ecology cain, bowman, hacker Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Dispersal ___ populations
Evolution and _____ ____
continental drift
Nutrient-poor, characterized by low primary productivity.
___efficiency is the proportion of available biomass that's ingested by consumers.
Trophic efficiencies can influence ____ _____.
population dynamics.
Energy and nutrients produced within the ecosystem.
Abundances ___ over time & space.
The chemical conversion of organic matter into inorganic nutrients.
Trophic Cascades
Changes in the abundances of organisms at one trophic level can influence ____ ____ at multiple trophic levels.
energy flow
4 trophic lvls: Piper cenocladum trees; herbivores; ants (Pheidole) that live in the pentioles of the Piper trees and eat herbivores; and beetles (Tarsobaenus) that eat the ___
equilibrium theory
A proposed explanation for the coexistence of species in a community that relies on relatively stable coexistence due to ecological and evolutionary “compromises” that result in resource partitioning.
keystone species
A strongly interacting species that has a large effect on energy flow and on community structure and composition disproportionate to its abundance or biomass.
invasive species
Introduced species that survive and reproduce in their new environment, sustain a growing population, and have large effects on the native community.
In plants and animals that reproduce asexually, the entire genetic individual; a ___may consist of multiple, genetically-identical parts, each of which has the potential to function as an independent physiological unit.
A genetically identical copy of an individual.
The physical and chemical breakdown of detritus by detritivores for energy capture, leading to the release of nutrients as simple, soluble organic and inorganic compounds that can be taken up by other organisms.
The area in a terrestrial ecosystem that is drained by a single stream; a common unit of study in terrestrial ecosystem studies; also called a watershed.
Case Study Revisited: Toxins in Remote Places
They may not be metabolized or excreted for a variety of reasons, so they become progressively more concentrated over the organism's lifetime, _____
All organisms in an ecosystem are either consumed by other organisms or enter the ___ of dead organic matter (___).
dynamic equilibrium model
An elaboration of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis proposing that species diversity is maximized when the level of disturbance and the rate of competitive displacement are roughly equivalent.
Of or referring to an approach to conservation biology that focuses on habitats, landscapes, and ecosystems.
____ ____ can prevent species from reaching areas of suitable habitat.
Dispersal limitation
H____ and d____ limit distribution and abundance.
History and dispersal.
mechanical weathering
The physical breakdown of rocks into progressively smaller particles without a chemical change. Compare chemical weathering.
____ and _____ pyramids portray the relative amounts of energy or biomass at different trophic levels.
Energy and Biomass
A liquid or gas fuel made from plant material (biomass).
extinction vortex
A pattern in which a small population that drops below a certain size may decrease even further in size, perhaps spiraling towards extinction; an extinction vortex results from the vulnerability of small populations to chance genetic, demographic, and environmental events.
What factors make a habitat suitable? (Abiotic)
Abiotic(nonliving)features of envrnment:
moisture, temperature, sunlight,
soil pH, salt concentration, and available nutrients, set limits on whether a habitat will be suitable for a particular species.
A change in the nutrient status of an ecosystem from nutrient poor to nutrient rich; such a change may occur naturally in some lakes due to the accumulation of sediments, but it may also be caused by anthropogenic nutrient inputs.
The efficiency of energy transfer from one trophic level to the next is determined by ____ quality and the ______ of consumers.
food equality
physiology of consumers.
biological crust
A soil crust composed of a mix of species of cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses; also called a cryptobiotic or cryptogamic crust.
mean residence time (turnover rate)
The amount of time an average molecule of an element spends in a pool, such as a plant or the soil, before leaving it.
Concept 8.1
Populations are ___ entities that vary in size over time and space.
Geographic Range
Concept 8.3
Many species have a ____ ____ of populations across their geographic range.
patchy distribution
Nutrient-rich; characterized by high primary productivity. Compare oligotrophic.
Brown trout ____ total invertebrate density by 40% more than the galaxias did.
The progressive concentration of a substance in an organism’s body over its lifetime.
The geographic area where individuals of a species are present.
A structural compound that strengthens plant tissues.
Some organisms, such as migratory birds, are components of ____ food webs.
Most food webs ___ include other types of interactions, such as pollination.
The high ____ of autotroph biomass in aquatic ecosystems can result in biomass pyramids that are inverted relative to energy pyramids.
The rate of recovery after a disturbance.
trophic pyramid
A common approach to conceptualizing trophic relationships in an ecosystem in which a stack of rectangles is constructed, each of which represents the amount of energy or biomass within one trophic level.
taxonomic homogenization
A worldwide reduction of biodiversity resulting from the spread of non-native and native generalists coupled with declining abundances and distributions of native specialists and endemics.
Dispersion within Populations
Concept 8.4
The dispersion of individuals within a population depends on the location of _____ _____, _____, and ________ _________.
essential resources, dispersal, behavioral interactions.
Dispersal limitation can also ____ populations from expanding to _____ _____ of apparently suitable habitat.
nearby areas
A process by which certain bacteria convert nitrate (NO₃⁻) into nitrogen gas (N₂) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) under anoxic conditions.
The study of the physical, chemical, and biological factors that influence the movements and transformations of chemical elements.
atmospheric deposition
The movement of particulate and dissolved matter from the atmosphere into ecosystems by gravity or in precipitation.
If production by Piper trees was ____ primarily by resource supply, the beetle predator should have ____ effect.
intermediate disturbance hypothesis
A hypothesis proposing that species diversity in communities should be greatest at intermediate levels of disturbance because competitive exclusion at low levels of disturbance and mortality at high levels of disturbance should reduce species diversity.
assimilation efficiency
The proportion of ingested food that is assimilated by an organism.
umbrella species
A surrogate species selected with the assumption that protection of its habitat will serve as an “umbrella” to protect many other species; often a species with large or specialized habitat requirements or which is easy to count.
The number of individuals in a species that are found in a given area; _____ is often measured by population size or population density.
A behavioral pattern in which young animals postpone breeding and instead help their parents raise offspring.
cooperative breeding
parent material
The rock or mineral material broken down by weathering to form a soil; usually the bedrock underlying the soil.
Detritus is consumed by many organisms, including ____, & ___, such as the common wood louse.
Most of the NPP in terrestrial & aquatic systems ends up as ____.
fungi, & crustaceans
driver and passenger hypothesis
A hypothesis proposing that the strengths of the effects of species’ ecological functions on their communities vary dramatically, such that “driver” species have a large effect on community function, while “passenger” species have a minimal effect.
surrogate species
A species selected as a priority for conservation with the assumption that its conservation will serve to protect many other species with overlapping habitat requirements.
The actual abundance of a population or species.
absolute population size
The 2nd law of thermodynamics states that during any _____ _ ___, some is lost due to the tendency toward an increase in disorder (entropy). Energy will ___ with each trophic level.
transfer of energy,
(a proportion of the biomass at each trophic level is not consumed, & a proportion of the energy at each trophic level is lost in the transfer to the next trophic level.)
trophic cascade
A change in the rate of consumption at one trophic level that results in a series of changes in species abundances and species compositions at lower trophic levels.
The amount of production in an ecosystem can be viewed as being controlled by limiting resources (____ _____) or by controls exerted on the composition & abundance of autotrophs due to consumption by ____ trophic levels.
(Bottom-up control)
higher (Top-down control)
%of NPP consumed by herbivores
On avg, about ___% of terrestrial NPP is consumed;
in aquatic ecosytems, an avg of about __% NPP is consumed.
Only a small proportion of NPP is consumed by herbivores.
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