Ecology 93 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
trophic
feeding
misuse
väärkasutus
meat eaters
carnivores
Logistic Growth
...
Desert
water moderates temp
alpha diversity
species richness
decomposers
break down organic materials
phenology
seasonal changes of organisms
Niche
role in the environment
Natural Cycles
Exchanging of Materials
Herbivores
0.5 to 40% of NPP
ecosystem
community (living things) and non-living surroundings
scavengers
animals that eat dead material
organism
one member of a population
ominivore
both plant and meat eater
ecology
study of relationships between organisms and the environment
Symbiotic Relationships
nutritive relationships between organisms that live close together
Distribution Limits
physical environment limites geographic distribution of species
habitat
area in which an organism lives
Biotic
A biological influence on organisms within an ecosystem
chemosynthesis
use chemical energy to produce carbon
secondary succession
succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
carnivores
carnivores that feed on other carnivores
nitrification
conversion of ammonia into nitrates which can be used
Biomass
organic material that has been produced in an ecosystem
Detritoves
Organism that eats dead organic matter.
allopatric
describes the condition in which populations or species have non-overlapping geographic ranges.
allee effect
positive relationship between fitness and pop size (above threshold, negative below)
r increases with pop size or density until overpowered by negative feedback
ex: solitary rhinos can find mates easier in a larger pop
plants may be damaged by wind unless protected by a clump
evolution
(biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms
denitrification
process in which fixed nitrogen compounds are converted back into nitrogen gas and returned to the atmosphere
Competition
the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
Producer
Organisms that can make glucose during photosynthesis.
intraspecific competition
competition between members of the same species
energy flow
the transformation of energy and materials
succession
The replacement of one type of community by another at a single location over a period of time.
phosphorus
used in DNA, molecues that carry energy
semelparity
one reproductive cycle "big- bang" and then dies
Omnivore
Organisms that eat both producers and consumers.
interdependence
the dependence of every organism on its connections with other living and nonliving parts of its environment
parasitism
a relationship in which on species benifits and the one it depends on is harmed
assimilation
nitrates are taken into plants to begin the path through living things
Mutualism
A relationship in which both species benefit.
species
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
exponential growth
population doubling and no doubling off
climax vegetation
the way a biome is identified
Commensalism
A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
Conservation
the preservation and wise use of natural resources
Population
Group of individuals of the same species living in the same area
consumers
an organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains.
symbiosis
relationship in which two species live closely together
food
provides energy or fuel to living organisms
threats to biodiversity
Habitat loss, Invasive species, Population growth, Pollution, Over consumption of resources
Pioneer Stage
The first stage of primary succession.
Biosphere
The regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist.
open space
undeveloped land that is protected from development by legislation
percolation ponds
recharges aquifers and makes sure the ground doesnt collapse
mediterranean woodland
A biome associated with mild, moist winter conditions and usually with dry summers between about 30 degrees and 40 degrees latitude. The vegetation of this biome is usually characterized by small tough (sclerophyllous) leaves and adaptations to periodic fire. This biome is found around the Mediterranean Sea and in western North America, Chile, southern Australia, and southern Africa. This biome is known by many local names such as chaparral, garigue, maquis, and fynbos.
Producers
autotrophs at the bottom of the food chain (plants exc.)
nitial Floristic Composition Hypothesis
First colonizers inhibit the establishment of other spp - Other spp move in only after they die
Keystone Species
one that plays an especially important role in its community
ex. the sea star in the coral reef- if sea stars were removed from a coral reef community, mussel and sea urchin populations would have explosive growth.
Pt+1 = QNtPt
Equation used to determine predator population growth, assumes that the reproductive rate of predators depends on the number of prey. It does not result in exponential growth
carbon cycle
the transfer of carbon from living things to the atmosphere and back to living things
fishery
an area with a large population of valuable ocean organisms
Scavenger
A consumer that feeds on animals dead bodies
Carrying capacity
The largest number of individuals on one species that the ecosystem can support.
10%
the amount of energy that is passed from one trophic level to the next
warning coloring
bright body colors that warn predators to stay away
Nonrenewable resource
resources that can be used upfaster than they can be replenished naturally, such as coal, oil, and natural gas
heterotroph
an organism that gets its energy by eating other organisms
food web
a diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem
taiga
biome in which the winters are cold but summers are mild enough to allow the ground to thaw
seral stage
stage of succession before the climax is reached
T or F: alleles cause disease, NOT genes
True
limiting factors
an environmental factor that tends to limit population size.
Nitrogen Cycle
the way that nitrogen in nature is changed into many different forms that are used by living organisms
food chain
a chain of organisms in which each link feeds on the one ahead and is eaten by the one behind
What are some abiotic factors?
Water, Soil, Sunlight, Temperature, Air
primary succession
sucession that begins in an area that previously did not support life
Ecological succession
process of changing from one type of community to another
Community
A group of populations in an area that interact with one another
dichotomous key
written set of choices to ID and organism based on morphology
Rock Cycle
sequence of events in which rocks are formed, destroyed, altered, and reformed by geological processes
How to define communities?
2) Which area is included?
*scale problem: depends on the question
Model community in an aquarium or greenhouse
vs. North American forests
Oceanic Pelagic Biome
Most of the ocean's waters far from shore, constantly mixed by ocean currents
Know all the cycles of matter
Know all the Ecological Pyramids
pioneer species
the first species to populate a new or disturbed areas
Even Simplified Food Webs can be difficult to study
-True
-Gary Polis argued this
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
An ecological approach to pest control using a mix of cultivation and biological methods, and small amounts of selected chemical pesticides as a last resort.
Taiga is characterized by.........
being south of tundry and north of temperate regions. It has moose, bears, wolves, etc.
what is a population?
a group of organisms of the same species living together
What can/should be done for the Tropical Rain Forest Destruction
Crop rotation, soil amendments, set stricter regulations, have laws banning illegal logging, educate people
What is the B horizon made out of?
B Horizon / Depositional Horizon
Leached material deposited in B horizon
Very low levels of precipitation are associated with all the following regions except?
upper middle latitudes, along the west coasts.
what is the difference between a food chain and a food web?
a food chain is a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating or being eaten, and a food web links all the food chains in an ecosystem together
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