Emergency Uses of Drugs Flashcards

Lidocaine
Terms Definitions
What's the class is Dopamine?
Sympathomimetic
What's the generic name for Adrenalin?
Epinephrine
Bronchial asthma, acute allergic reaction, cardiac arrest, and profound symptomatic bradycardia.
There's lots.
Whats the generic name for Isoptin?
Verapamil
What's the trade name for Lidocaine?
Xylocaine
How is Epinephrine supplied?
1mg/mL (1:1000)0.1mg/mL (1:10,000)ampule and prefilled syringeand auto-injector (EpiPen) 0.5mg/mL (1:2000)
What's the trade name for Verapamil?
Isoptin
What's the maintenance infusion of Lidocaine after resuscitation from cardiac arrest for pediatric?
20-50mcg/kg/min (1-2.5mL/kg/hr)
Emergency Uses: DIMENHYDRINATE
Emergency Uses: To relieve nausea/vomiting associated with
motion sickness and narcotic use. Adult dose: 12.5−25 mg IV;
50 mg IM every 4 hr as needed. Pediatric dose: 1.25 mg/kg
every 4 hr up to 300 mg/day.
Emergency Use: METARAMINOL
Emergency Uses: To manage hemodynamically significant
hypotension not due to hypovolemia. Adult dose: 100 mg in
500 mL of D5W or NS titrated to BP response; 5−10 mg IM.
Pediatric dose: Not used.
Emergency Uses: DILTIAZEM
Emergency Uses: To control supraventricular tachydysrhythmias
(atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, PSVT refractory to
adenosine); to increase coronary artery perfusion in angina
pectoris. Adult dose: 0.25 mg/kg IV bolus over 2 min; if inadequate
response, may repeat in 15 min with 0.35 mg/kg, followed by a continuous infusion of 5−10 mg/hr (recommended
maximum dose: 15 mg/hr for 24 hr).
Emergency Use: METAPROTERENOL
Emergency Uses: To relieve bronchospasm in patients with
reversible obstructive airway disease (asthma, chronic bronchitis,
emphysema) and acute attacks of bronchospasm. Adult dose: 0.65 mg via metered-dose inhaler (2 sprays); 0.2−0.3 mL
in 2.5−3.0 mL saline via nebulizer. Pediatric dose: 0.1−0.2
mL/kg of 5% solution in 2.5−3.0 mL saline via nebulizer.
Emergency Uses: SUCCINYLCHOLINE
Emergency Uses: To facilitate endotracheal intubation. Adult
dose: 1.0−1.5 mg/kg IV/IM. Pediatric dose: 1.0−2.0 mg/kg
IV/IM.
What is the class of Albuterol?
Sympathomimetic, Bronchodilator, Beta2 agonist.
How is Albuterol supplied?
MDI: 90mcg/metered spraySolution for aerosolization: 0.5% (5mg/mL); 0.083% (2.5)mg in 3mL unit dose nebulizer
Emergency Uses: FUROSEMIDE
Emergency Uses: To treat acute pulmonary edema and congestive
heart failure. Adult dose: 40−120 mg slow IV. Pediatric
dose: 1 mg/kg slow IV.
Emergency Uses: HALOPERIDOL
Emergency Use: To manage acute psychotic disorders. Adult
dose: 2−5 mg IM. Pediatric dose: 0.05−0.15 mg/kg/day PO in
2−3 divided doses.
Emergency Uses: IBUTILIDE
Emergency Uses: To convert atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation
of relatively short duration. Adult dose: In patients weighing
more than 60 kg, 1 mg over 10 min IV. In patients weighing
less than 60 kg, 0.01 mg/kg IV. May repeat in 10 min if inadequate
response.
Emergency Uses: DOBUTAMINE
Emergency Uses: To increase cardiac output in congestive
heart failure/cardiogenic shock. Adult dose: 2−20 μg/kg/min
IV. Pediatric dose: Same as adult.
Emergency Uses: ENOXAPARIN
Emergency Uses: To inhibit clot formation in unstable angina
and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Adult dose: 1 mg/kg SC.
To treat pulmonary embolism: Adult dose: 0.5 mg/kg IV.
Emergency Uses: SOTALOL
Emergency Uses: To convert ventricular and supraventricular
dysrhythmias. Adult dose: 1−1.5 mg mg/kg IV at a rate of 10
mg/min. The oral dose is 80 mg PO bid or 160 mg PO QD
taken prior to meals. Pediatric dose: Not indicated.
Emergency Use: METOCLOPRAMIDE
Emergency Use: To relieve severe nausea and vomiting: Adult
dose: 10−20 mg IM; 10 mg slow IV (over 1−2 min). Pediatric
dose: 1–2 mg/kg/dose.
Emergency Use: NIFEDIPINE
Emergency Uses: To increase coronary artery perfusion in
angina pectoris; to manage severe hypertension. Adult dose:
10−20 mg capsule SL/PO. Pediatric dose: Not used.
Emergency Use: MILRINONE
Emergency Uses: Short term management of CHF. Adult
dose: Loading dose of 50 μg/kg IV over 10 min followed by
maintenance infusion of 0.375−0.75 μg/kg/min IV. Milrinone is
used occasionally to increase cardiac output and decrease systemic
vascular resistance in pediatric septic shock. Pediatric
dose: Loading dose of 50−75 μg/kg IV followed by an IV infusion
of 0.5−0.75 μg/kg/min.
Emergency Use: OXYTOCIN
Emergency Use: To control postpartum hemorrhage. Adult
dose: 3−10 units IM following delivery of the placenta; 10−20
units in 1000 mL of D5W or NS IV infusion titrated to the
severity of the bleeding. Pediatric dose: Not used.
Emergency Use: PANCURONIUM BROMIDE
Emergency Use: To facilitate endotracheal intubation. Adult
dose: 0.04−0.1 mg/kg IV. Pediatric dose: Same as adult.
Emergency Uses: PROCAINAMIDE
Emergency Uses: To convert ventricular fibrillation and pulseless
ventricular tachycardia refractory to lidocaine to sinus
rhythm. Adult dose: 20−30 mg/min IV infusion up to 17 mg/kg
loading dose. Maintenance dose is 1−4 mg/min. Pediatric
dose: 15 mg/kg IV/IO over 30–60 min.
Emergency Uses: PROCHLORPERAZINE
Emergency Uses: To relieve severe nausea and vomiting; to
manage acute psychosis. Adult dose: 5−10 mg IV/IM.
Pediatric dose: More than 10 kg or older than 2 yr: 0.13 mg/kg
IV/IM/PR (rarely used).
Emergency Uses: ISOPROTERENOL
Emergency Use: To increase cardiac output by increasing the
heart rate in symptomatic bradycardia refractory to atropine when
transcutaneous pacing is not available. Adult dose: 2−10 μg/min
titrated to rate. Pediatric dose: 0.1 μg/kg/min titrated to rate.
To dilate the bronchial tree in severe status asthmaticus:
Adult dose: 1−2 inhalations of MDI.
Pediatric dose: Same as for adult.
Emergency Uses: LIDOCAINE
Emergency Uses: To convert ventricular dysrythymias (ventricular
fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia) in cardiac arrest to
sinus rhythm. Adult dose: 1.0−1.5 mg/kg IV. Repeat every 3−5
min as needed up to 3 mg/kg. Following conversion, begin
infusion at 2−4 mg/min. Pediatric dose: 1 mg/kg IV. Repeat as needed every 3−5 min up to 3 mg/kg. Following conversion,
begin infusion at 20−50 μg/kg/min.
To convert ventricular tachycardia with a pulse to sinus rhythm.
Adult dose: 1.0−1.5 mg/kg slow IV. May repeat at one-half
dose every 5−10 min until conversion up to 3 mg/kg.
Following conversion, begin infusion at 2−4 mg/min. Pediatric
dose: 1 mg/kg IV followed by an infusion at 20−50 μg/kg/min.
Emergency Uses: PHENYTOIN
Emergency Uses: To control seizures, status epilepticus. Adult
dose: 10−15 mg/kg slow IV. Pediatric dose: 8−10 mg/kg slow IV.
To convert dysrhythmias induced by digitalis toxicity. Adult
dose: 100 mg slow IV (over 5 min) to a maximum loading
dose of 1000 mg. Pediatric dose: 3−5 mg/kg slow IV.
Emergency Use: MANNITOL
Emergency Use: To reduce acute cerebral edema. Adult dose:
1.5−2.0 g/kg slow IV infusion. Pediatric dose: 0.25−0.5 g/kg
IV over 60 min.
Emergency Uses: DIGOXIN
Emergency Uses: To increase cardiac output in congestive heart
failure and to stabilize supraventricular tachydysrhythmias, especially
atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. Adult dose: 0.25−0.5
mg slow IV. Pediatric dose: 10−50 μg/kg (age dependent) IV.
Emergency Use: ATENOLOL
Emergency Uses: To treat acute coronary syndromes including
non-Q-wave MI and unstable angina. Beta blockers also reduce
the incidence of ventricular fibrillation. Adult dose: 5 mg slow
IV (over 5 min); wait 10 min, then if the first dose is well tolerated,
give a second 5 mg slow IV (over 5 min). Pediatric
dose: 0.8−1.5 mg/kg/day PO (maximum 2 mg/kg/day).
What class is Verapamil?
Calcium channel blocker (class IV Antidysrhythmic)
Emergency Uses: KETOROLAC
Emergency Use: To relieve mild to moderate pain. Adult dose:
IV loading dose: 30 mg (15 mg if patient is older than 65 yr, or
weighs less than 50 kg). IM: 30−60 mg loading dose. Pediatric
dose: Rarely used.
Emergency Uses: STREPTOKINASE
Emergency Uses: To reduce infarct size in acute MI by thrombolysis.
Adult dose: 1.5 million units IV over 1 hr. Pediatric
dose: Not used
As a thrombolytic for clots in deep veins (DVT) and pulmonary
embolism. Adult dose: 250,000 units IV over 30 min
loading dose. Maintenance dose is 100,000 units/hr for 48−72
hr. Pediatric dose: Not used.
Emergency Uses: PROMETHAZINE
Emergency Uses: To relieve nausea and vomiting, motion
sickness; to potentiate the effects of analgesics; to induce sedation.
Adult dose: 12.5−25.0 mg IV/IM/PR. Pediatric dose: 0.5
mg/kg IV/IM/PR.
Emergency Uses: RACEMIC EPINEPHRINE
Emergency Use: To relieve subglottic edema in croup (laryngotracheobronchitis).
Adult dose: 0.25−0.75 mL of 2.25 solution in 2 mL normal saline via nebulizer. Pediatric dose: Same
as adult.
Emergency Use: NALOXONE
Emergency Uses: To reverse the effects of narcotic analgesics;
to manage coma of unknown origin. Adult dose: 0.4−2.0 mg
IV/IM, 2.0−2.5 times dose ET; may be repeated every 2−3 min
up to 10 mg until respirations are restored. Pediatric dose: 0.01
mg/kg IV/IM, 2.0−2.5 times dose ET; may be repeated every
2−3 min up to 10 mg until respirations are restored.
Emergency Use: MORPHINE
Emergency Uses: To relieve moderate to severe pain. Adult
dose: 2.5−15 mg IV; 5−20 mg IM/SC. Pediatric dose: 0.05−0.1
mg/kg IV; 0.1−0.2 mg/kg IM/SC.
To reduce venous return in acute MI and acute pulmonary
edema. Adult dose: 1−2 mg every 6−10 min until desired
response. Pediatric dose: Not used.
Emergency Use: MEPERIDINE
Emergency Uses: To relieve moderate to severe pain. Adult
dose: 25−50 mg IV; 50−100 mg IM. Pediatric dose: 1 mg/kg
IV/IM.
Emergency Uses: DIAZOXIDE
Emergency Use: To rapidly decrease BP in hypertensive crisis.
Adult dose: 1−3 mg/kg IV up to 150 mg given over 30 sec
repeated at 5−15 min intervals as needed. Pediatric dose: Same
as adult.
Emergency Uses: HYDROXYZINE
Emergency Uses: To manage an acute anxiety attack. Adult
dose: 50−100 mg deep IM. Pediatric dose: 1 mg/kg IM.
To control nausea and vomiting. Adult dose: 25−50 mg deep
IM. Pediatric dose: 1 mg/kg deep IM.
What are the indications for Epinephrine?
Bronchial asthma, acute allergic reaction, cardiac arrest, and profound symptomatic bradycardia.
1mg/mL (1:1000)0.1mg/mL (1:10,000)ampule and prefilled syringeand auto-injector (EpiPen) 0.5mg/mL (1:2000)
Strong, a little less strong, and in "pen" format.
Emergency Use: NITROUS OXIDE
Emergency Uses: To relieve pain of musculoskeletal origin
(especially fractures), burns, suspected ischemic chest pain,
and severe states of anxiety including hyperventilation. Adult
dose: Self-administered inhalation until pain is relieved or
patient drops mask. Pediatric dose: Same as adult.
Emergency Use: ADENOSINE
Emergency Use: To convert PSVT to a sinus rhythm in patients
refractory to common vagal maneuvers. Adult dose: 6 mg rapid
IV bolus (1−2 seconds) followed by a rapid saline flush; may
repeat in 1−2 min at 12 mg. May repeat one more time in 1−2
min at 12 mg. Pediatric dose: 0.1 mg/kg rapid IV bolus (1−2
seconds) followed by a rapid saline flush; may repeat once in 1−
2 min at 0.2 mg/kg. Maximum single dose is 12 mg.
Emergency Use: ACTIVATED CHARCOAL
Emergency Use: To treat acute ingested poison. Adult dose: 1
g/kg mixed with at least 6–8 oz water PO or via nasogastric
tube. Pediatric dose: Same as adult.
Emergency Use: ALTEPLASE RECOMBINANT (tPA)
Emergency Uses: To thrombolyse in acute myocardial infarction
and acute ischemic stroke. Adult dose: 15 mg IV, then 0.75
mg/kg (up to 50 mg) over 30 min, then 0.5 mg/kg (up to 35
mg) over 60 min. Pediatric dose: Not used.
To thrombolyse in pulmonary embolism. Adult dose: 100 mg
IV infusion over 2 hr.
Pediatric dose: Not used.
What is the pediatric dose of Epinephrine for anaphylactic reaction or bronchoconstriction?
Mild: 0.01mL/kg (1:1000) SQmax 0.3mLModerate to severe: 0.05-0.15mcg/kg/min IV infusion
What's the adult dose of Amiodarone for wide-complex tachycardia (maintenance infusion)?
540mg IV over 18 hr (0.5mg/min)
What's the initial adult dose for Epinephrine for pulseless arrest?
1mg (10mL, 1:10,000)IV push or 2-2.5mg ET diluted in 10mL NS, repeated every 3-5 min during resuscitation (follow each IV dose with a 20mL saline flush); higher doses (up to 0.2mg/kg) may be used if 1mg doses fail.
What is the adult dose of Lidocaine for cardiac arrest?
1-1.5mg/kg IV bolus or 2-2.5 times the IV dose ETconsider repeat in 3-5 min (max total dose 3mg/kg)
If you don't know this yet your not studying hard enough.
What are the indications for Epinephrine?
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