Ecology 43 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
longitutinal section
biotic factor
A living thing
tendency toward disorder
eat only meat
niche (n)
dimensional hypervolume where
birthrate is ____ specific
butterfly metapops in Finland
animal that only eats meat
Living part of any ecosystem
the ecological succession of vegetation that occurs in passing from barren earth or water to a climax community
something that takes up space
Flow of energy equation
consommer mois de
to consume less
where many different communities interact and live with each other; both biotic and abiotic.
Bacteria use energy stored in inorganic molecules to produce carbohydrates
The living factors( animals and plants) that affect an organism
changes in a community over time
The non-living part of an ecosystem.
~each organism requires a certain set of physical and chemical conditions
Scientific Study of how organisms interact with one another and the environment
symbiotic relationship in which one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
Animal that eats plants and animals
abiotic factors
nonliving things in an ecosystem
a consumer that only eats plants
Plants are producers because they produce their own food.
Trophic Level
Feeding level; producers' level supports all other levels
Limiting Factor
thing that limits exponential growth
Tropism movement in repsonse to water.
salt marshes
temperate-zone estuaries dominated by salt-tolerant grasses above the low-tide line & by seagrasses underwater
photosynthesis takes place in the _____ of plants, protists, and bacteria
the conduction of soluble food material from one part of a plant to another.
procedure that tests a hypothesis by collecting information under controlled conditions
species that are in danger of extinction or dying out
group of ecosystemes that have the same climate and similar communities
a type of symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit
relatively thin layer of Earth and it's atmosphere that supports life
tertiary consumer
An organism that eats secondary consumers
day to day variation in atmospheric conditions. Weather changes
standing crop
the total biomass of photosynthetic autotrophs present at a given time
C4 pathway
have two distinct types of photosynthetic cells: the mesophyll cells and the bundle sheath cells.
Number of individuals at time t (0)
region in marine environments close to beach
one organism benefits and the other organism is harmed
group of organisms from same species living in same place
any area covered with water that supports aquatic plants
Deceleration phase
Stage of population growth indicated by the flattening out of an S-shaped curve as the carrying capacity is reached.
biome found in regions where moderate annual average precipitation (25-76 cm) is enough to support the growth of grass and small plants but not enough to support large stands of trees
the place or set of environmental conditions in which a particular organism lives
The action of one organism eating another organism for food.
limiting factors
deficiencies in nutrients hinder the producer in ecosystem
The tendency of water molecules to stick to surfaces
the full range of physical & biological conditions in which an organism lives & the way the organism uses those conditions
the accumulation of a contaminant or toxin in or on an organism from all sources
an organism that feeds on the dead bodies of other organisms.
food chain
pathway of food transfer from one trophic level to another
insects lay their eggs in hosts, young hatch, eat host alive
carrying capacity
the largest number of individuals of one species that an ecosystem can support over time
trophic levels
indicates an organisms position on the food chain
organism that makes its own food using sunlight or chemicals; producer
growth rate
the amount by which a population's size changes in a given time
the diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole)
community ecology
subfield of ecology that deals with the whole array of interacting species in a community
Weeds choke out the young corn plants in your garden.
the water cycle process
the process of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
early successional species
plant species characterized by high dispersal rates, ability to colonize disturbed sites, short life span, and shade tolerance
Condition-dependent behavior
change in response to learning, show flexibility in response to changing environment conditions:
a vast treeless plain in the arctic regions between the ice cap and the tree line
before Darwin - use and disuse (parts that are used become bigger and stronger while other parts deteriorate) and inheritance of acquired characteristics (organism can pass on "modifications" to its offspring
loss of habitat
currently the biggest cause of extinction seems to be
keystone predator
a predator species that reduces the density of the strongest competitors in a community, thereby helping maintain species diversity
Temperate Zones
Latitudes in between the tropics and the polar zones in the eastern hemisphere
enviormental science
the study of how humans interacting with environmental problems
are organims taht use energy to conrol some of their internal conditions.
handicap hypothesis
if a male can carry handicaps (bright plumage) and survive, it is proof of a superior genotype
What is a Biome
large geographic region identifed by species of plants which dominate the region(climax vegetation)
nitrogen cycle
the cycle in which nitrogen gas is changed into forms of nitrogen that plants can use
Keystone Species
a species that if removed from an ecosystem, would seriously effect it
biome level of ecological organization
major ecosystems classified according to prevalent vegetation (rainforest, savannah, etc.)
pelagic zone
open water of any depth in this zone
life history difference
one species may not effect the entrance of another due to differences in growth and germination/longevity of seeds
population growth rate
change in number of individuals in population over time
dimictic lake
a lake that mixes twice per year, usually in temperate regions where temperature change with seasons cause the water to stratify in the summer, and mix in the spring and fall.
Cycles in the Biosphere
Natural processes are required to support the functions of an ecosystem along with the biomes of the Earth. In addition towards this process matter is not destroyed but recycled and reused to support the life forms acquiring it.
polar zones
cold climate zone where the sun rays strike the Earth at a very low angle.
Loss of water from a plant through its leaves.
Batesian mimicry
a type of mimicry in which a harmless species looks like a species that is poisonous or otherwise harmful to predators
Wind power
a source of energy that reduce use of fossil fuels
pollenation issue with endangered Peters Mountain Mallow
low incidence of sexual reproduction (bisexual flowers but are males first then females)
Formula for photosynthesis
carbon dioxide + water ---> glucose + oxygen + water
cohort life table
a life table based on individuals born (or beginning life in some other way) at the same time.
A more precise definition of a keystone species is one whose impact is.....
'disproportionately large relative to its abundance'.
The more individuals you have in a population with no limiting factors, the slower it grows. T/F? If false, correct.
The faster it grows
How could fossil fuels affect the gases in the atmosphere?
increase the amount of carbon dioxide
what do nitrogen fixing bacteria do?
take N2 nitrogen and convert it to nitrates NO3-
How can body odor lead to offspring that are more resistant to parasites?
A certain body odor can smell more appealing to mates that have different immunity genes than themselves.
down feathers
dryas stages
cool white guy
biotic factors
living organisms
second order consumer
cell>tissue>organ>organ system>organism>population>community>ecosystem>biosphere
cell, tissue, organ...
Reproductive isolation 4 steps
competition model (square)
lect 9
consumers, eat green plants
active at dawn and dusk
eat other dead consumers ex.vultures
cold-blooded; this includes the majority of animals and plants (heat energy escapes to the environment).
what is primary succession
Live of organisms
a dormant state, involving reduced metablic rate, that occurs in some animals during the winter
condition of toxic substances being more concentrated in tissues of organism higher on the food chain than ones lower in the food chain.
3 types of dispersion
clumped, uniform, random
desert: animals
armadillo, kangaroo rat, eastern diamondback
secondary succession
process of restabilization that follows a disturbance in an are where there has been an ecosystem previously
Large geographic areas that are similar typres of plants and animals.
the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other
body temperature that vary passively with abient temperature (adjusts to it's surroundings)
Primary Consumers
An organism that eats producers.
A symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits, and one loses/suffers. Parasites try not to kill their host because then they will die, too.
EX: roundworms are parasites of mammals, like humans, cats, and dogs. They produces lots of eggs found in feces, which other animals may swallow in contaminated food/water.
Forest Ecosystem
includes birds, squirrels, foxes and rabbits, insects, spiders, wildflowers, ferns, bacteria, dead leaves rain water etc.
k-strategists' reproductive strategies
few/large young, intensive parenting, slow maturation, reproduce many times
an organism that is capable of converting inorganic chemicals into energy
population density
number of individuals per unit area
Process in an aquatic system where decay of excess dead organic matter from nutrient enrichment uses all the dissolved oxygen and kills other organisms dependent on that oxygen.
Temperate Rainforest
Biome with temperate regions with significant rainfall (deciduous or evergeren)
A negatively charged clay particle in soil. Formed by crystallization of minerals that weather from bedrock. The negative charges capture and hold the cations in soil and don't leach away. Plants break the bonds and use the nutrients. High # of these in clay loam.
category of the highest rank, grouping together all forms of life having certain fundamental characteristics in common: in the five kingdom classification, separate kingdoms are assigned to animals(Animalia), plants (Plantae), fungi (Fungi), protozoa and eucaryotic algae (Protista) and bacteria and blue-green algae (Monera).
survivorship curves
describes how the mortality of individuals in a species varies during their lifetimes
one benefits and the other is hurt
large enough to be seen
ex: leeches
Parent material
Geological material in which soil horizons form, which supply a great deal of structure and minerals.
process by which winds and coriolis force act together to push surface waters away from a coastline causing waters below to upwell to the surface.
The energy and materials a species needs.
The breaking down of substances by biological organisms.
Ecological succession
Existing community is replacced by another community
when two species live in direct intimate contact with another
B Horizon
subsoil (very little organic material and lots of minerals)
a sensitive organism can only survive in clean water
The reduction of competition between predators can...
promote biodiversity
having to do with living things and their environments
Biotic potential
maximum growth rate of a population under ideal conditions
primary succession
a gradual development of a community over time
2 organisms that live together with no effect on each other
land-use planning
determine (in advance) how land will be used
a piece of open land for recreational use in an urban area
population growth
number of births, number of deaths, number of immigrants, and number of emigrants
food web
food chains linked together in an ecosystem
the area in which something exists or lives
carbon cycle
the continuous process by which carbon is exchanged between organisms & the environment
global climate patterns
determined by sunlight and earth's movement in space
primary production
amount of solar energy converted to chem energy by producers for a given area and time
Populatino regulation
A pattern of population growth in which one or more density-dependent factos increase population size whn numbers are low and decrease population size when numbers are high.
exponential growth
when growth in a population increases at a constant rate due to reproduction
Threatened species
a species that could become endangered in the near future
A process in which the materials of the earth's surface are loosened, dissolved, or worn away and transported from one place to another by a natural agent, such as wind, water, ice, or gravity.
geometric population growth
population growth in which generations do not overlap and in which successive generations differ in size by a constant ratio.
biotic resistance
Interactions of the native species in a community with non-native species that exclude or slow the growth of those non-native species.
the total mass of organisms in a given area
behavioral ecology
examines the ways in which behavior is adaptive, how behavior varies, how it evolves
central nervous system
the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
Concept 14.2
-Each partner in a mutualism acts to serve its own ecological and evolutionary interests
-Trophic mutualisms: mutualist receives energy or nutrients from its partner
-Habitat mutualisms: one partner provides the other with shelter, a place to live or favorable habitat
enhanced green house effect
Strengthening of the greenhouse effect through human activities,it is increase in radiative forcing from human activity is attributable mainly to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.
peer review
The process whereby experts in a field of study check over a journal article written by another scientist in that field before the article is published to ensure that it is of high scientific quality.
fundamental niche
the range of conditions that a species can potentially tolerate the range of resrounces it can petentially use.
Greenhouse layer
traps heat to warm earth; made of CO2 +H2O; problem is its thickening, trapping more heat
Murdoch (1966)
The world is prickly and tastes bad - competition between herbivores and carnivores, herbivores limit carnivores
Density dependence
The tendency for the death rate in a population to increase, or the birth or growth rate to decrease, as the density of the population increases.
Can Natural selection act on behavioral processes?
Because behavior varies across individuals, and because at least some behaviors are heritable (genetically based), natural selection can act directly on behavioral processes
turnover time
time it takes a body of water to renew itself
How are community complexity and stability related?
-Stability: ability of the community to recover from disturbance
-Major tent of ecology: "biodiversity promotes stability"
-Diverse communities have higher stability
Ways to find optimal range of a species
Physiological optimum- in labEcological optimum- observed in field
osmoregulation in salt water fishes
water diffuses from the gill to the surrounding sea water
specialized cells in the gills secrete Na and Cl ions
water and salt are taken in when eating
What does an energy pyramid depict? Why is it pyramid shaped?
An ecological pyramid is a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web.
Give an example of the competitive exclusion principle in action?
The Red Squirrel and Grey Squirrel in Great Britain. With the decline of conifers in the area and the rise of the Grey Squirrel, the Red Squirrel has since decreased greatly in its population size.
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