Ecology Definitions Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Figure 12.8
la pureza
Recycles organic matter.
Any living thing
la capa de ozono
Table 7.1 Increasing stress.
scientists that study ecology
collection of interacting populations
Evolution: Descent with modifications massive amount of evidence all over world, all taxa. Species changed over time=Evolution. Mechanism
eat both producers and consumers
the predictable sequential replacement of populations in an ecosystem
organism thats killed an eating
C3 plants leaf type
one kind
Nitrogen Cycle
the circulation of nitrogen
main energy source on Earth
the sun
A group of physically similar organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring
Lengthy, cold, wet winters, coniferous forests
female choice
females actively selected their desired males
organisms do this to their environments in different ways
an animal that only eats meat
nonliving parts of an organism's environment (examples: soil, light, water)
eats other organisms to obtain nutrients
the study of interaction between organisms and their enviornemt
animal that eats only dead organisms
numbered variety of species living within an ecosystem
Anything an organism needs to live
pores in tissue allowing gaseous exchange
a group people having approximately the same age
Animals move as --------- changes. When climate and seasons change
scramble competition
exploiting resources by using then up
the rate at which an individual produces offspring (birth rate)
a community of organisms and their abiotic environment
Produce less offspring and have long live span; large organisms
secondary succession
occurs when disturbance initiates the regeneration of a climax community
made up of many tissues working together
Exploitative competition
individuals use similar resources and thus deprive access of other resources
water moving from atmosphere to land and oceans
The amount of matter in an ecosystem
obligate mutualism
a mutualistic relationship in which species are so dependent upon the relationship that they cannot live in its absence.
Greenhouse effect
warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere
The physical place where an organism lives.
Allen's Rule?
animals in colder climates usually have shorter limbs than the equivalent animals from warmer climates
can removal cause a community to change
An organism that captures energy and stores it in food as chemical energy.
exponential growth
growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
population density
number of individuals per unit area
organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals
periodic shedding of the cuticle in arthropods or the outer skin in reptiles
Energy Flow
the sun, through the ecosystem, producers, consumers, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, decomposers
Trophic Structure of Pyramid
1) Producer
2) Consumer
3) Herbivore
4) Carnivore
5) Omnivore
6) Energy loss
the things that a kept the same
Ecological Succession
The progressive replacement of one community by another until a climax community is established.
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer.
_____ of the biosphere are green plants (by biomass)
an organism with identical pairs of genes with respect to any given pair of hereditary characters, and therefore breeding true for that character.
abiotic factor
a nonliving component of an ecosystem ex. air, water, temparature
niche overlap
situation in an ecosystem in which different species are in competition for the same resources; in a natural ecosystem this is typically zero or minimal
Density-Independent limiting factors
factors not related to population density (temperature, oxygen supply)
a group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
A long term strategy where an organism enters a state of reduced activity during unfavorable conditions
- one organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it, tapeworms in the intestines
non-renewable resource
A resource that cannot be replaced once it is used up.
Community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which those organisms interact.
organism that makes it own food (ex. green plants)
Name the Ecological Heiarchy from smallest to largest:
Species, Population, Community.
nonrenewable resource
materials found in nature that CANNOT be renewed or replaced
food web
a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains and show the relationships between organisms in an ecosystem
Eugene Odum (1913-2002)
"Father of Modern Ecology," explored ecosystem ecology
Carrying Capacity
largest number of individuals of a given population that a environment can support
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
an occasion on which a winner is selected from among two or more contestants
Müllerian mimicry
A mutual mimicry by two unpalatable species.
stimulus-response chain
behavior of one individual releases a behavior by another individual
any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food, or space
any animal that lives by preying on other animals
(in certain lakes) the layer of water below the thermocline.
Food Chain
Shows the flow of energy through an ecosystem.
1 (primary) consumer
consumers that eat producers to get energy
is an area that is populated mostly by grasses and other non-woody plants
Gause's principle:
Competitive exclusion principle:
two species competing for the same limiting resource in the same place can NOT coexist
What is the heirarchical organization of ecology starting from the top?
Biosphere, ecosystem, community, population and organism.
Industrial water use
uses- to manugacture goods, dispose of water, generate power. most is used to coll power plants
Photic zone
shallow, top layer of the ocean where enough light penetrates for photosynthesis to occur
Fall turnover
surface water drops to that of the cooler water and mixes, bringing nutrients to the surface
algal bloom
an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers that result from a large input of a limiting nutrient
no two organisms can occupy the same niche at the same time without there being competition for the niche
rule 2
intertidal zone
zone in oceans where the tide comes up and down
The Theory of Thomas Malthus
Because the human population is growing exponentially, while the available resources are only growing linearly, there will be a time where overpopulation will become inevitable, as there will not be enough available resources to support the human population
Seasonal transpiration variation
- western NC, plants transpire in july and au, water source is drier
- movement of water from high to low--soil, roots, out leaves to the air
what are 4 methods of determining population size observation, indirect observation, sampling and mark-and-recapture studies
What is a density-independent factor?
Affect ALL populations regardless of their density (abiotic-temperature, storms, floods, etc)
What are is the distinguishing characteristic of poikilotherms?
They are "cold-blooded"; they cannot metabolically maintain their heat
Examples: reptiles, fish, amphibians, invertebrates, and plants
In terms of life histories, what will be maximized by natural selection?
-greatest total reproductive value
-fewer a compromise for which the sum of current reproductive output plus expected value is greatest over the life time of the organism
environment is made up of two factors
abiotic facotrs: all non living things, example, temperature, soil, light, moisture
biotic: all living things
Snow Geese Hatching Time: Directional, Stabilizing, or Disruptive Selection?
Stabilizing. Eggs that hatch too early or too late are succeptable to predators, while eggs that hatch on time with rest of the colony increase individual likelihood of survival due to numbers.
T/F A cottonwood population with an age distribution with many old trees and few young trees can be expected to decline in numbers
T/F In the colonization cycle, drift of laarvae downstream can be countered by adults flying back up stream
what is an ectoparasite? what is an example?
lives on the outer body surface of its host. and example is orange rust fungus that grows on blackberry plant host
Water Cycle
to unplug
Cold-blooded; low PPR
Secondary consumer
3rd Trophic Level
the disciplines of ecology
breaks down organic matter
Carbon Sinks
-Primary Production
-Ocean Absorption
-Land Sinks
most prolific, incisors constantly grow, ex- mice
prominent horizontal banding of organisms that live in a particular habitat
feed on garbage/waste (scavengers, decomposers...)
Nitrous oxides
cities with dry climates
assemblages of different populations that live in a defined area
More nutrient rich water.
Pelagic Zone
pack pursuit
group of predators chasing prey
narrow layers of fast temperature changes
Close interaction between species in which one lives in or on the other
types of symbiosis
mutualism, commensalism and parasitism
native species
Original organisms in an ecosystem.
interaction where one organism feeds off another
Biotic factors
Living/ biological factors that influence on an organism in an ecosystem
- Food competitors, prey
living component or other organisms that in habit an enviroment.
Interspecific competition
Competition between members of different species
primary producers which support all trophic levels
limiting factors
food, water, shelter, space, climate
abiotic factors
nonliving components of the environment
process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
runaway selection (Fisher)
trait becomes reinforced generation after generation until it is greatly exaggerated; can be a dangerous burden; Irish Elk is an example
dense covering formed by the leafy tops of tall rain forest rees
rock that makes up the earths crust
Chemical Ecology:
The study of how chemicals
influence the abundance and distribution of organisms
organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer
secreat acids, break down rocks to sediments and carry out photosynthesis and put nutrients back into the soil
S-shaped curve
some populations will eventually slow their rate of growth when they begin to meet environmental resistance, reaching an equilibrium around the carrying capacity; Lag Phase at the bottom; Exponential Phase during the middle until it hits carrying capacity
dispersion patterns result from the...
distribution of resources
organisms in an environment that fill one specific role - and are the only ones to fill that role in their community
aposematic coloration
protection by being distasteful and advertising with warning colors
The bodily process of inhalation and exhalation
the preservation and wise use of natural resources
Ecological pyramids
Show the relationship between trophic levels; energy, biomass, numbers
natural variation
differences among individuals of a species; results from mutation and sexual reproduction
that which has mass and occupies space
aphotic zone
area where light does not reach
A mix of mineral particles, detritus, dissolved organic matter, water containing dissolved minerals and gases, and organisms that develops in terrestrial ecosystems.
Directional Selection
occurs when natural selection favors ONE of the extreme variations of a trait
Urban ecology
environmental field where peopel are challenged to increase biodiversity even in most heavily developed places
path of energy through trophic levels. one part of a food web; the specific sequence in which organisms obtain energy
food chain
relating to or marked by a severe deficiency of oxygen in tissues or organs
biome is an environment that has a characteristic climax communtiy
2types:land and aquatic
hox gene
development genes that lay out the body plan of an organism (master regulatory gene that controls anatomy
biotic factor
all the living things in a environment
les objects en plastique / en verre
plastic/glass objects
How many organisms usually make up a food chain
Malthusian Parameter
Rate of increase assumed by population with stable age distribution
population size
symbolically represented by n; is the total number of individuals in the population
one member benefits and the other is not affected. ex) barnacles and whale
endemic species
occur in one area and nowhere else
Density independent factors
Limiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways, regardless of population size.
The study of the past and present distribution of species.
heterotrophs, consumers
organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy & food supply
group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities
a disaster caused by changes in the environment
point source pollution
Comes from one particular point (sewer pipe, drain).
biological control
A method of pest control that involves the use of naturally occurring disease organisms, parasites, or predators to control pests
Deserts, mountains, and rivers are all examples of ________.
the greenhouse effect
dimictic lake
A lake that mixes twice per year, usually in temperate regions where temperature change with seasons causes the water to stratify in the summer, and mix in the spring and fall.
Rank Abundance Curve
A graph that plots the proportional abundance of each species in a community relative to the others in rank order, from most abundant to least abundant.
We are destroying soil but __, __, and __
Of the high risk factors associated with local extinctions of plant and animal species, which is the most pervasive?
Small habitat area.
closer islands are
easier to reach thus support higher immigration rates
What is mark-recapture?
Create a known population by tagging individuals, release them back into the wild, try to catch them again.
third (law of thermodynamics)
all molecular movement stops at absolute zero (-273 degrees celcius)
biological population
a group of one species in a habitat
trophic level
each level in a food chain or food web
Pyramid of energy is...
Shows the relative amount of energy available at the trophic levels in an ecosystem.
pyramid of energy
each member of a food chain utilizes some of the energy it obtains from its food for its own metabolism and loses some as heat
How do scientists use modeling?
To gain insight into complex phenomena such as the effects of global warming on ecosystems. They consist of a mathematical formula from data.
possible causes of carrying capacity
1. war 2. natural disaster 3. disease
Order of light penetration through water
-red goes shallowest (because it has the largest wavelength and lowest energy)
-green goes a little deeper
-blue goes the deepest (because it has a small wavelength and lots of energy)
Note: turbidity can affect how deep certain wavelengths of light penetrate
What is the "Tesla" car?
A hybrid car that gets 135 goes 250 miles on a single charge
What is the equation for Q(x), mortality rate, in a horizontal life table?
D(x) / L(x) * 1000 = Q(x)
large area
biogeochemical cycles
organism eats plants
living and non-living components
substrate found in fens
el efecto invernadero
greenhouse effect
close relationship between two species. 3 types: parasitism, commensalism, mutualism
phylogenies that show true evolutionary relationships use characters that are _________
population dynamics
population size-age structure (number)
population density- distribution (humans per area)
relationship between two organism both of them benefit ex. flower and bees
batesian mimicry
copycat coloration, one harmless animal mimics the coloration of another that is poisonous
wastes and remains of dead organisms
physiological adaptation
how the body works internally
movement of individuals INTO a population
Far northern biome; cold and flat
Behavioral Ecology
Study of social relationships, interactions between organisms and their environment mediated by behavior
true predator
kill it and eat it
volatile compounds
Chemical compounds that easily vaporize, usually producing an odor.
The evenness with which individuals are distributed among species in a community.
Social behavior
all interactions between individuals of the same species, from cooperation to antagonism
When an organism leaves a population
Growth of populations with overlapping generations uch that it can always be changing in size
presence of an extra set of chromosomes due to accidents in cellular division
total # of individuals in a population, represented by N
comparative method
a method for reconstructing evo. processes and mechanisms that involves comparisons of different species or populations in a way that attempts to isolate a particular v ariable or characteristic of interest, while randomizing the influence of confounding, or confusing, variables on the variable of interest across the species of populations in the study
Water moves into the atmosphere by evaporation from the levels
The overall geographic area where one species can be found.
aquatic biomes
largest portion of biosphere, water covers roughly 75% of the globe containing fresh water and marine water (biomes)
tertiary consumer
An organism that eats secondary consumers
any number of insects whose larvae live within and consume their host, usually another insect
organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter
the factors that the scientist keeps the same so they do not affect the results in an experiment
science of grouping organisms based on relationships
sharing of natural resources between species
resource partitioning
exponetional growth
in ideal situations, populations will grow by and exponential factor
resources partitioning
Live in same geographic area, same habitat, use it at same time of day, but exploit the resource in a different way
conservation biology
a branch of biology concerned with preserving biodiversity in natural areas
When an organism consumes another organism, both ____________ are passed on.
matter and energy
continuum index
j.t. curtis and R.P. Mcintosh ordered the mature forest communities of sw wisconsin along a____________
Mullerian Mimicry
when a species mimics another harmful species and both species are harmful
Interference Competition
Occurs between 2 or more individuals but doesn't necessarily impact the rest of the population.
Limiting factor
an external factor that limits the success of organisms living in a particular area
Host Response to Parasitism - Biochemical Responses
-inflammation (phagocytes, lymphocytes, leukocytes, etc)
-immune response
the slowing or stopping of a plant process by light. negative effect that can be the result of "overloading" the processes involved in the light reactions
Inducible defense
defense traits that are produced only in response to the presence of a predator
primary consumers
animals that feed on producers; ex. herbivores
open ocean
body of water with least temperature variation
Web Parameters
S: count number of prey and predators
Possible Interactions: square number of interactions
Actual Links: count number of arrows (two-sided arrow = count two times)
Connectance: Actual Links / Possible Interactions
Link Density: Actual links / S (number of prey in food web)
oxygen cycle
The pathways through which oxygen is circulated through the biosphere.
cat-bird-fish-sea grass is a sign of which
food chain
Pioneer Species
The first species to populate an area.
local scaling
-level of cycling within the immediate environment
Density Independent
does not depend on the number of organisms present
food chains show
flow of energy, what eats what, etc.
2 ways in which water enters the atmosphere in the water cycle?
percipitation, transpiration
cellular respiration
All heterotrophs have to eat to get glucose, which they break down in ______________ ________________.
A spider traps a fat fly in her web.
Three fundamental ecological concepts that sustainable farmers should know
Biodiversity- (The higher the biodiversity of a system, the more stable it is)
Succession- (So they can understand how to return their farms to nature when they are no longer in use)
Biomes and Ecoregions- (So they better understand the type of vegetation that it suited to grow in the area they are farming)
10% rule
each trophic level receives 10% of the energy from the level before.
Biological Succession
The orderly replacement of one kind of life by a more complicated one
The region in a body of water that divides the warmer, oxygen-rich surface layer from the colder, oxygen-poor deep water
The split up occurs in the summer.
Fundamental Niche
the full range of conditions that a species can tolerate and resources it can use
Metabolism involves either/or...
using energy to build molecules or breaking down molecules in which energy is stored.
environmental protection laws
wide body of both federal and state law designed to protect the quality of our earth, water, and air
angle of incidence
angle between the incident ray and the normal
ecological disturbance
can have a broad effect on many living things
randomly arranged community structure
- inds live wherever resources are available
survivorship curve
A plot of the number of members of a cohort that are still alive at each age; one way to represent age-specific mortality.
net primary production (NPP)
total dry weight of new biomass added over the course of one year. gives us a rough yardstick to compare the productivity of different types of ecosystems
What are the characteristics for Heterotrophs?
Also known as consumers because they rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply.
How does latitude affect climate?
the closer you get to the North or South poles, the less energy the region gets from the sun and the colder the climate. Season changes also have to do with latitude
What did the models and field studies suggest about the American pika and it's three subpopulations?
What does the study illustrate?
Within the metapopulation as a whole, the northern network acts as a net source of colonizers that prevent the middle network from suffering overall extinctions. These in turn delay extinction in, and allows recolonization of, the southern network. The study therefore illustrates how whole metapopulations can be stable when their individual subpopulations are not. Moreover, the comparison of the northern and middle networks, both stable but at very different occupancies, shows how occupancy may depend on the size of the pool of dispersers, which itself may depend on the size and number of the subpopulations. Finally, the southern network, in particular, emphasizes that the observable dynamics of a metapopulation may have more to do with 'transient' behavior, far from any equilibrium.
Degradative succession
food quality 20-50%
photoautotrophs and chemoautotrophs
soil + decaying matter
Logistic growth
S shaped curve
Oraganisms cannot silmultaneously maximize all aspects of life's functions. Allocation is a compromise between competing demands
species that eat only meat
Tertiary Consumers
Level Four trophic level
evaporation of water through plants
Physiological adjustment that occurs gradually in response to an environmental change
Species diversity
species richness and evenness
shop locally
sisseoste kohalikus poes tegema
competition between members of the same species
Multicellular life evolved at least how many times?
advocationg for the protection or preservation of the natural environment
sex that produces larger, more energetically costly gametes
monitored plant pollen deposited in lake sediments in Aplichaian Mnts, and documents large temproal changes to nearby plants
what are adaptions?
inherited characteristics that increase the organisms ability to survive
partly enclosed coast regions where seawater mixes with nutrient-rich fresh water from rivers, streams, and runoff.
one male mates with several females
pertaining to, growing in, or inhabiting mountainous regions
streams travel fat, meaning they have little amount of nutrients but a high amount of dissolved oxygen
sound science
used to descripe scientific research by politicians etc
reduction in water pot. due to dissolved substances in plant tissues; water diffuses along its conc. grad. from high in soil to more dilute inside plant roots
a testable explanation for a specific problem or question, based on what has already been learned
metapopulation models
describe a set of subpeopulatrion occupying patches of a particular habitiat tuype between whic individuals move occasionally.
decrease in the rate of important physiological processes, lowering potential for survival, growth, or reproduction.
Life History Event
Examples: age at first reproduction, age at sexual maturity, number of offspring.
food webs
Any complex pathway along which energy moves among many species at different trophic levels of an ecosystem.
Carbon cycle
cycle in which volcanic activity and burning fossil fuels play a role
biological clock
the internal mechanism of an organism that controls circadian rhythms without external time cues
Nitrogen Fixation
The process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia.
Species that breed two or more times in their life.
Gross Primary Production (GPP)
Solar energy assimilated by plants
pH scale
measures acidity of a solution; 0 (most acidic) <----> 7 (neutral; pure water)< ----> 14 (most basic or alkaline)
kind of organisms in the soil involved in every part of the nitrogen cycle
lag phase
The beginning slow part of population growth
analogous structures
Are structures that are similar in unrelated organisms. These structures are similar because they evolved to do the same job, not because they were inherited from a common ancestor.
exploitation competition
A form of competition that revolves around the superior ability to gather resources rather than an active interaction among organisms for these resources.
invasive species
plants and animals that have migrated to areas where they did not originate; often displace native species by outcompeting them for resources
use of antibiotics:other misuses
- antibacterial soaps- dumping antibiotics into water systems
Capture and recapture method
good for mobile, secretive (nocturnal) animals
age structure population
proportion of individuals in each age class
high specific heat
capacity to absorb heat energy without change in temperature
windward side
The side of the mountain that is wet
Functional Response
if ou gradual increase the amount of food available to an hungry animal, the rate of feeding increases then levels off.
population growth rate
explains how fast a given population grows
Doubling time
The number of years it takes a population to double in size.
neritic zone
the area of ocean from the low-tide line out to the ege of the continental shelf. some light reaches coral reefs abundant
spring overturn
sun warms the lake surface but until it gets over 4 degrees celsius it tends to sink into the cooler layer and vertical mixing occurs
In a predator prey relationship who is killed?
Answer: Prey
climate vs. weather
Weather is what conditions of the atmosphere are over a short period of time, and climate is how the atmosphere behaves over relatively long periods of time.
Life Expectancy at Birth
The predicted average length of life at birth
Acid precipitation
rain, snow, sleet, and fog with low pH values
G. F. Gause
The first to study competition in the lab.
__% of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas (__), but most producers can only use nitrogen in the form of compounds such as ________ (NH4+) and ________(NO3-and NO2-)
80, N2, ammonium, nitrates
Mutualism. The pronuba moth is responsible for fertilization of the yucca and the yucca allows the moth to raise its young.
What is the symbiotic relationship between the pronuba moth and the yucca plant?
primary succession
- a comm begins to develop on a site previously unoccupied by living organisms- pioneer species (ex: shrubs)- little nutrients in soil- r strategists
in and ecosystem, what are the tertiary consumers?
the tertiary consumers are carnivorous animals that eat bpth secondary and primary consumers.
What factors dictate the number of females a male can monopolize?
secually active period.
how many can control;defend against others
What assumptions did Levins make for the metapopulation equation?
1. there is a very large number of identical habitat patches
2. all patches have an equal chance of receiving colonists (hence the spatial arrangemetn of the patches does not matter)
3. all patches have an equal chance of extinction
4. once a patch is colonized, itsd population increases to its carrying capacity much more rapidly than the rates at which extinction and colonization occur (which allows population dynamics within patches to be ignored).
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