Earthquake and Volcanoes Test Review- Part Flashcards

Terms Definitions
crater
a pit
Caldera
Craters walls collapse.
Strain:
Deformation resulting from stress.
dip-slip
vertical displacement along fault
earthquake
May cause a tsunami
Tsunami
giant wave-develops when an earthquakes focus occurs UNDER THE OCEAN FLOOR,
faults
breaks along the earth's crust
Normal Fault
tension pull rock apart
stratovolcanoes
also known as composite cones
Lava
magma that reaches the earth's surface
eruption
different kinds form different kinds of volcanic mountains
Examples of Composite/Stratovolcano
Mt. Fuji, Mt. Agua
focus
The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
seismic wave
Elastic disturbances spreading outward from an earthquake focus.
precursors
events that help scientists predict when earthquakes might occur. Precursors can be detected by PS satellites, level of wells, changes in the magnetic fields, and electrical resistance in the ground
epicenter
point on Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake.
Compression
a stress force that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
pyroclastic materials
solid fragments ejected from a volcano
Lava Domes
inside other volcanoes, felsic magmas from melting of continental crust
seismograph
the instrument that geologists use to measure and record earthquake data
Ring of Fire
major earthquake and volcano zone
magma
hot liquid rock beneath the earth's surface
igneous intrusions
formed when magma hardens underground; dikes and volcanic necks
Seismology
the study of seismic waves including earthquakes and the earth's interior.
extinct
a volcano unlikely to ever erupt again.
volcanoes occur in...
divergent plate boundaries (plates move apart), convergent plate boundaries (plates move together) and hot spots
pyroclastic material
fragments of rock from an erruption
Seismic waves
vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
crust
the thinnest layer, there are 2 kinds- oceanic= under water
continental= forms landmasses
greenhouse gases
Gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and ozone in the atmosphere which are involved in the greenhouse effect.
Richter Scale
a scale 1-10 that measures the magnitude of an earthquake
plate tectonics
the theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle
solid metals
what the inner core is made of
pipe
a long tube through which magma moves from the magma chamber to Earth's surface
Strike-Slip Fault
shear force push sideways past each other
Mercalli Scale
subjective measure of the strength of an earthquake. It measures the degree of intensity.
Composite Volcano
Usually tall and wide, with steeply sloped sides.
Constructive force
a force that builds up mountains and landmasses on Earth's surface
Surface Waves
are the slowest and largest of the seismic waves and cause most of the destruction during an earthquake
extinct volcano
One that is unlikely to erupt ever again.
Dormant Volcano
A volcano that has not erupted within recent history, but still exhibits some signs of volcanic activity.
fault line
a crack or break in the earth's surface
Volcano
a weak spot in the Earth where molten material or magma comes to the surface
glowing avalanches and lahars
Make up the most hazardous emissions from a volcano.
convection cells
move large volumes of rock and heat in loops within the earth's mantle, move tectonic plates across magma
Injection of new magma into a shallow magma chamber causes
uplift of the ground surface above the magma chamber and an increase in the number of small magnitude earthquakes around the magma chamber
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