Ecology - Final Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
biotic environment
living
biosphere
the whole world
niche
n-dimensional hypervolume. environmental requirements of a species
organism
an individual living system
lithosphere
rock and soil surface
Competition
a mutually detrimental interaction between individuals, populations or species
biome
major ecological associations that occupy broad geographic regions of land or water (temperature, moisture, seasonality, structure, deciduousness, major species, disturbace regimes)
Atom
smallest component of an element
omnivores
eat both plants and animals
biomes
-categories obtained when grouping biological communities based upon dominant plant forms-------good reference point for comparing ecological processes-----characteristics of one biome usually integrate gradually to the next--------climate is the major determinant of plant distribution
GPP
total rate of photosynthesis assimilated by autotrophs
Biomass
the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time
NPP
rate at which biomass accumulates; typically expressed in units of energy per unit area per year (kcal/m2y) or in unites of dry organic mass per unit area per year (g/m2/y)
symbiosis
the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent
community
(ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
ecosystem
made of populations & abiotic factors
epiphyte
plant growing on another plant
 
-as in rainforest orchids and such.
r-strategists
species whose life history strategies allow for high intrinsic rates of increase
mark-recapture method
-used to determine population size
-uses the propotion of recaptured individuals
 
N= nM/x
 
N=population
M=released marked fish
n=future sample size
x=number of recaptures (tagged)
 
**must assume complete mixing of marked individuals into the population
detritus pathways
most energy flows through here
Restoration
renewing a degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystem through active human intervention.
Tropical Biome
Found in earth's equatorial region, has largest amount of biodeversity
species
Group of organisms that can have fertile offspring
consumers
obtain chemical energy by feeding on the producers or on other ____s
harem mating
females congregate and male controls area
Secondary carnivore
Organisms that feed on other carnivores
genetic diversity
structure of DNA varies from individual/individual or species/species
Ecosystem -
interaction of community with their environment
Disturbances
events that cause change in an environment
environmental resistance
combination of limiting factors that set carrying capacity
Carbon cycle
How carbon moves through the environment
Population
Group of individuals that belong to the same species, live in the same area, and breed with others in the group.
What are herbivores that eat only fruit called?
Fructivores
For the following, determine what type of relationship is involved:Mutualism, Commensalism, or ParasitismAphids provide food for ants and receive protection in the ant colony
Mutualism
aposematism
bright colors or striking patterns to warn predators that you're poisonous
microcosms
-allow us totest hypothesis on scaled down systems that can be replicated... like a model....real world is too complicated
carnivores can be found on which trophic level?
3
Pyrophyte
Species which have adapted to tolerate fire; in some cases fire is a necessary component to these species' life cycles. Example: Longleaf Pine, Spruce Pine
Photosynthesis
The process of using energy in sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen
microclimate
the climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate around it
thin layer of earth where life is found
biosphere
neutron
particle with no charge and is found in the nucleus of an atom, equal to protons
food chain
series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
limiting factor
Any abiotic factor or biotic factor that restricts the numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms
Global warming
an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere because of pollution
Competitive Exclusion
One species is eliminated from a community because of competition for the same limited resource.
global cycles
where exchange can occur between the atmosphere and the ecosystem (e.g. nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, and water).
one plant form, two biomes
temperate saltmarshes and grasslands:
 
-both dominated by same plant form
-two very different environments
Niche Overlap
the intensity of the competition bet. them depends on the extent to which their ______'s overlap
Ecological Pyramids-
Energy is transferred to the next trophic as 10% of the previous
acclimation
an organism's change in response to a change in the organism's environment
What is the name of the outermost layer of the vascular cylinder if a root, where lateral roots originate?
Pericycle
developmental plasticity
change in allocation of biomass to different tissues
ecology
the branch of biology dealing with the relations and interactions between organisms and their environment, including other organisms.
numbers are too low, on the verge of extinction
endangered
living organisms need nutrients for?
-building tissue
-carry out essential life functions
independent variable
the variable you change to see the effect of the dependent variable
type I survivorship curve
high survival among young - rotifers
What do autotrophs or producers do?
Make their own food.
which has more carbon to nitrogen?
plants 5 to 1
Earth and radiation
Receives short wave radiation from sun during day but emits long radition both day and night. Only 51 percent of solar radiation makes it to the surface.
Pioneer species-
the first organism to colonize a new habitat.
Decomp Limiter- Temperature
the rate of respiration increases with temp which promotes microbial activity
Cooperative breeders vs. eusociality (eusociality)

Eusocial (Ex. woodcutter ants, naked mole rats)
Woodcutter ants (exhibit haplodiploidy which reinforces kin selection)
HaploidiploidyMales--haploid
Females/reproductive--diploid

Naked mole rats (handout)
Ambush Predator
hide and wait for prey to come to them
examples: ant lions, sarlacc
phenotypic plasticity is? can be?
ability to respond to environmental variation
physical behavioral or developmental
Causes changes to an ecostytem
Change in biodiversity or damage to habitat
what makes aquatic enviroment unique
plants have little affect, it changes very slowly
Fossil fuel formation
a remnant or trace of an organism of a past geologic age, such as a skeleton or leaf imprint, embedded and preserved in the earth's crust.
2 general patterns of condition intensity
A given species typical performs best only under certain condition intensities; Different species can differ in shape and location of their peak performance
In the vascular system of a plant,food moves through the ________________water moves through the _______________
Food moves through the "phloem"Water moves through the "xylem"
What is the area effect of island biogeography?
The larger the island, the more diverse it is. (has less of a chance to go extinct)
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