Ecology 174 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
allheterotrophic organisms
populations interacting
eat prey
Table 10.3
page 206
1st level
autotrophs/primary producers
Make food for organisms
Asexual reproduction
budding (Hydra)
fragmentation (plants, sponges, bryozoans)
fission (Paramecium)
rhizomes (strawberries, cattails)
no longer in existence
no effect on eachother
obtains energy by eating autotrophs
Place where an Organism lives
many different ecosystems linked together. atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water) and lithosphere (earth) from Earth's biosphere.
animals that chemically decompose substances
Intertidal zones
HArsh, zone, steep gradients
benefits participating species, ex: pollination, anemone/fish inhabitants, ants/aphids&fungi (ants clean and cultivate the aphids, leaf cutters/fungi), prokaryotic flora in cow and termite guts, algal cells in corals, nitrogen fixing bacteria in plant root nodules (mycorrhizae), fungi/lichen
biotic factors
living (predators, parasites, herbivores, carnivores,decomposers)
Heated air
expands and become less dense
acid rain
nitric, nitrous, sulfurous, sulfric acid + water = pH 5.6 (acidic)
benthic zone
the bottom of the ocean
gray-brown mixture of chemicals that occurs as a haze in the atmosphere
The essential variable for predator reproductive rate
fist opening is anus, echinoderms, chordates
ecological succession
ecosystems constantly change in response to natural and human disturbances. as it changes, older inhabitants slowly die out and new organisms move in which causes even more changes
break down decaying plants and animals.
Abiotic factors
nonliving parts of the envirorment
the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)
Organisms that eat living producers and/or other consumers for food
movement of individuals into an area
Cellular Respiration
6O2+C6 H12 O6 ----> 6CO2+6H2O
Oxygen+glucose ----> Carbon Dioxide+water+energy
suburban sprawl
consumes farmland and natural habitats
the study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
all the different populations that live in a specific area
What age-specific (note) patterns (2) make up the age structure of a population?
the symbol for the carrying capacity, the maximum number of individuals that a particular environment can support
climax community
the relatively stable collection of plants and animals that result form succession
riparian zone
he transition between the aquatic environment of a river or stream and the upland terrestrial environment, generally subject to periodic flooding and elevated groundwater table.
an organism that feeds on organic waste
where one organism benefits and the other is neither harmed or helped
describe the water cylce
circulates btween eathd oceans
the unique ways an organism survives, obtains food and shelter, and avoids danger
biome with lowest temperature and low precipitation
faire beacoup de bruit
make lots of noise
Species with broad niches and can tolerate range of conditions
ex: opposum and cockroaches
primary consumers also called
herbivores - plant eaters
primary succession
an ecological succession that begins in a an area where no biotic community previously existed
Density-Independent Factors
Limiting factor that affects all populations in similiar ways, regardless of population size., independent of population size (weather, natural disasters)
The "A" horizon.
Which horizon indicates the productivity of that environment?
when two or more individuals or populations try to use the same resource, such as food, water, shelter, space, or sunlight
decaying caused by bacterial or fungal action
an animal that is hunted and eaten
Food Web
Diagram that shows the feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem.
organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter
technique used to compare benefits and costs occurring over time; compare current costs with future earnings
the process uses CO2(taken in), and the waste is O2 (released)
The different Trophic Levels:
-primary producer (autotroph)
-primary consumer (herbivore)
-secondary consumer (carnivore)
ecological capacity
the actual resource base of a county
food chain
a linear and simple feeding relation, where one organism has one type of food and is eaten by one type of organism
Lake Okechobee (Florida--500 species)
examples of exploited species
linked by 25,000 exploitative interactions
Mullerian mimicry
2 or more unpleasant tasting species that resemble each other
density- dependent factors
limiting factor that depends on population size
Competitive exclusion
two similar species compete for the same limited resources
Not sufficient
.75 girls/woman is ___ ________ to replace the population
all the individuals of one kind (one spieces) in a specified area at one time
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
a consumer that gets its energy from other consumers (carnivore)
Fundamental niche
The range of conditions and resources within which individuals and species can persist (NO predation or competition)
A square that marks off a specific area.
soil or rock; determines the nature of plant and animal life in the soil
Sexual Reproduction
process by which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism
global warming
Theory that the Earth is gradually warming as a result of an enhanced greenhouse effect in the Earth's atmosphere caused by ever-increasing amounts of carbon dioxide produced by various human activities.
animals that would feed off of herbivores or primary consumers
secondary consumers
Ecosystem Engineer
A dominant species that influences its community by creating, modifying, or maintaining physical habitat for itself and other species.
natural catastrophe
An extreme environmental event such as a flood, severe windstorm, or outbreak of disease that can eliminate or drastically reduce the sizes of populations.
Life History
A record of major events relating to an organism's growth, development, reproduction, and survival.
inhibition (process) model
possibly leading to a polyclimax. No species in
this model is competitively superior to another -
who wins depends on who gets there first.
Succession proceeds from short-lived species to
long-lived species, but is not especially orderly.
Sensible Heat Loss
Energy transfer from warm air to cooler atmosphere by conduction and convection
Greenhouse effect
A natural effect that releases heat in the atmosphere near the earth's surface. Water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, and several other gases in the lower atmosphere absorb some of the infrared radiation radiated by the earth's surface. This will eventually increase the temperature of the earth if there are enough of the greenhouse gases.
Secondary Succession
Occurs in an area that once held stable life but has since been destroyed by a major force- fire
Detrivores? ex?
eat dead and decaying plant and animal material (earthworms, snails, crabs)
what is ecology
the study of organisms and their interaction with their environment
Competitive Exclusion Principle
two species cannot occupy the same niche - one will out compete the the other
Biotic Potential
rate at which population can grow if all organisms survive and reproduce at maximum rates
Coyote Case study
Keynote Species

Dominant Species

Ecosystem Engineers
Keynote: species that despite low biomass, exerts a strong effect on community structure

Dominant: substantially influence community structure because they are very ABUNDANT

Ecosystem Engineers: an organism that causes changes in the physical environment sufficient to influence the structure of landscapes, ecosystems or communities.
Density Dependent Factor
a variable related to the number of individuals in a population in a given area that affects population size
What does Ch. 16 focus on?
Measurement and comparison of communities
Crude death rate
Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.5 in a population of 100,000 would mean 950 deaths per year in that entire population, or 0.95% out of the total.
Milankovitch cycles
shape of earths orbit and tilt of axis changes intensity of solar radiation received at high latitudes.
What causes most of the ecological problems of today?
Degradation of habitat and pollution
Only one of the following factors tends to destabilize
a predator-prey relationship, leading to greater amplitude of cyclic population fluctuations. Which is it?
time delays in predator-prey interactions
Give three reasons why organism may not be perfectly adapted
1. availability of adaptive genes
2. opposing selection pressures
3. Environmental change
birth and life history strategies have evolved (low / high) cost/benefit ratios
birth and life history strategies have evolved low cost/benefit ratios
What is the "problem" of altruism and how does Hamilton's rule solve it? You do not need to memorize the formula, but understand the conditions under which altruism is most likely to occur. How does reciprocal altruism differ from altruism explained by ki
Br>C. Either the fitness benefits of altruistic behavior are high for the recipient, the altruist and recipient are close relatives, or the fitness costs to the altruist are low
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