Ecology Review Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
hetero-
different
r
ln(R)/G
heterotroph
find food
primary consumer
herbivore
Desert
driest land biome
Producer
something that produces
Gross Production
Production/ Ingestion
Niche
role in an ecosystem
omnivores
eat plants and animals
demograpghy
study of human population
habitat
Place where an Organism lives
lag phase
Period of slow growth
Symbiotic relationships
1.Parasitism(+,-)- One organisms benefits, one is harmed. Parasite lives on or in another organism and uses it for food and shelter. Host is harmed but not killed. Ex: Tapeworm, fleas, lice, fungus, Ticks.
Herbivore
A Herbivore only eats plants
grazing
act of feeding on plants
False
Desert have a high biodiversity
dispersion
spatial distribution of individuals within a population
Chemicals designed to kill pests
Pesticides
Consumer
Heterotroph, obtains energy by feeding on other organisms.
Iteroparous
Having the capacity to reproduce multiple times in a lifetime.
Polygamous
One individual mates with several individuals of the opposite sex
Narrow Spectrum
Affects specific species
Pro: kills what is needed to be killed
Con: not powerful, more expensive, takes more time
Biome
collection of related ecosystems. EX: tundra, deserts, oceans (marine biome), tropical forest, etc.
Nigh and Schroeder
4 ecological sections (subsections)
osage plains, mississippi alluvial basin, central dissected till plains, ozarks highlands
Water Cycle
Rain, evaporation, condensation, snow are part of this cycle
acclimation
Physiological adjustment to a change in an environmental factor.
What are Tertiary Consumers
3rd level consumers
ecology
studying how organisms interact with the environment, helps scientists make decisions about the environmental issues such as managing forests, endangered species, natural resources etc.
Environmental Gradient
A gradually changing environmental factor.
Atom
(physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
community
all the different populations living together
Decomposers
An organism that decomposes organic material as a food source.
sysmbiosis
an interaction between organisms of different species living in close proximity to each other in a relationship that lasts over time.
Epiphyte
Plant that grows on other plants
Respiration
process that makes water and carbon dioxide and uses glucose and oxygen
ecosystem
community of living things plus the nonliving features of the environment that support them
captive breeding
a management technique that involves the planned breeding of a captive population, usually with the intent of releasing individuals back into the wild someday
food pyramid
consists of producers and several trophic levels - denotes biomass in each level
Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen enters the cycle as atmospheric nitrogen or through nitrogen fixation
biomes
a broad, regional type of ecosystem characterized by distinctive climate and soil conditions and a distinctive kind of biological community adapted to those conditions.
omnivore
organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals
climograph
a plot of the temperature and precipitation in a region
Natural Resource
any naturally producing material used for humans
population
group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
mutualism
a relationship between two species in which both species benefit
Lotka-Volterra Equations
Mathematical equations and models that describe population growth under a variety of conditions.
natal territory
territory where an individual was born
conduction
The transfer of sensible heat through the exchange of kinetic energy by molecules in direct contact with one another.
biotic factors
the living parts of an ecosystem
abiotic
part of the environment consistsof the nonliving factors,such as water, soil, light, and temperature
clumped
individuals live in areas of high local abundance, which are separated by areas of low abundance; attraction b/w individuals or attraction of individuals to a common resource
polar ice
the biome characterized by the presence of permanent ice and no significant vegetation; occurs at the North and South Poles
primary succession
succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists
k
the maximum population size that an environment can support
Commensalisms
one species benefits the other is unaffected
Species
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
animals that eat animals that have already died (carrion)
scavengers
What is the Secondary Gross Production Efficiency for plants?
2%
food web
a diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem
Ferrell Cell
In between Hadley Cell and Polar Cell.
Competition
- something that will happen in a population. -org. will compete over food, water, mates, place to live, ect. - intaspecific competition. -interspecific competition
Stochastic process
A process in which can cause population size to vary even in a constant environment. (pg. 260)
ammonification
part of the nitrogen cycle in which nitrogen is not obtained from the atmosphere
Uniform Distribution
A rare type of population distribution where the population is equally spread out.
Resource Partitioning
Species feeding on a resource in different places, or partitions, presumably to avoid interspecific competition.
ecotone
transition from one type of habitat or ecosystem to another
Mechanical weathering
The physical breakdown of rocks into progressively smaller particles without a chemical change.
Survivorship
Percent of members of a group that will remain to a given age
Kite Diagram
Used to show zonation along a gradient.
reproductive effort
allocation of energy, time, and other resources to the production and care of offspring
Why there are so many types of organisms
diversity
population size
number of individuals making up its gene pool
photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to power chemical reactions that convert H2O and CO2 into O2 and high energy carbohydrates such as sugar and starch
Ozone depletion
thinning of Earth's ozone layer caused by CFC's leaking into the air
The _____ is the oldest island on Earth
Galapagos
gross primary productivity
rate at which producers in an ecosystem capture the energy of sunlight by producing organic compounds
Carrying Capacity
largest # of individuals in a species that an environment that can support long-term
Greenhouse effect
The trapping of heat in the earth's atmosphere by gases called greenhouses gases.
tripled 2 6
the human population has _____ since 1930 from _billion to _billion in 1999
Pioneer species
those that are the first to invade open land
Clumped Dispersion
Refers to clumps of individuals of the same species scattered throughout the range of that species
condensation
the process by which a gas changes to a liquid
primary pollutant
a pollutant that is put directly into the air by human activity
Carbon Cycle
he cycle of carbon through the Earth"s biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere that includes such processes as photosynthesis, decomposition, and respiration
El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
Periodic lack of cold-water upwelling disrupts air circulation over Pacific, increases rainfall over Americas, drought over Oceania
Desert Biome
low rain, hot or cold, dry, nocturnal animals, plants have adapted to hold water inside, animals to camouflage, reptiles cold blooded.
food webs
tries to explain all the feeding and all the feeding relationships at each trophic level in a community. It is more realisitc than a food chain since most organisms feed on more that one organism
What is secondary succession?
Establishment of an ecosystem after a natural disaster.
recruitment, fecundity, harvesting
MSY is flawed because ________ is a complex process, involving adult survival, ________, juvenile survival and juvenile growth. And because typically ________ targets a subset of the population e.g. large individuals
Rule of 10
only about 10 percent of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level
third chick disadvantage
in birds that produce three young, the last or third chick is the smallest in the brood and subject to higher mortality from starvation or siblicide.
Mass Extinction
dying off of a large number of species due to natural catastrophe (volcano, hurricane, meteor impact)
Tropical Rain Forest
Humid ; warm and wet ; rains almost everyday
Coughing up Clues
The lab in which we dissected an owl pellet.
What are the four "density dependent" limiting factors?
Available "necessities of life" (food, water, etc.), competition, predators, disease.
Importance of lichens to environment in succession
break down rocks into nutrients, first things to happen in succession
Why are food webs better to show energy flow than food chains
Food webs show all the interconnections and that consumers consume more than one thing. It shows that ecosystems are connected
What is so special about Hawii biomes?
out of the 10 mentioned, Hawii has 8; the largest number in such a small area
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