Ecology Unit Test Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
el planeta
cold zone
Trees dispersal
100-400 m/y
Eats only plants
study of living things
niche, n-dimensional hypervolume, where n equals the number of environmental factors important to the survival and reproduction by a species.
Most basal animal phylum
nitrogen in waste is decomposed
the unconsolidated layer of rock
exploitative competition
reducing competitor's food supply
influenced by atmospheric gas concentration such as CO2
study of relationships between organisms and their environment
Oligotrophic lakes
Oxygen rich, nutrient poor
Any organism capable of self-nourishment by using inorganic materials as a source of nutrients and using photosynthesis or chemosynthesis for nutrition.
nitrogen fixation
incorporation of atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen compunds that can be used by plants
Resource partitioning
different species pursue slightly different niches to minimize competition and maximize success
of or relating to living organisms
nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate
environmental component used by a living organism
Denitrifying Bacteria
Turn nitrates into nitrogen gas.
Biomes: Grasslands
irregular precipitation. hot dry summer/ cold winters. rich, deep soil. grasses and few trees grow there. Rodents, prairie dogs, lions, giraffes, rhinos, antelope, elephants, and hawks live there.
a belief that can guide behavior
extrafloral nectary
nectar-secreting glands found on structures other than flowers, such as leaves.
prevailing weather locations at a locality
The spatial arrangement of individuals within a population.
process in which fixed nitrogen compounds are converted back into nitrogen gas and returned to the atmosphere
Core Habitat
Little human influence, greater diversity, darker, more humid, less wind, quiet
ecological system, consists of a community and all the physical aspects of its habitat
Determines light and photosynthesis in aquatic ecosystems
interaction between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is largely unaffected
-An Ultimate Causationa
In the past, birds that fly south are more reproductively successful.
extrinsic limiting factors
act from outside the population
an organism that hunts for food (another organism)
An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
The evaporation of water from soil plus the transpiration of water from plants.
ecological succession
a seies of more-or-less predictable changes that occur in a community over time
Prey Adaptation
- Retreat (run away), camouflage, warning coloration (scare off predator), poison, mimicry (looks like somethign else), spines, thorns.
when alleles occupying the same locus on homologus chromosomes are the same
a large region characterized by a climate and animal and plant communities
biological magnification
increasing concentration of a harmful substance in organisms at higher trophic levels in a food chain or food web
an organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of chemical compounds
neritic zone
the ocean subarea over teh continential shelf
groups of different populations in the same place at the same time
The regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth where living organisms exist.
Gender Allocation
most studies conducted on mammals, variations in physical condition or social rank of mother
the quantitative estimate of the total amount of living material (mass of organisms per unit area)
Solving Lotka-Volterra for no growth
dn₁/dt=0 when N₁=K₁-α₁₂N₂(or when N₁=0)
dn₂/dt=0 when N₂=K₂-α₂₁N₁(or when N₂=0)
Interaction in which two or more species use the same limited resource
Abiotic Factors
The nonliving parts of an ecosystem
in acidic soil in cool moist temperatre region, clay particles break dwon in the E horizon and ions are transported downward with water and depositied in the B horizon. this reduces the fetility of upper layers
spiny leaves
limit water loss in desert plants
All the different factors, both biotic and abiotic, that affect an organism in its habitat
divided or dividing into two sharply distinguished parts or classifications
biogeochemical cycle
process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another.
constitutive defense
a defense which is always active
exponential growth
growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
True or false: Europe and Asia purchase waste paper from the US
population ecology
the stufy of populations in relation to the environment, including environmental influences on population density and distribution, age structure, and variations in population size
global warming
burning fossil fuels → ↑ CO₂₂ → air absorbs lots of inferred radiation → temp ↑ → ice caps melt → cities drown
Tropic level
A feeding level in a food chain
gene flow
exchange of genes among populations as a result of the migration/dispersal of individuals and/or gametes
energy pyramid
way of showing how energy moves through a food chain
survivorship curve
graph showing rates of survival at different ages
carrying capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that the environment can support
The status of an organism within its environment and community.
the diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole)
take in energy when they feed on producers
Factors that effect climate
Greenhouse effect, wind, ocean currents, precipitation, landmass shape & elevation and sunlight
mullerian mimicry
evolution of two species, both of which are unpalatable and, have poisonous stingers or some other defense mechanism, to resemble each other
Secondary Succession
when a disturbance of some kind changes an existing
community without removing the soil.
(1) Change in allele frequencies in a population over time. (2) Descent with modification; the process by which organisms gradually accumulate differences from their ancestors.
Any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food, or space.
ALL the members of a species are DEAD.
cell respiration
the series of chemical reactions by which a living cell breaks down carbohydrates and obtains energy from them
species diversity
type of biodiversity: as more species are lost, diversity decreases and as we have learned species diversity can affect other species
Secondary compounds
Chemicals that aren't part of any pathway in a plant, but are instead used for plant defense (usually by tasting bad). These are the foundation of many medicines.
Population Decline
the decrease in the number of individuals in a population
plants capture energy from the sun to make food
Three responses to environmental changes
Acute response: immediate response
Acclimatization: change in physiology to adjust set points in relation to prolonged changes in the environment
Evolutionary adaptation: appendix
implies that the living system is able to resist external fluctuations
What two HDCs recycle the most?
Japan and Europe
What are abiotic factors?
The non-living factors of the environment.
Biotic Factors
An influence or effect created by an organism.
Limnetic zone
The area of a lake where light penetrates down to a lower boundary at the light compensation point.
Trophic Levels
Step in the movement of energy through an ecosystem; an organism's feeding status in an ecosystem.
are animals such as deer, that feed on plants
nitrogen-fixing bacteria
bacteria that can use nitrogen in soil to make nitrogen compounds
Grassland Savvanahs examples
none in SA
toughest monkeys of Africa - baboons (ethiopia + yemen)
Reproductive Potential
Rate at which a specices can increase population
Food Chain
Path of food from one species to another.
pyramid of biomass
an ecological model that shows the number of organism at each tropic level multiplied by their mass
Trophic Level
step in the movement of energy through an ecosystem; an organism's feeding status in an ecosystem.
ozone depletion
a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total volume of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (the ozone layer) since the late 1970s, and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's polar regions during the same period
form of nitrogen that is the only form some organi
living space, air, water, sunlight, food, and shelter
6 needs of living thing
Functional Group
A subset of the species in a community that function in similar way, but do not necessarily use the same resources.
Mixed-species foraging flock
Have higher rates of food capture than solitary birds; specialize in different feeding zones
What is volcanic heat?
Lots of gas and magma released creating heat
death rate
the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area
What is the definition of ecosystem?
Answer: the community of organisms that live in a particular area, along with their non-living surroundings
What impact can air pollution have on the environment and organisms?
Can cause temperature inversions, creating the greenhouse effect. Plants/animals may die because of the increase in temperature and drought situations that may arise as a result. The health of humans may also be affected. Air pollutants can cause emphysema, cancer, asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia; may also cause nausea, headaches, hearing loss (in the case of noise pollution).
what is unique about the competition between tadpoles and adult frogs?
Adult frogs eat insects, tadpoles eat small creatures underwater.
Calculate the surface area to volume ratio
SA is number of sides multiplied by length x width.
Volume is length x width x height.
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