Cardiovascular System 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
low blood pressure
thoracic cavity
chest cavity
abnormally rapid heartbeat
disease of vessels
suffix meaning small
collection of blood
through the skin
accumulation of fluid
sudden convulsion or spasm
below-normal levels of oxygen
combining form for lung
usually caused by shivering
combining form for vein
combining form for vessel
combining form for sound
renal arteries
supply the kidney
smaller branches of arteries
blood flow through tissues
inflammation of the myocardium
Most common circulatory route?
throught the opening of vessel
instrument to measure blood presure
substances that increase urine excretion (caffiene is a diuretic)
heart block
interference with electrical conduction of the heart. heart block may be partial or complete and is graded in degrees based on the characteristics of the block.
deficient or less than normal
temporary suspension of respiration and circulation
ventricular end-diastolic volume or the volume of blood entering the right side of the heart;
instrument used to listen;
stetho- means chest
-scope means instrument to visually examine or monitor
contains 250million hemoglobins (each can carry 4 O2's and also CO2::: the combination called oxyhemoglobin) shaped biconcave for good SA
Small veins
-drain blood from capillaries
-join together to form veins
Cavities in an organ
-strongest pumping chambers
(vs atria)
Microscopic blood vessels
-one layer endothelial cells
-site of nutrient & gas exchange
Which has more smooth muscle?Veins/arteries?
radiographic study of the blood vessels and heart using contrast material
substance that kills larvae or juvenile heartworms
substance that kills larvae or juvenile heartworms
fluid accumulation in the peritoneal cavity seen in dogs secondary to CHF and other diseases
rapid, random, and ineffective heart contractions
ventricular systole
ventricular contraction which forces blood into the aorta and pulmonary arteris
pleural effusion
abnormal fluid accumulation between the layers of the membrane encasing the lungs and is seen in cats secondary to CHF (fluid accumulation can be relieved by diuretics)
depression where vessels and nerves enter an organ
Carry blood to the heart "visiting"
-walls thinner than arterial walls
-have valves to prevent backflow
Major portion of the heart
Made largely of cardiac muscle
Thickest portion of the heart
Veins carry blood _______ the heart
Arteries carry blood ________ the heart
accumulation of plaques within the walls of the arteries
pertaining to the heart and blood vessels
backflow; used to describe backflow of blood caused by imperfect closure of heart valves
localized area of necrosis caused by an interrupted blood supply
may be associated with movement or respiratory sounds
are things that narrow a vessel's diameter
subclavian artery
(named for it's location) located under the collarbone
are things that widen a vessel's diameter
crescendo murmurs
abnormal swooshing cardiac sounds that progressively increase in loudness
coronary veins
remove waste products from the myocardium
visceral layer
serous layer also called the epicardium
that lines the heart
Purkinje fibers
atypical cardiac muscle cells that alongside the SA node, establishes teh basic rhythm of the heart and is called the pacemaker of the heart.  Purkinje fibers are less developed in the atria and are usually associated with the ventricles.
without contraction or lack of heart activity; flat line on an ECG
atrial systole
atrial contraction that forces blood into the ventricles.
combining form for pressure or tension (used when describing blood pressure
doppler echocardiography
uses the differences in frequency between sound waves and their echoes to measue the velocity of a moving object
dilated (cardiomyopathy)
characterized by a thin-walled left ventricle aka congestive
cell fragments with no nucleus that forms clots
branches from to ateries and becomes capilaaries
Bicuspid Valve
Mitral valve
-AV valve between the Left Atrium & Left Ventricle
What's the most abundant waste product we make?
proteins found in plasma?
albumins, globulins, and firbrinogens
What does the T wave represent?
ventricles repolarizing
precapillary sphicters
surround the arterial ends of capillary beds. Can contract to cut off blood flow through the bed.
lymph ducts
when multiple lymph vessels merge together, lymph ducts return lymph to veins in the chest
when blockages occur in blood vessels serving the brain, and part of the brain tissue dies
metal paddles that deliver a strong electric current tot he chest, used to reverse fibrillation
mitral valve insufficiency
inability of the left atrioventricular valve to perform at the proper level; may be caused by fibrosis, endocarditis, or other conditions that occur in the mitral vlave area
act of listening to body sounds and usually involves the use of a stethoscope
external layer of the heart; also part of the serous layer of the pericardium.
coronary occlusion
blockage of the coronary vessels
(If the blood supply to the heart is disrupted, the myocarium cannot function)
blockage of a vessel by a foreign object
The rate and regularity of the heart rhythm which is modified by electrical impulses from nerves that stimulate the myocardium.
The heartbeat or cardiac cycle is an alternating sequence of relaxation and contraction of the heart chambers.
constricting band applied to a lumb to control bleeding or to assist in drawing blood
blockage in a vessel or passageway of the body
gamma globulin
fraction of the blood containing a wide variety of Abs
upper thin walled chamber in the heart that recieves blood
Explain the process of blood flow
1. Inferior-->superior vena cava2. right atrium -->tricuspid valve-->right ventricle3. Ventricles are full, tricuspid valve shuts off so that blood doesn’t flow backward into right atrium4. Blood leaves heart through pulmonary valve--> lungs5. oxygenated blood in lungs-->pulmonary arteries-->left atrium6. left atrium-->through open mitral valve--> left ventricle7. Left ventricle is full, Mitral valve shuts off to prevent backwards blood flow into left atrium8. left ventricle-->aortic valve-->aorta-->rest of body
What vein is used in CABG?
Define: erythrocytes
biconcave disks made by red bone marrow
Describe: thrombocytes
-platelets w/out a nucleus inbolved in clotting-come from cell called megakaryocyte-cell fragments
a membranous sac that holds a small quantity of lubricating liquid and surrounds the heart
Blood Pressure
the force of blood against arterial walls, created in part by the pulse of blood ejected from the contracting heart. Elasticity of artery walls dampens pulse, keeps BP steady.
central venous pressure
tension exerted by bloodin the cranial vena cava; abbreviated CVP. (monitored by catheterization)
cardiac output
volume of blood pumped by the heart per unit time. 
holosystolic or pansystolic
murmur that occurs during the entire ventricular contraction phase
Which structure of the intrincisic conduction system initiates heart/cardiac impulses?
Sinortrial or SA Node
Antigen (Ag):
A substance that causes the body to produce specific antibodies or sensitized T cells
Coronary Arteries
Artery that supplies blood to the wall of the heart (myocardium)
Peripheral Resistance
The resistance to flow between blood & the walls of a blood vessel
-the smaller/longer the blood vessel the greater the resistance
-higher the resistance, higher the blood pressure
Define: coronary arteries
thingy that feeds the heart muscle itself
What does your plasma consist of?
-92% water-Proteins albumins, globulins, and firbrinogens-Salts-Gases O2 and CO2-Nutrients: lipids, glucose, and amino acids-nitrogenous wastes: urea, uric acid-hormones-vitamins
What causes a heart murmur?
you have a leaky valve
This ring of muscle closes to shut down low priority places
precapillary sphincter
What are the names of the phases of the contraction and relaxation of the heart?
Arteries contain what fibers?What do they do for arteries?
elastinAllow them to expand/contract
the wave of blood that flows into an artery that corresponds with the contraction of the heart muscle
pulmonary artery
line from the right atrium to the lungs
coronary bypass surgery
procedure where new blood vessels are attached to the heart to carry blood past the blocked arteries
pulmonary semilunar valve
pulmonary valve
This valve is located between the right venticle and the pulmonary artery and controls blood entering the lungs.
Semilunar means half-moon, and this valve is shaped like a half moon.
Antibody (Ab)
A protein produced to an Ag, and one capable of combining with that ag and destroy it. It can attract other immune system cells, or can agglunate pathogens to form clumps Also called an immunoglobulin
how much of blood is cellular
45% cellular, other is fluid
Define: atrioventricular block
signal gets delayed too much going to ventricles: PR interval too long
layers of heart? Details please!!!
1. Endocardium = inner lining2. Mycocardium = muscle layer (largest layer)3. Epicardium = outer lining of heart4. Pericardium =membranous sac that produces pericardial fluid (lubrication, prevents friction)
myocardial infarction (MI)
when a blockage in a coronary artery restricts or stops blood flow
capillary refill time or crt
CRT can be obtained by applying pressure to mucouis membranes and timing how long it takes for the pink color to return
what are the cellular parts of blood
RBC (erythrocytes), WBC (leukocytes), platelets
two ways to treat angina?
balloon inserted into plaque area to break it up; sometimes a metal cage put in place (stent) to hold open area (temporary fix)CABG (coronary artery bypass gaft)uses the GREATER SAPHENOUS VEIN (temp control)in your leg used to bypass blocks of coronary artery
Steps of heart contraction and circulation of blood?
Heart > Arteries > Arterioles > Capillaries(cells)...oxygen poor > Veenules > Veins > Heart
How is circulation done in arthropods
open circulatory system: blood in in direct contact with tissues, circulated by movements, flows through dorsal vessels into a space called sinuses(where exchange occurs)
Where is our olympic training center? Why?
Colorado Springsless oxygen upon a mtn, makes more blood cells
What is the function of the right Atrium?
It recieves deoxygenated blood from the body
what is the difference between the left and right side of the heart
the left recieves and sends oxygenated blood, the right recieves and sends deoxygenated blood
1. The ______can control heart rate via ___ and ____ in the nervous system
1. The MEDULLA OBLONGATA can control heart rate via SYMPATHETIC and PARASYMPATHETIC in the nervous system
what kind of heart does the human have
4 chamber, 2 exits and 2 enterances
The vascular shunt is used by the body when...?
...when other parts of the body need blood.
blood vessel
Heart relaxation
genetically determined proteins
destruction of erythrocytes
Atrial Septal Defect
Pounding, racing heartbeat.
recording of electrical impulses of the heart [the record is called an electrocardiogram]
produced by treatment
left anterior descending
Endothelium (specialized simple squamous epithelial tissue) and areolar connective tissue
brachial veins
drain the forelimbs
ex. arteriol/itis - inflammtion of the arteriole
pertaining to the artery
Where are platelets stored?
Components of Whole Blood
Blood cells
common pathway
prothrombin activator cleaves prothrombin to thrombin

thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin threads

fibrin fibers form mesh around platelets to form clot
uncoordinated atrial and ventricular contraction
-single veing
-drains thorax and enters superior vena cava
mast cells
secretes histamine & heparin
histamines increases diameter of blood vessels, increases blood flow to area
which signals, parasympathetic or sympathetic, post-ganglionic axons release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine?
Structures of the cardiovascular system - blood vessels - what are the three types?
disease of the heart muscle
What merges to form veins?
Sinoatrial Node
"Pacemaker", starts each heartbeat. Located in right atrium.
Rhythmos: rhythm

Arrhythmia: lack of heart rhythm
AV valves open
ventricualr diastole, intraventricualr pressure less than atrial pressure and ventricles fill with blood
45% formed elements, 55% blood plasma
ventricular syncytium
ventricular contraction, regulated by AV node
bodily vessel that USUALLY carries blood low in oxygen
what formed element helps fight against cancer
P wave
represents depolarization of the atrialeads to atrial systole
parasympathetic stimulation does what to the heart rate?
decreases it.
which tunic contains smooth muscle?
tunica media
what mechanical event immediately follows each electrical event?
ventricles relax
When positive and negative vectors balance, they appear as a straight line, a term known as?
recharging of the myocardial cell from a contracted state back to a resting state
Pulse pressure
<30 Ex:120/110= small pulse pressure= decreased SV and CO
>50 Ex: 140/60= wide pulse pressure= hyperthyroidism, and some times in athletes
miscellaneous antihyperlipidemic

nicotinic acid
Niaspan (legend)
Niacin (OTC) [read package insert for dose]
route: po
dose: 1-2g tid c meals or pc
What is a band?
an immature neutrophil
a permanent cardiac or arterial dilatation usually caused by weakening of the vessel wall.
serous pericardium
thinner, more delicate membrane that forms a double layer around the heart
parietal and visceral layers
eosinophils (3)
too large to phagocytize
2-3 lobes connected by thin strand
attack large parasites
Which types of arteries experience the highest BP?
Common iliac arteries
-final branches of abdominal aorta
-each divides into internal iliac artery:
-external iliac artery - enters thigh to become femoral artery
-at knee becomes popliteal artery
-splits into anterior/posterior tibial arteries
*supply calf and foot
-anterior tibial artery ends in dorsalis pedis artery
-internal pelvic & external thigh
pulmonary trunk/artery
leaves the right ventricle and branches to each lung
Basophils Function
Involved in inflammatory and allergy reactions. Leave capillaries & enter connective tissue. Similar in function as mast cells. Release heparin, histamine & serotonin in response to allergic reaction. heighten the inflammatory response and account for hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction.
what force is responsible for opening and closing the semilunar valves?
end systolic volume. amount of blood in ventricles at end of systole
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Taking image of the
to hold back blood; decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel
Cardiac Catherization(invasive)
evaluate patency of coronary arteries, valvular function, measures pressure w/in heart chambers, and 02 saturation.
-NPO, A dye is injected, giving a flushed feeling. Are awake
Risks: may cause arrhythmias, bleeding, infection, may loosen a piece of plaque.
Post-op assess: pedial pulses, site, arrhythmias and heart rate and rhythm.
Angiotensin converting enzyme agents
ACE inhibitors

ind: hypertension
action: ACE inhibitors reduce BP by causing a decrease of pressure in the arteries.
route: po
dose: 20-40 mg qd or bid
>>HA, hypotension, nausea, vomiting
What is the only non phagocytic leukocyte?
What is the hormone contained in thrombocytes that causes smooth muscle to contract?
High concentration of lipids in the circulatory system
A disturbance in heart rate and rhythm?
surgical repair of a valve, especially of a cardiac valve.
kidney response to hypoxia
release erythropoietin (EPO)
speed up development of new RBCs
tunica intima
innermost, adjacent to lumen, layer of endothelium attached to basement membrane attached to a thin layer of elastic fibers
What are the two components of the circulatory system?
Radial & Ulnar
-drain forearm
-unite to form brachial vein
*drains arm & empties into axiallry vein
cardiac cycle
one set of atrial and ventricular contractions
which ventricle goes from the left ventricle to the aorta?
aortic valve
which is dominant in a resting heart. parasympathetic or sympathetic
Treatment Procedures of the Cardiovascular System - additional medications - vasoconstrictor
constricts the blood vessels
This part of the stethoscope is best used for identifying the low pitched s3 and s4 sounds?
What is flutter?
A disorder characterized by extremely rapid yet regular contractions of the atria or ventricles; may produce no symptoms.
Parietal Pericardium
The outer layer of the pericardium surrounding the heart.
The thickest layer of the heart that contains cardiac muscle is what?
Define "systole"
Systole is the period during the cardiac cycle when atria, then ventricles, contract.
Happens in two phases 1) atrial systole, then 2) ventricular systole
What artery drains blood from the right artium?
pulmonary trunk
when the heart rate is slow, usually below 60 beats per minute?
tunica externa
the outer covering of a blood vessel, consists of elastic and collagen fibers
albumin (plasma protein)
* most abundant, most responsible for colloidal osmotic pressure* important buffer in plasma (H+ ions)* wound healing, molecular transport* significant reservoir for amino acids* made in liver
What is an intercalated disk?
the junction between 2 myocardiocytes
capillary exchange mechanisms (4)
(1) direct diffusion across plasma membranes; (2) endocytosis or exocytosis; (3) some capillaries have gaps; (4) fenestrations (pores) of some capillaries
continuation of the arch of the aorta is called?
thoracic aorta
what structure conducts action potentials between the atria and ventricles?
bundle of his (AV bundle)
Diagnostic Procedures of the Cardiovascular System - Electrocardiography - stress tests
electrocardiography used before and after exercise to assess the cardiovascular health and function
Varicose Veins
dilated & twisted veins in the lower limb
What's a thrombus?
A blood clot consisting of platelets, fibrin, and possibly, other blood components that develop inside a blood vessel or within a cavity of the heart.
Blood in the veins that is low in oxygen content
The substances exchanged through the capillary walls are exchanged by what?
diffusion, filtration and osmosis
What are the sounds heard through the stethoscope when taking an ABPI called?
Korotkoff sounds
Which of the three layers of the heart does the most work?
Location of heart...
in the mediastinum of the thoracic cavity, slightly left of the midline
the act or practice of opening a vein for letting blood as a therapeutic measure; venesection; bleeding.
what is the volume of blood in an average male
5-6 liters
Extrinsic Pathway of Blood Clotting
Occurs rapidly- within seconds.
Damaged tissues leak tissue factor (TF; thromboplastin) into bloodstream.
Prothrombinase forms in seconds.
TF is a mixture of lipoproteins and phospholipids released from the surface of damaged cells
In the presence of Ca+2, TF begins a sequence that activates clotting factor X, which when activated, combines with factor V to form prothrombinase
Asking the patient to sit up and lean forward often accentuates which diastolic murmur?
Aortic regurgitation
What is the epicardium?
The outer protective layer of the heart that consist of connective tissue covered by epithelium; contains blood, lymph capillaries as well as nerve fibers.
Inferior Vena Cava
The branch of the vena cava that drains blood from the abdomen and lower body.
What are the component organs/tissues of the lymphatic system, and their functions?
The lymphatic system comprises:
1) Spleen (filters blood)
2) Lymph nodes (filter lymph, make lymphocytes)
3) Thymus gland (gives lymphocytes an antigen marker rendering them "T-cells")
4) Tonsils (produce lymphocytes)
5) Peyer's patches (neutralise antigens)
6) Bone marrow (produces lymphocytes)
What is after load?
pressure the heart must overcome for ventricles to eject blood
The aorta receives blood from the _________ and sends blood to the __________.
left ventricle; system arteries
Starling's Law of the Heart
The Frank–Starling law of the heart (also known as Starling's law or the Frank–Starling mechanism) states that the stroke volume of the heart increases in response to an increase in the volume of blood filling the heart (the end diastolic volume). The increased volume of blood stretches the ventricular wall, causing cardiac muscle to contract more forcefully (the so-called Frank-Starling mechanisms). The stroke volume may also increase as a result of greater contractility of the cardiac muscle during exercise, independent of the end-diastolic volume. The Frank-Starling mechanism appears to make its greatest contribution to increasing stroke volume at lower work rates, and contractility has its greatest influence at higher work rates. This allows the cardiac output to be synchronized with the venous return, arterial blood supply and humeral length without depending upon external regulation to make alterations.
where are blood cells created?
from pluripotent stem cells in red bone marrow
Palpation of the precordium is done with which part of the hand?
Pads of the fingertips (fingerpads)
What are HMG-COA reductase inhibitors referred to as?
the HMG-COA reductase inhibitors are referred to as statins.
Why aren't erythrocytes termed "cells"?
Erythrocytes are not true cells as they have no nucleus.
What are the three stages of hemostasis?
vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation
Parasympathetic nervous system in regulation of cardiac function
Via vagus nerve to nodes on atrium
acetylcholine will decrease HR
Tonic activation during rest

* has NO effect on stroke volume - only symp. NS can.
what does each blip of the ECG represent?
heart rhythms, contraction and relaxation.
Pathology of the cardiovascular system - Blood Disorders - Anemias - pernicious anemia
autoimmune disorder in which the red blood cells are abnormally formed due to an inability to absorb vitamin B12
A PMI greater than 2.5 cm is often indicitive of?
LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy)
large arteries have less smooth muscle per volume than medium size arteries and
less affected by the sympathetic innervation
The region of aschaemic muscle pain indicates....?
the site of the arterial occlusion
What is sickle cell crisis?
a sickle cell gets lodged in a capillary causing the area that is blocked to use anaerobic respiration causing a buildup of lactic acid
what is end systolic volume?
the volume of blood in the ventricles during isovolumetric relaxation (i.e. after ejection, i.e. right after the ventricles contracted, ergo systolic); it measures about 60 ml; recorded during isovolumetric contraction
how to you determine diastolic pressure?
no more sound, force exerted by blood in remaining arteries during ventricular relaxation
How many times per minute does the heart beat, on average?
The heart beats approximately 72 BPM.
how is the atrial musculature isolated from the ventricular musculature?
by a fibrous ring or “skeleton” which supports the AV valves; this fibrous rings also keeps the atria and ventricles electrically isolated, meaning that an action potential cannot freely pass from atria to ventricles
Three major vessels empty into the right atrium
- Superior Vena Cava drains blood from the head, upper limbs, and superior regions of the trunk
- Inferior Vena Cava drains blood from the lower limbs and trunk
- Coronary sinus drains blood from the heart wall
What factors are involved in the long term regulation of low BP?
Renin is released by the kidney juxtaglomerular cells in response to a drop in BP. Renin binds to angiotensinogen, an inactive plasma protein, as it travels through the circulatory system. This binding process activates angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is converted to angiotension II as it passes through the lung, and angiotensin II travels to the adrenal glands where it stimulates the release of aldosterone. Aldosterone then increases sodium reabsorption from the DCT; water follows the movement of sodium into the bloodstream, and blood volume and BP are increased as a result. In addition, antidiuretic hormone is released by the posterior pituitary in response to increased osmolarity (dehydration). ADH promotes water reabsorption in the kidney and stimulates the thirst center, which decreases the osmolarity of the blood volume and increases blood pressure.
What are the steps of the cardiac cycle?
SA node fires, atria contracts, AV node fires, ventricles go into systole, entire heart goes into a time of rest/diastole
when you feel your pulse, or take your pulse what are you actually feeling?
the stretch and recoil. a pressure wave, the artery is pressed to bone or another firm structure.
What is the function of the period of total relaxation.
the myocardium gets it's blood during this time
what is stroke volume? How is it measured?
the amount of blood pumped by the heart per beat; stroke volume = end-diastolic volume - end-systolic volume
decrease; deficiency
blood clot
acute myocardioinfarction
become macrophages
active phagocytes
nucleus is kidney or horseshoe shaped
largest WBC
kill pathogens and remove debris
coronary supplies what?
Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDL)
Myocardium ***
cardiac muscle
myocardial infarction
heart attack.
external iliac artery
becomes femoral
What system regulates pH
increased parasympathetic activity does what to arterial pressure?
Aquired Immunodeficiency Syndrom. Caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
record of the aorta
(port-access coronary artery bypass)
procedure in which the heart is stopped and bypass surgery is accomplished through small incisions in the chest
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Problem occurs when Rh negative woman caries a Rh positive  baby
abnormally high concentration  of RBCs; increased viscosity, slow blood flow
dogfish circulatory system
sinus venosusatriumventricleconus arteriousus
internal coratid supplies what?
temporal lobe
transports blood to the heart?
Standing; stable; stoppage; stopping; controlling
What is a hematologist?
Blood specialist
Blood - formed elements =
(coronary artery bypass graft)
open heart surgery in which a piece of blood vessel from another location is grafted onto one of the coronary arteries to reroute blood around a blockage
WBC Function
Works through Phagocytosis and Antibodies
capillary permeability
contain fenestrations at cell junctions
sinusoid capillaries
large lumen, irregular edges; fenestrations, lined with phagocytic WBC (FIXED macrophages); liver, spleen, etc. = filtering of blood
formed element that fights viral infections
Lumbar arteries
-several pairs
-serving heavy muslce of abdomen and trunk
Aortic arch
First: brachiocephalic artery which then branches into the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery. Next branch is the left common carotid  artery. The third branch is the left subclavian.
when blood pressure increases the repeptors do what?
contraction of skeletal muscle
helps moveme blood
Normal Cardiac Conduction
SA Node
Intra-atrial ducts
AV junction
Bundle of HIS
R and L Bundle Branches
Purkinje Fibers
The valves close because of
pressure differences
What does hypercalcelmia cause?
increases heart rate
inflammation of either deep or superficial veins
accumulation of fluid in the intercellular spaces, may be seen w/ CHF
Blood cell components
Red blood cells
white blood cells
trabeculae carneae
raised bundles of cariac muscle fibers;
convey part of the conduction system
globin breakdown
broken into amino acids and recycled
differential WBC count
determine percentages of each leukocytes to determine infection or leukemia
cardiac/cardiovascular center
located in the medulla oblongata; regulates heart rate
Name three formed elements found in blood
Intercostal arteries
-10 pairs
-supply muscles of thorax wall
base of heart
flat, superior end of heart
ductus arteriosus
connection between aorta and pulmonary artery
does peripheral resistance increase to correct blood pressure being too high or too low?
too low
A murmur-like sound that is of vascular origin rather than cardiac origin?
High blood pressure (140/90 or higher) Called the silent killer. Can cause CAD, heart failure, MI, and stroke
What's hypercholesterolemia?
A condition characterized by elevated serum cholesterol levels (240mg/dl or greater) that's associated with an increased risk for coronary heart disease and other atherosclerotic diseases such as thrombotic strokes.
Hypercholesterolemia occurs in association with a genetic predisposition and excessive intake of saturated fat, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol (believed to decrease low density lipoprotein receptors in the liver). Long term use of glucocorticoids, anabolic steroids, and progestins may also adversely affect cholesterol levels.
What divides the atrium and the ventricles on each side?
What tell what blood type you have?
What is the function of fibrinogen?
clot formation
Beta-Blocking Agents
Block various enzymes, such as epinephrine, that cause high blood pressure
semilunar valves
between ventricles and arteries to prevent blood that has entered the arteries from flowing back into the ventricles during ventricular relaxation.

pulmonary - between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
aortic - between left ventricle and aorta
the partition separating the right and left thoracic cavities, formed of the two inner pleural walls, and, in humans, comprising all the viscera of the thorax except the lungs.
Heart Size
-The heart is approximately the size of a fist
-Weighs less than 1 pound
-250-350 grams
premature beats
center other than SA node initiating beat
muscular arteries
carry blood to specific organs, able to constrict to regulate blood flow, thick tunica media with more muscle
what element does oxygen bind to while being transported
"blood returned to left side of heart is pumped out of heart into aorta, from which arteries branch to supply to all body tissues (leaves left ventricle)"
Atrioventricular (coronary) sulcus
surface marker for the division between the atria and ventricles.
layer of heart wall that is composed of cardiac muscle tissue
systolic blood pressure
the highest pressure attained in arteries during systole
An "s3 gallop" usually indiactes a pathologic change in what?
Ventricular compliance
bundle of His
neurologic fibers extending from the AV node to the right and the left bundle branches that fire the impulse from the AV node to the Purkinje fibers.
entire circulatory system
closed circulatory system because no escape from vessels
What is ejection fraction?
The percentof left ventricular end-diastolic volume ejected during systole (normally 60-70%)
What is cyanosis?
bluish discolouration of lips, tongue and mucous membranes
What are agglutinogens?
glycoproteins found on the cell membrane on the erythrocytes
This is a "functioning tumor" and presenting symptoms are visual ditrubances, loss of body air, DM, sterility, and headaches. It is usually benign and curable, with surgery thru the nose:
Pituitary Tumor
(e.g. Cushing's Syndrome)
what is endothelin?
a powerful vasoconstrictor released by endothelial cells in response to a decrease in blood flow
The right ventricle receives blood from the _________ and sends blood to the __________.
right atrium; lungs
coronary sulcus
encircles most of the heart and marks the external boundary between:
superior atria and inferior ventricles
mechanisms to compensate/respond to shock
1) local vasodilation2) SNS stimulation3) secretion of ADH4) renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
what does blood contain that helps protect the body
white blood cellsantibodies
right coronary artery
small artery branch to right atrium, AND continues inferior to right atrium
Step 2 in Platelet Plug Formation:Platelet Release Reaction
Platelets activated by adhesion.
Extend projections to make contact with each other and begin to release the contents of their vesicles.
Liberated thromboxane A2 & ADP activate nearby platelets.
Serotonin & thromboxane A2 are vasoconstrictors, which decrease blood flow through the injured vessel.
atrial natriuretic peptide ANP
decreases blood pressure and blood volume
Those originating in the tricuspid valve are heard best at or near the?
Lower left sternal border
What is shock?
Not enough circulation of food and oxygen to the tissues and organs of the body due to low blood flow. Can have many causes such as blood loss, allergic reaction, infection, and heart failure.
venules and veins
similar in strucutre to arterioles and arteries. veins contain a far greater volume of blood; veins, venules and venus sinuses hold about 64% of blood in a body at rest and acts as a reservoid for blood
Key facts about
Nuclear cardiology
allows for visual exam of heart with radioisotopes (via IV injection)
imaging of perfusion/contractility
Determine patient's ability to lie still
State the signs/symptoms of arterial insufficiency in the lower limb.
Arterial insufficiency:
1) "6 ps"
2) Intermittent Claudication
3) rest pain relieved by putting legs in dependency position
4) delayed healing of lesions
5) no swelling
6) Skin atrophy
7) Ulceration, superficial gangrene
What is it called when athletes infuse their blood with packed red blood cells?
blood doping
sinus rhythm
the normal heart rhythm - starts in sinoatrial node
Review Structures of the Heart (find picture in book)
- Pericardium (visceral)/epicardium
- Base
- Apex
- Superior Vena Cava
- Inferior Vena Cava
- Right Atrium
- Right Auricle
- Left Atrium
- Left Auricle
- Right Ventricle
- Left Ventricle
- Pulmonary Trunk
- Pulmonary Arteries
- Pulmonary Veins
- Aorta (and arch)
- Ligamentum Arteriosum
- Inter and Atrioventricular Sulci (Sulcus)
bicuspid (mitral) valve
blood passes from the left atrium to the left ventricle through this.
the second heart sound is due to the closing of the SL valve and is heard at the beginning of ___
ventricle diastole
Cardiac AP and Electrical Activity.
RMP = -60mVI-channel causes membrane potential instability, let K+ and Na+ through slow depolarization to threshold. First half due to spontaneous opening of channels, Na+ enters, K+ channels close. Second half Ca2+ t-channels open, at AP Ca2+ L-type channels open. Falling, opening of K+ channels.Atria contract as a single unit, brief delay before ventricular contraction. Prolonged plateau then prolonged contraction.PQRSTAP in contractile myocardium similar to skeletal cells
pressure: blood pressure increawses near the hear and decreases...
to its lowest in the capillaries
What is CO?
Cardiac output or the total amount of blood ejected per minute.
What terms are used to describe heart rhythm?
regularly regular
regularly irregular
irregularly irregular
What is the "math equation" for extrinsic coagulation?
tissue thromboplastin + coagulation factors = prothrombinase
Importance of the SA node
SA Node: Intrinsic pacemaker – normal initiation

SA node is considered to be the ‘pacemaker’ of the heart. 60-100 beats/minute
superior/inferior mesenteric and L. gastric
form and empty into hepatic portal vein
Function of Capillaries
-only thick enough for 1 blood cell at a time
-exchange of gases, nutrients and wastes
*composed of simple squamous epithelium
what are the 3 factors contributing to peripheral resistance?
size, length and viscosity.
Artificial Cardiac Pacemaker
Replacement of the SA node when it no longer functions properly.
Systemic circuit is what
carries blood from the heart to all other parts of the body and back again and it also includes the coronary circulation.
Into which major vein do the systemic veins of the lower limb drain, before returning to the heart?
The Inferior Vena Cava
How many pericardiums are there and what are they called?
2 - fibrous and serious
what is the impact of the parasympathetic nervous system on discharge rate? The sympathetic?
the parasympathetic nervous system decreases the rate of discharge; the sympathetic nervous system increases the rate of discharge
External Anatomy of the Heart
- Blood that enters an atrium is passsed to the ventricle of the same side
- Ventricles are the inferior chambers
- Two large arteries, the pulmonary trunk and the aorta exit the heart at the basal surface
- The pulmonary trunk carries blood from the right ventricle into the pulmonary circuit
- Aorta conducts blood from the left ventricle into the systemic circuit
The Heart. Position, SA, AV, 3 Layers, Pericardial sac
Positioned between sternum and vetebraeCardiac tissue has its own contraction mechanism which is independent of neural control.Sinoartial (SA) node, pacemaker of heart rate, co-ordinates conductionAutoventricular (AV) nodeHeart wall, 3 layersEndocardium: Thin inner tissue lining entire circlatory system.Myocardium: Thick middle layer of cardiovascular muscleEpicardium: Thin external layer covering heartPericardial sac: Though fiberous layer, secretes pericadial fluid, lubrication. Pericarditis
When is blood pumped out to systemic circulation?
During systole, or ventricular contraction
describe the venous filling time test
patient supine, leg raised to 60 degrees
observe prominent vein
put leg in dependency and note time for vein to refill
When does the cardiac cycle begin?
after the end of the atrial diastole
Blood vessels – arteries, veins, capillaries
Blood vessels transport blood to all parts of the body.

Also allow for exchange of nutrients, gases, hormones and metabolic waste btwn blood and tissue fluid

Occur across the walls of certain vessels.
Walls vary in thickness
3 principal vessels of hepatic portal system
hepatic artery = delivers oxygen rich blood to the liverhepatic portal vein = formed by the union of the sup. mesenteric vein & splenic vein (drain blood from digestive tube, CO2/nutrient rich -> empties into the liver)hepatic vein = drains CO2 rich blood from the liver
what is the heart rate set by the SA node if there are no modifying factors affecting its rhythm?
constant rate 100 BPM
single artery is much bigger than capillairy, but there are so many more capillaries than arteries, thereofre total x-sectionarl area is much greater for capillary
velocity is greatest at artery, and slowest at capillary
Describe the conducting system of the heart.
1) Neural impulse starts at the Sinoatrial Node within the right atrium, then to the left atrium, causing both to contract
2) impulse continues to the ventricles via the shared Interventricular Septum (Bundle of His fibres)
3) finally the wave of impulse reaches the Purkinje fibres in the inferior aspects of both ventricles causing them both to contract and squeeze blood out of the heart via the aorta into the systemic circulation.
What is pretty much the most important part of machrophages?
help to activate immune system cells
What effect does the length of blood vessels have on blood pressure?
direct; vessel length is directly proportional to resistance; this means that the shorter the vessel, the lesserer the resistance to flow there is, and therefore the lesser the MAP.
if an artery has high compliance it means what?
their walls stretch easily or expand with out tearing in response to a small increase in pressure.
What does the heart look like and where is it located?
cone shaped muscular pump within the throacic cavity
how can the electrical activity of the heart be monitored?
by placing recording electrodes on the surface of the body; the resulting tracings are called an electrocardiogram or ECG
What is the function of the pulmonary circulation?
it recieves oxygen in the lungs and get rid of carbon dioxide
What causes the first sound during a heart beat?
What causes the second?
The first is caused by the closing of the Atrio-ventricular valves.
The second is caused by the closing of the semilunar valves
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