Act biology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Fatty Acid
adhesive protein complexes
square on pedigree
Genetic information specifically arranged (ATCGTA...)
The removal of electrons
bryophytes need water to
Tropical grasslands with scattered trees are also known as
A) taigas.
B) tundras.
C) savannas.
D) chaparrals.
E) temperate plains
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch
Flagella covering the entire cell
(384-322 B.C.E) visualized organisms moving toward a more perfect state; saw evidence of natural affinites
chemical reaction
a reaction using chemicals
21 Hydrophobic
Water hating nonpolar molecules.
food shortages, lack of habitat, disease, predators
muscular organ, often containing small stones, that grinds seeds and other foods
An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons. The chromosome containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell. A cluster of neurons
globular protein consisting of 4 polypeptides
add in depth description of 6.10,12
population bottlenecks.
Habitat loss, natural catastrophes, and/or excessive harvesting of a species often results in
offspring of crosses between parents with differnt traits
Two-part Latin name of a species
facts about darwin.
-english aristocrats-grandfa. free thinker-religious family-grandfa. athiest
Where are gap junctions found?
Muscle Cells
What does a vacuole do?
Store water.
Decomposers return nutrients to their simple elemental state; they recycle nutrients
Phylum Glomeromycota
Phylum of fungi that contains mycorrhizae like Glomus.
The process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings, or packets, of the cell membrane.
Individuals who have deteriating of the brain tissue when middle age due to an autosomal gene.
huningtons disease
Mammals that include the anteater and sloth and armadillo.
pisaster ochraceous and P. giganteu are_; control the distribution of dominant competitors for space
keystone predators
What causes the corpus luteum to form?
types of symmetry
assymetry (porifera), radial (evolved 1st), and bilateral
cell membrane
thin membrane surronding the entire cell
Five steps of DNA replication
Adds base pairs
DNA reforms
tists back into helix
_____________ were used to show that DNA, not protein. is the genetic material.

• A subatomic particle with a single
unit of positive electric charge (+).
– One of the two types of
particles found in the nucleus of
an atom.
Which invading male animal will kill any cubs he finds?
What phylum are octopuses and squid apart of?
Two species living together, with one living inside the body (or even the cells) of the other.
the normal distention or rigidity of plant cells, resulting from the pressure exerted by the cell contents on the cell walls.
DNA polymerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork by the addition of nucleotides to the existing chain.
Limiting nutrient
Single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem
Bulk flow
Movement of all constituents of blood together
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes.
cell structures of protozoans?
-contractile vacuoles that regulate water balance-some produce cysts for adverse conditions
discovered by Melvin Calvin and Andrew Benson in the 1950's
Calvin Cycle
Start Codon
AUG codes for methionine, and begins the amino acid sequence of the protein
-when a cell "eats" a solid, rather than a liquid
-form of endocytosis
each pair of chromatids is attached at an area called the centromere usually located near the middle of the chromatids, although some lie near the ends. a human body cell entering cell division contains 46 chromosomes, each of which consists of 2 chromatids
The sum of all chemical reactions in an organism.
transports protein from ER to golgi body
a vesicle
The current rapid decline in the variety of life on Earth, largely due to the effects of human culture.
Biodiversity Crisis
Cell Wall
gives structure and allows plant cells to connect together like bricks
noticed the importance of the nucleus in the cell
matthias schleiden
vascular system
plant tissue consisting of ducts or vessels, that, in the higher plants, forms the system
Epidermal cells
stems are surrounded by a layer of what
when the esophgeal sphrincter opens up and lets stomach acid into the esophagus
heartburn occurs when
Second Law of Thermodynamics
In every energy conversion, some energy is converted to heat energy that is lost to the surroundings, and thus cannot be used for work.Every energy conversion increased the entropy of the universe.Energy converted to heat in the surroundings increases entropy (spreading of energy).No energy conversion is 100% efficient.Organisms must get a constant influx of energy because of energy is lost in conversions.
origin of resting potential
1) ATP-dependent ion pumps create concentration gradient2) plasma membrane is differentially permeable to those ions (more permeable to K+ and Na+ than to Cl-)
Sex-linked gene
A gene located only on a sex chromosome; such genes exhibit different inheritance patterns in males and females.
gene pool
the total collection of genes in a population at any one time (only consists of individuals who can and will reproduce - no young children or elderly)
Why don't blood cells blow up?
Because they are isotonic.
If a triglyceride is unsaturated then it has ______ double bonds
1 or more
natural selection
the process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures, as predators, changes in climate, or competition for food or mates, will tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers than others of
lymphatic tissue
name the tissue in which the cells are separated by a liquid
List functions of proteins.
Responsible for almost all of the day-to-day functioning of organisms
Form structures such as hair and fur
Make up muscles
Provide long-term nutrient storage
Circulate in the blood
Defend the body from harmful organisms
Act as signals, conveying messages from one cell to another
Controls the chemical reactions in a cell
artificial chromosomes are used to ...
BAC stands for?
 clone very large DNA fragments
bacterial artificial chromosomes
yeast artificial chromosomes
The Neuromuscular Junction
Motor neurons connect the brain to a muscle or parts of a muscle.The brain determines the frequency and number of fibers stimulated, this determines the degree of contraction of the muscle.The action potential is the signal from the brain to the muscle(a) Diagram of a neuromuscular junction in cross section. Action potentials in the motor neuron stimulate the muscle fiber membrane, which lies in folds beneath the terminal.
Origin of replication
Site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins.
Which two molecules combine to start the Calvin Cycle Reaction?
CO2 and 5-carbon molecule RuBP
a. was probably the first genetic molecule
b. can unergo natural selection and thus can evolve
c. probably evolved before DNA
d. all of the above
D. all of the above
What does a nucleic acid do?
Store and transmit hereditary or genetic info.
How is telophase completed in plant cells?
cell plate forms between two nuclei
water tends to slightly dissociate into?
hydrogen adn hydroxide ions (H+ and OH-)
what are the three types of indirect methods
metabolic activity, dry weight and turbidity
occurs by wind or cooperation with animals (example: co-evolution): can divide flowering plants in two parts:
A. Pine tree: wind--male phen.: fairly random process, have to produce lots of pollen--not specific method for pollen to get to female.
what is important about carbon that allows for it to make long, complex, stable chains?
ability to bond with atoms to make stable bonds. (4 electrons in outer shell)
on the trophic pyrimid In which level would a lion be found?
A lion would be found on level 1.  It is considered an apex predator or tertiary consumer.
Nucleic Acid
G2 Phase
second gap
Circle on pedigree
polymers with many sugars.
The gain of electrons
-negative charge
-on the orbitals
energy level 1: 2
energy level 2: 8
Which statement best contrasts environmentalism with ecology?
A) Ecology is the study of the environment; environmentalism is the study of ecology.
B) Ecology provides scientific understanding of living things and their environment; environmentalism is
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, have molecular formulas that are generally some multiple of CH2O
what method looks at DNA?
Carrier of genetic information
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
where energy is made
4 Data
Information collected during hypothesis testing.
Community Properties
1. richness, equitability, and diversity
2. most prevalent form of vegetation
3. trophic structure
4. stability
finger-like projection of the inner surface of the small intestine that functions in absorbing nutrients
A specialized structure in the nucleus, consisting of chromatin regions containing ribosomal RNA genes along with ribosomal proteins imported from the cytoplasmic site of rRNA synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly
same habitat, same reproduction schedule but have different rituals or behaviors for courtship (prezygotic)
behavioral isolation
Complementary pairing
A structural relationship between necleotid bases taht allows adenine to bond with thymine and guanine to bond to cytosine
The incorrect theory that "organisms can modify their bodies through use or disuse of parts, and that these modifications can be passed on to their offspring" was formulated by
statement that forecasts what would happen in a situation
Punctuated Equilibrium
Evolutionary model suggesting species often diverge in spurts of relatively rapid change, followed by long periods of little change
total of all internal chemical reactions
What is responsible for amplifying impulses in the ear?
Break down of ATP(RELEASE ENERGY)-Consumes energy-regeneration of ATP
Late endosome
membrane-bound vesicle formed by endocytosis that is in late stage of becoming lysosome
Mushroom Cap
The top covering of a mushroom.
When the concentration of the solute is the same throughout a system.
What is diffusion?
moves small and nonpolar molecules
Organisms, such as fungi, that break down and absorb nutrients from dead organisms.
which phylum has this ecological importance:
-tremendously abundant
-200 per ml of costal mud
-90,000 per rotting apple
-9 billion per acre soil
phylum nematoda
When traveling through the male reproductive tract, what is the first "landmark" the spem hit?
The epididymus
fibrous connective tissue
tightly-packed fibroblast cells in matrix of parallel collagen fibers, forms tendons and ligaments
turgor pressure
pressure that the water molecules exert against the cell wall
Sinals that ENds translation are called
stop codons
This moves along the DNA strands adding mucleotides to the exposed nitrogen bases.
base pairing rules
adenine = thyminecytosine = guanine
At the completion of mitosis, each chromosome consists of a single ___.
What immunity (active or passive) involves transfer of antibodies?
Passive Immunity
A flattened sac within a chloroplast. Thylakoid membranes contain all of the chlorophyll in a plant, in addition to the electron carriers of photophosphorylation. Thylakoids stack to form grana.
Leading strand
The new continuous complimentary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the madatory 5' to 3' direction.
What is the correct sequence of these events in the origin of life?
1. Formation of protobionts
2. Synthesis of organic monomers
3. Synthesis of organic polymers
Epinephrine and norepinephrine 
_______ nerves increase HR
example of hormones that inc. HR are ________ & ___________
A sac made of membrane in the cytoplasm.
How is gene control involved in...transcription?mRNA processing?translation?protein activity?
-transcription factors/activators regulate enhancers/promoters-diff patterns of exon splicing-differences in the poly-A tails, specific hormones, or guanine cap how long an mRNA is available for translation -some proteins must be activated after synthesis-feedback controls regulate the activity of many proteins
visible light mkes up small portion of
Electromagnetic Spectrum
alternative splicing
removing the introns by enzymes and splicing the exons together into a functional RNA molecule
endochondral bone formation
-developed from masses of hyaline cartilage shaped like future bone structures
-as cartilage decomposes, periosteum forms and develops structure
-invading cells differentiate into osteoblasts
-as ossification continues, bone under periosteum becomes compact bone
process by which a DNA template is used to produce a single-stranded RNA molecule
Types of movement:
-taxis: free movement of an organism
-tropism: directed growth
movement of a substance against its concentration through the release of energy from ATP
active transport
In a population, the number of individuals that an environment can sustain.
Carrying Capacity
Prokaryotic cells do NOT have
ribosomes or membran-bound nuclei.
after glycolysis if there is no oxygen present
the sum total of the physical and chemical processes in an organism by which oxygen is conveyed to tissues and cells, and the oxidation products, carbon dioxide and water, are given off.
Nitrogen phosphorus potassium magnesium calcium
the most important nutrients plants need to include
turning food into energybreak food down into smaller parts so our body can use it
function of digestive system
Central Vacuole
Typically a single, large sac in plant cells that can be 90% of the cell volume.Usually formed from fusion of many small vacuoles in immature plant cells.Storage sites for water, food, salts, pigments, and metabolic wastes.Important in maintaining turgor pressure.
sliding filaments
during contraction, the H bands and I bands decrease in length as the myosin thick filaments pull the actin thin filaments which is anchored by the Z-line toward the M-line
Seminal vesicle
A gland found in mammalian males that produces seminal fluid.
When does evolution occur?
When natural selction produces changes in the relative frequencies of alleles in a population's gene pool
What happens during transcription?
RNA Polymerase separates DNA strands and then one of the strands is copied to make RNA.
Nucleotides are the monomers that make _______
amino acids
any of a class of organic compounds that contains at least one amino group, –NH2, and one carboxyl group, –COOH: the alpha-amino acids, RCH(NH2)COOH, are the building blocks from which proteins are constructed.
function of epithelial tissue
covers body surface and forms the lining for most internal cavities
thoracic cavity
the part of the human body cavity that is between the neck and the abdomen and that contains the heart and the lungs
2 types of restriction enzymes:
Type 1:
Type II:
Type 1: Cut near restriction site
Type II: Cut at the restriction sites
(sites are palindromes)
An excitatory postsynaptic potential will stimulate
) the opening of sodium channels.
autosomal dominant
only takes one copy of the allele to have the trait
sex-linked genes
allele is located only on the x or y chromosome
Spontaneous generation has been offered as an explanation for:
a. the birth of live offspring from a mother
b. the germination of a seed
c. the appearance of maggots on rotting meat
d. all of the above
C: the appearance of maggots on rotting meat.
What is the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus.
How are prophase and telophase similar?
Both prophase and telophase have a complete set of chromosomes and organelles.
water has an extremely high vaporization b/c?
of the hydrogen bonds in liquid water
when are direct counting methods advantagous
when there are more than tem million cells per mL, or when a speedy estimation of the population is required
3 generalizations of the cel theory
1. all organisms consist of one or more cells
2. cell is smallest unit-retains properties of life
3. Each new cell arises from another cell
What does NPP stand for? Define what NPP is.
Net primary productivity. The rate at which energy is transferred into the organic molecules that make up new plant biomass.
B) the H of one water molecule and the O of another water molecule
3) An example of a hydrogen bond is the bond between 
A) C and H in methane (CH4). 
B) the H of one water molecule and the O of another water molecule. 
C) Na+and Cl- in salt. 
D) the two hydrogen atoms in a molecule of hydrogen gas (H2). 
E) Mg+and Cl- in MgCl2.
primary consumer
-scrib-, -script-
an educated guess
Carbohydrates (building block)
mutualist lives inside host
collections of autonomously replicating cells.
(phylum rhizopida) unicellular organisms found in soil, fresh water, the ocean, and other organisms (as parasites)
produce hormones that influence several peripheral glands
red algae characteristics?
-mainly multicellular seaweeds-contains red pigments as well as chlorophyll-produce useful gelling agents such as agar and carageenan
•Autotrophic• Simple not organized tissue• Photosynthetic• Lack structures like other land plants (leaves, roots, organs)
 a three-nucleotide sequence on tRNA that recognizes a complementary condon on mRNA
Somatic Cells
2 sets of chromosomes
a white, crystalline, water-insoluble solid, C14H9Cl5, usually derived from chloral by reaction with chlorobenzene in the presence of fuming sulfuric acid: used as an insecticide and as a scabicide and pediculicide: agricultural use prohibited in the U.S.
Prosthetic Groups
non-protein components essential for catalytic functions of certain enzymes
Sometimes chromosomes will exchange a chain of DNA at a crossing over event at a site called a
Cells that do not contain nuclei
Do the chromatids contain identical DNA?
monomers/simple sugars usually have a formula that's a multiple of what?
thorny-headed worms; All species are parasites.
specialized ground tissue that makes up the bulk of most leaves; performs most of a plants photosynthesis
oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange occurs in the lung's..
important class of catalysts in living things
more inclusive category than any other- larger than a kingdom
transverse tubules
deep invaginations of myofiber cell membranes to allow depolarization of the deep interior
level of protein structure defined by its function
an exergonic reaction has a
negative net energy
(false idea) widely thought that living things could also arise from non-living things
Endocrine System
all of an animal's hormone-secreting cells.
Dicentric chromosome
An aberrant chromosome having two centromeres.
Valence electrons
are those in the outermost shell
Increasing the flow of the respiratory medium over the respiratory surface. Without ventilation, a region of low oxygen and high carbon dioxide concentration can form around the gill as it exchanges gases with water.
particles of nucleic acid protein and in some cases lipids that can reproduce only by infecting living cells
Gives rise to muscle, internal organs, and connective tissue
radial flexion
tilts the hand toward the thumb
A large molecule consisting of many identical or similar monomers linked together
What are lipids
Fatty acids, Phospholipids, and Steroids
the reaction center of photosystem II absorbs 650nm light - P650
any preparation used as a preventive inoculation to confer immunity against a specific disease, usually employing an innocuous form of the disease agent, as killed or weakened bacteria or viruses, to stimulate antibody production.
term used to refer to trees that produce seed-bearing cones and have thin leaves shaped like needles
The Urochordata (tunicates) only retain the gill slits and a pharynx as an adult. Why are they considered chordates?
larva possesses other characteristics
An animal that feeds on other animals (meat eater)
water vascular system
hydraulic canals connected to tube feet of animals in phylum echinodermata
A type og endocytosis in which large particulate substances are taken up by a cell. It is carried out by some protists and by certain immune cells of animals.
habitat fragmentation
habitat loss from separation of an ecosysteminte small pices of land
the lagging strand is made in short _____ fragments
Adrenaline (Epinephrine)
A hormone synthesized by the adrenal medulla; it stimulates the fight-or-flight response. It is also a neurotransmitter in the sympathetic nervous system.
A cell with two sets (humans are 46)
systemic circuit?
blood flows throughout the entire body exept the lungs
What is Homeostasis?
The relative consistancy of the internal  environment.
Aerobic Respiration ch.4
breaks down nutrients using oxygen energy from nutrients packaged in ATPcarbon dioxide and h2O produced as by-products
bear large claws that are modified to catch, pick up, crush, and cut food
the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions.
trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment
Requirements for maintenance of life
• Water  most abundant substance in the body required for metabolic processes required for transport of substances regulates body temperature• Food provides necessary nutrients supplies energy supplies raw materials• Oxygen (gas) One-fifth of air Used to release energy from nutrients• Heat  Form energy Partly controls rate of metabolic reactions• Pressure Application of force an object Atmospheric pressure – important for breathing Hydrostatic pressure – keeps blood flowing
abiotic and biotic interactions
interactions that affect nutrients in ocean?
nonpolar covalent bond
two identical atoms share the electron equally
Base pairs
The structure in which two bases in opposite strands of DNA hydrogen-bond with each other.
Complete the sentence: A gas released as a metabolic product of catabolism is _____________
carbon dioxide (CO2)
minimal criteria
- female accepts the 1st mate that meets a minimum that threshold
- occurs when males are scarce or spread out over a large geographic area
You take a deep breath. The oxygen that you are breathing came from photosynthesis, originating in the molecule:
This is made up of a closely related group of seies.
energy levels or electron shells
An energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom.
What's a vestigial structure?Ex?
Same shape, no function in another animal-humans have a tailbone (coccyx) but no tail
30.33. Multiple sclerosis occurs when the __________ are the targets of Cytotoxic T cells.A) oligodentrocytes that produce the myelin sheathB) amylase producing cells of the salivary gland cellsC) insulin producing cells of the pancreasD) amylase producin
oligodentrocytes that produce the myelin sheath
A cation is an atom that has a surplus __ charge
Some animals that can harbor salmonella bacteria
turtle, frogs, snakes, lizards, iguanas
Which of the following contain the 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules-cilia-centrioles-flagella(pick 2)
cilia and flagella
An induced defense against predation differs from a constitutive defense, because
induced defenses are produced only when some cue indicates clear risk of predation
What is the difference between a tendon and a ligament?
Tendon attaches bone and muscle.
Viral vectors: Types of viruses used as gene therapy vectors
- retroviruses (RNA viruses) - adenoviruses (dsDNA; infect respiratory, intestinal, eyes, e.g., cold virus)- Adeno-associated (insert DNA in chromosome 19)- Herpes simplex viruses (infect neurons)
conjugation b/t an F' cell and an F- cell results in a ...
partial diploid or merodiploid
Normal human body cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. Why do gametes contain half this number of chromosomes?
Because when male and female gametes join at fertilisation the number of chromosomes comes together to make a complete set. If gametes had the same number of chromosomes as other cells, the number of chromosomes in our cells would double at every fertilisation event
True or False: The phosphodiester bonds can happen anywhere along the DNA/RNA molecule.
False; They are linked together at the 5' phosphate group and the 3' hydroxyl group
What are the differences between plant and animal cells?
Plant cells have cell walls to keep plants steady and supported.
****What is the mOsm in freshwater and marine water.
In marine water it is about 1000 mOsm and in freshwater it is about 50 mOsm, and in the fish it is about 300 mOsm for both.
carbohydrate monomers
attracts water molecules
extremely small, single-celled organisms without a nucleus; prokaryotic cells
building blocks of matter
single-celled or simple multicellular eukaryotic organisms that generally do not fit in any other kingdom
substance with and attached radioisotpe that researchers can track after delivering it into a cell body ecosystem, or some ither system
evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies
an organelle containing enzymes responsible for producing energy
Eukaryotic kingdom that contains organisms that obtain their nutrients by secreting digestive enzymes into food and absorbing it
A cell that produces bone.
(biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular function
Metabolic processes, carried out by green plants, by which visible light is trapped and the energy used to synthesize compounds such as ATP and glucose.
The major atmospheric byproduct of photosynthesis
develop into female gametophytes (in megasporophylls)
the binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds.
a biomolecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with a ration of about two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom for every carbon atom
having carbon-carbon double or triple bonds and not containing the greatest # of H atoms
evolutionary change above the species level evolution on a BIG scale
Plant tissue that conducts dissolved organic nutrients from the leaves to the stem and roots; it is made up of sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem parenchyma, and fibers. Phloem, along with xylem, makes up a plant's vascular system
The three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
an area containing several different ecosystems linked by exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms
A community and its nonliving environment
A protein-digesting enzyme secreted by the chief cells of the gastric glands. Pepsin is secreted in its inactive form (pepsinogen) and is activated by gastric acid. It is unusual in that its pH optimum is around 1-2; most of these enzymes in the body function best at neutral pHs
A nucleotide sequence that intervenes between protein-coding sequences. In DNA, these intervening sequences typically contain **regulatory sequences, however, in RNA they are simply spliced out to form the mature (translated) transcript.
Extremely small pseudo-cells in the blood, important for clotting. They are not true cells, but are broken-off bits of a larger cell (a megakaryocyte).
Also called thryoid hormone, thyroxine is produced and secreted by follicle cells in the thyroid gland. it targets all cells in the body and increases overall body metabolism.
Golgi apparatus
A system of concentrically folded membranes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells; functions in secretion from cell by exocytosis
an organism that makes its own food
What is NOT true of chromosome maps
innate immunity
major defense present before exposure to pathogens, effective from time of birth
-nonspecific, recognizes broad range of microbes
-consists of external barriers made by skin/mucous membranes + internal cellular & chem. defenses
unstable atom(uneen # of protons and neutrons) it spontaneously emits particles and energy and so decays into different atom over a predictable time span
any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
a subatomic particle with a negative charge
a discrete unit of hereditary info consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence
Golgi function
finishes sorts, labels, and ships products of ER
Ships proteins in vesicles
The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element
A receptive, sticky structure at the tip of a carpel where deposited pollen enters.
A starting material in a chemical reaction
Plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for indeterminate growth.
an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
cellular respiration
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
the communities of organisms living in the benthic zone of an aquatic biome
Emergent Properties
Characteristics of a structure that are not found at lower levels. (More than sum of parts)
restriction enzymes
a degradative enzyme that recognizes and cuts up DNA that is foreign to a bacterium
Small cavities in the bone or cartilage that hold individual bones or cartilage cells.
To attach oxygen, to remove hydrogen, or to remove electrons from a molecule.
A structure composed of a ribose molecule linked to one of the aromatic bases. In a deoxynucleoside, the ribose is replaced with deoxyribose.
A passageway leading from behind the nasal cavity to the trachea. The pharynx is divided into three regions, named for their location. The nasopharynx is behind the nasal cavity, the oropharynx is behind the oral cavity, and the laryngopharynx is behind the larynx. The nasopharynx is a passageway for air only, but the oropharynx and laryngopharynx are passageways for both air and food; consequently they are lined with a much thicker layer of cells to resis damage due to abrasion.
RNA polymerase
An enzyme that transcribes RNa. Prokaryotes have a single RNA pol, while eukaryotes have three; in eukaryotes, RNA pol I transcribes rRNA, RNA pol II transcribes mRNA, and RNA pol III transcribes tRNA.
Having the ability to become anything; a zygote is totipotent.
An immune organ located near the heart. THe thymus is the site of T cell maturation and is larger in children and adolescents.
Allosteric regulation
The modifaction of enzyme activity through interactino of molecules with specific sites on the enzyme other than the active site (called allosteric sites)
(1) The integration of input (EPSPs and IPSPs) from many presynaptic neruons by a single postsynaptic neuron, either temporaly or spatially. Summation of al input can either stimulate the postsynaptic neuron and possibly lead to an action potential, or it can inhibit the neuron, reducing the likelihood of an action potential. (2) The integration of single muscle twitches into a sustained contraction (tetany).
Steroid hormone
A hormone derived from cholesterol. Steroids are generally hydrophobic and can easily cross the plasma membrane of cells, thus receptors for steroids are found intracellularly. Once this steroid binds to its receptor, the receptor-steroid complex acts to regulate transcription in the nucleus.
organic compound
any compound of carbon and another element or a radical noun
High Energy Bonds
the bonds between the phosphate groups
An organelle found in plants, in which stored lipids are converted to carbohydrates.
The tendency of an atom to attract electrons when it occurs as part of a compound.
an embryo packaged with a supply of nutrients inside a protective coat
a substance that can not be broken down by other substances or ordinary chemical means
Cytoplasm description
everything inside a cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus
Anything that takes up space and has mass.
Population Genetics
study of how populations change over time
sac fungus
The common name for ascomycete fungi, which develop distinctive saclike structures called asci, in which their spores are produced
chemical equilibrium
In a reversible chemical reaction, the point at which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction.
root hairs
A tiny projection growing just behind the root tips of plants, increasing surface area for the absorption of water and minerals.
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
chemical bond
the attractive force that holds atoms or ions together
A term meaning that an organism does not move from place to place
Cellular Differentiation
a process that specializes cells in structure and function as an orgnism develops
protein synthesis
the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
Wolffian ducts
Early embryonic ducts that can develop into male internal genitalia under the proper stimulation (testosterone).
Prophase II
The first phase of meiosis II. Prophase II is identical to mitotic prophase, except that the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
Graafian follicle
A large, mature, ovarian follicel with a well-developed antrum and a secondary oocyte. Ovulation of the oocyte occurs from this type of follicle.
A structure composed of two coils of DNA wrapped around an octet of histone proteins. The nucleosome is the primary form of packagin of eukaryotic DNA.
A protein that plays a part in the movement of eukaryotic flagella and cilia by means of conformational changes.
the age of earth is estimated to be approximately how old?
C4 plant
A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate Co2 into four-carbon compounds, the end-product of which supplies Co2 for the Calvin cycle.
Covalent Bonds
a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one pair of valence electrons
Functional groups
a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a particular compound
potential energy
The energy stored by matter as a result of its location or spatial arrangement.
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits
hydrogen bond
A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule
Cell Division
the process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
Fringe Wetlands
occur along the coasts of large lakes and seas, where water flows back and forth because of rising lake levels or tidal action
restriction site
a specific sequence on a DNA strand that is recognized as a "cut site" by a restriction enzyme
human genetics
The study of how some traits appear and others disappear in the process of heredity
Anaphase I
The third phase of meiosis I. During anaphase I the rplicated homologous chromosomes are separated (the tetrad is split) and pulled to opposite sides of the cell.
Bundle-sheath cells
A layer of cells in plant leaves and stems that forms a sheath surrounding the vascular bundles. In C4 plants (see C4 pathway) the bundle sheath cells contain chloroplasts and are the site of the Calvin cycle.
Aphotic Zone
the part of an ocean or lake beneath the photic zone, where light does not penetrate sufficiently for photosynthesis to occur
Motor unit
A motor neuron and all the all the skeletal muscle cells it innervates. Large motor units are typically found in large muscles (e.g., the thighs and buttocks) and produce fross movements. Small motor untis are found in smaller muscles (e.g. the rectus muscles that controle movements of the eyeball, the fingers) and produce more precise movements.
If a carbonyl group is on the end of a carbon skeleton it is called ____
The beak of a bird and the beak of a giant squid evolved independently and serve the same function. The beaks are
analogous structure
B lymphocytes (B cells) & T lymphocytes (T cells)
lymphocytes of the immune system that recognize specific antigens
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