
Low Humidity, High Temperature
These two conditions allow for more evaporation.
Cool and Wet
Conditions on the windward side of a mountain
Hot and Dry
Conditions on the leeward side of the mountain
Traits of index fossils
Lived everywhere and for a short period of time.
Heat of Fusion
Quantity of heat needed to change a solid to a liquid
Index Fossils
Fossils that can be used to identify a rock layer's age.
Surface Area
As this increases, so does the rate of weathering. (Smaller particles have more of it)
Uplift, Folding and Faulting
These 3 processes are how mountains form.
Smooth and Round
These are the 2 shapes of sediments deposited by water.
Supernova (may end in black hole)
Particularly large supergiants may explode into a...
23.5 degrees
This is the angle that Earth is tilted on it's axis.
West to East
The earth rotates and revolves in this direction.
Mid Ocean Ridge
New Crust is being created here, as a result of the sea-floor spreading. (Diverging)
Why cold front leads to rain
Cold front forces warm air up faster than a warm front
moon dark side order:
1. all dark 2. left side dark 3. all light 4. right side dark 5. all dark again
Reason for windward and leeward
Air is forced to rise up and over a mountain, when it goes over it cools and sinks on the other side, making it warmer
/ 177

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online