Earth Science Test 11 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
P Wave
are RS self-proppeled
building blocks of minerals
First or most significant
Ultraviolet Radiation
Short waves: sunburn wavelengths
shape of the Earth
oblate spheroid
waves produced by stars
all waves
geothermal energy
the heat within earth.
olves the transportation of weathered rock material to a new location.
spherical shaped rocks are deposited first
sudden movements of Earth's crust followed by a series of shocks
benthic zone
includes any sea-bottom surface regardless of its distance from shore and is mostly in habited by benthos organisms
inner layer of sun's atmosphere/sun's surface; gives of visible light
the outermost layer of the earth
increasing the strength of normal weather patterns
volcanic soil, store lots of water
What do scientists use to study precambrian time? A. fossils from tiny microscopic animals. B. Ore from eroded and deformed rocks. C. Fossils from algae and other simple plants. D. fossils from dinosaurs.
This is located below the c horizon
if magma cools slowly,______ has time to arrange itself into large crystals.
What's in Arizona?
Meteor Crater, Tuzigoot, Sunset Crater, and Petrified Forest are
height of surface landform above sea level
The uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases
Nimbostratus and Altostratus
Two variations of stratus clouds
Ring of Fire
boundaries with many volcanoes surrounded
Volcanic islands formed from a hot spot because the plate moves over the hot spot.
The tendency for variations in current velocity to segregate sediments according to size.
Alfred Wegner
German Meteorologist who proposed the theory of coninental drift (the idea that the continents were moving)
The 1,080-square-mile Toba caldera is the only supervolcano in existence that can be described as Yellowstone's "big" sister.
About 74,000 years ago, Toba erupted and ejected almost three times as much volcanic ash as the most recent major Yellowstone eruption (Lava Creek, 630,000 years ago) and about 12 percent more than Yellowstone's largest eruption (Huckleberry Ridge, 1.8 million years ago). That comes to several thousand times more material than erupted from Mount St. Helens in 1980.
Some researchers suspect that Toba's super eruption and the global cold spell it triggered might explain a mystery in the human genome. Our genes suggest we all come from a few thousand people just tens of thousands of years ago, instead of from a much older, bigger lineage — as the fossil evidence testifies. Both could be true if only a few small groups of humans survived the cold years following the Toba eruption.
higher level of the atmosphere where heavier gasses are not as abundant
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Altitude vs. Temp Variation
Tropo- colder, Strato- warmer, Meso-colder, Thermo-warmer
a layer of permeable rock that allows groundwater to flow freely
The organism that does the killing in a predation interaction.
A river system begins to form when local precipitation exceeds
Transversal Forces
push crustal rocks horizontally and in different directions at transform boundaries. They cause rocks to slip past each other.
Active continental margin
Usually narrow and consisting of highly deformed sediments. They occur where oceanic lithosphere is being subducted beneath the margin of a continent.
sedimentary rock
rock that forms when sediments are compacted and cemented together
a bright streak of light that results when a meteoroid burns up in earth's atmosphere
The structure that is formed in a subduction zone (looks like a V)
hertzsprung russell diagram
shows the relationship between the absolute magnitude and temperature of stars
Lunar eclipse
an event during which earth's shadow prevents the sunlight from reaching the moon.
Moh's Scale
A scale ranking ten minerals from softest to hardest; used in testing the hardness of minerals.
thermal energy
the total kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in a substance.
magnifies 100 times its original size
low power objectives
convection currents
A circular current caused by the difference in temperatures from the bottom to the top of the mantle (the hot core heats the lower mantle where the two layers meet). These currents cause the plates of the Earth to move; causing earth quakes, mountain buil
principle of superposition
the principle that states that, in layered rocks the youngest layer is on top and the age of the other layers increases with depth
What is Astronomy?
the study of the position , composition , size and characteristics of the planets , stars , and objects in space
how fast the sun appears to move (Earth's rotation)
solar time
1st type of fault
Normal-the hanging wall slides down the footwall (divergent boundary)
San Andreas Fault is an example of a _______ boundary.
gneissic texture
the appearance of dark and light bands in metamorphic rocks such as gneiss
nebular hypothesis
suggest that the bodies of our solar system evolved from an enormous rotating cloud called the solar nebula. it was made up mostly of hydrgen and helium, with a small percentage of heavier elements
The Big Bang
the universe began with a big explosion about 13-15 billion years ago states the universe formed from the explosion of a point of infinite temp and density that expanded outward in all directions creating simple elements as the universe cooled in the first moments which coalesced to form stars
Layer of small rocks that have started to break off from the bedrock which will eventually become the soil.
Parent Material
a break in a mass of rock along which movement occurs
formed by the merging of two or more tributary glaciers
confluent glacier
zone of saturation
the zone where all open spaces in sediment and rock are completely filled with water...
physical weathering
only the size of the rock has changed. A large rock is broken down into smaller pieces
when specific heat is HIGH
object heats slowly and cools down slowly
The Earth's core is made of an alloy of____ and _______
iron and nickel
primary waves-back and forth wave motion, can travel through any material, two times S waves
secondary waves-side to side wave motion, travels through solids only
surface waves-like ripples on a pond surface
List and describe the properties of the three types of seismic waves.
What does a scratch test kit include?
common objects such as your fingernail (hardness 2.5) a copper penny (hardness 3.5) an iron nail (hardness 4.5) a piece of glass (hardness 5.5) and a steel file (hardness 6.5). A material can scratch any material softer than itself.
37. How is a porphry formed? EJP
It cools and crystalizes at two different depths.
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