Earth Science Unit Test 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
troposphere
ionosphere
Prime Meridian
0º longitude
shortest waves
gamma waves
phytoplankton
Photosynthesizing microorganisms that float freely in the ocean's surface waters, make up the base of the ocean's food chain, and are the primary energy source for the marine ecosystem.
Refracting telescopes
only uses lenses
ancient chinese cultures could predict
eclipses
earth revolves around sun
365 days
white light
all 7 colors combined
Mantle
A layer of hot rock.
Lahars
debris flows composed mostly of volcanic materials on the flanks of volcanoes
The ozone layer that absorbs ultraviolet radiation
Stratosphere
interface
boundary between areas of different properties
Evidence of Sea Floor spreading
magnetic strips
Astronomy
The scientific study of the universe.
lithification
the physical and chemical processes that transform sediments into sedimentary rocks
Anemometer
instrument used to measure wind speed
According to Bernoulli's Principle, as the spread of a fluid increases, its pressure
decreases
corona
the outer edge of the sun's atmosphere
Trace Fossils
traces of animal activities preserved in rock. Ex: footprints, worm holes, burrows.
Wind
The movement of air caused by differences in air pressure
Volcanoes
openings in Earth's crust from which molten rock, dust, ash, and hot gases flow or erupt
regional metamorphism
Metamorphism caused by high pressures and temperatures that extend over large regions
Scientific Theory
Expanation that is supported by results from repeated experiments or testing.
What features/landforms are associated with continental-continental convergent? where is it occurring today?
- Earthquakes
- Mountains
Himalayas
stalagmite
the column-like form that grows upward from the floor of the cavern...
groundwater
water underground in the zone of saturation
Early telescopes had _______ with seperate controls for horizontal and vertical motion.
altazimath mounts
photochemical smog
autos
solar radiation on NO2 + hydrocarbons = brown air
tropics
the part of the Earth's surface between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn
filtration
passing a liquid through materils that remove impurities
mush
the crystallized rock that is on the verge of being solid
Aeration Zone
-Any and all ground above the saturation zone.
-pore spaces/fractures mostly filled with air.
Near Chile
Where did the largest earthquake ever occur?
equinox
period of equal days and nights; the beginning of spring and autumn; Ex. vernal/autumnal equinox; ADJ. equinoctial
hydraulic action
- The force of water hitting particles
+ The mechanical lifting and removal of material by water ( wind or ice)
stratus clouds
Low gray clouds that stretch across the sky. They usually bring rain or snow.
weathering
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.
A ________ system is one in which energy moves freely in and out, but no matter enters or leaves the system.
closed
Isostasy -
a condition of balance within the Earth's crust by which mountain chains are balanced by extensive "roots" that project downward, in the same manner as a floating iceberg
cinder cone
a small volcano built primarily of pyroclasts ejected from a single vent
sedimentary basin
A region of considerable extent where the combination of deposition and subsidence has formed thick accumulations of sediment and sedimentary rock.
Barometer
The instrument used to measure air is called a ________.
Solstice
the day when the Sun reaches its greatest distance north or south of the equator - Summer and Winter Solstice
LongitudeMeridians
angular distance east to west from the prime meridianimaginary circles connecting the North and South poles
climate
the typical wather for a specific area over a long period of time.
Hot spot
An area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it.
Which characteristics of the atmosphere are typically described in weather forecasts?
Temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed
S P Time Method
simplest method by which seismologists find an earthquakes epicenter
magnetic field
Force found around the poles of a magnet
turbidity current
an undersea land slide of mud caused by earthquakes
Map Projection
a framework of lines that helps in transferring points on Earth's three-dimensional surface onto a flat map
Earth
This planet has only one moon that is ¼ its size.
nebula
cloud of dust and gas that can form stars
Rock sequence
The order of rocks according to the geological age where they can be found User-contributed
these crystals are on the top of a cave
stalacites
quartzite, dolite, slate
what metamorphic rock would you get if you metamorphosed sandstone, limestone and shale
What is weathering?
Weathering is the break down of rocks into sediments.
Physical Change
A change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties.
Basics of Contour lines
1-Every point on a contour line represents the exact same elevation. 2- Contour lines can never cross 3- Moving from one contour line to another always indicates a change in elevation. 4- closely spaced contour lines indicate steep slopes
non point source pollution
water pollution that does not have a specific point of origin
Tropical (T) air masses form ...
in low latitudes and are warm.
what force causes the earth to bulge
centrifugal force, the faster the rotational speed the greater the centrifugal force
Why was Isaac Newton's contribution to astronomy so important?
Newton discovered the force behind the movement of celestial bodies.
what would happen to the lengh of a day if the easrths rotation slowed to half its present lengh?
the lengh of the day will double or get longer
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