Endocrine 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions

I 131
somatostatin synthetic
Hyperadrenocorticism - Luprolide
S/S Hyperparathyroidism
-Muscle weakness
psmmoma bodies
papillary CA
Hormones of Pineal gland
excision of a gland
endocrine glands
secretions enter interstitial fluid --> blood
acidosis or hypoventilation will.....ionized ca levels
hyperglycemia, muscle weakness, fatigue, poor wound healing, and increased circulating fatty acids are symptoms of what disorder?
bone turnover makers
alkaline phosphatase

urinary N and/or C-telopeptides
causes for hypercalcemia
Calcium ingestion (milk-alkali syndrome)
Iatrogenic (thiazides)
Multiple myeloma
Paget's disease
Addison's disease
Excess vitamin D
Excess vitamin A
parathyroid hormone
secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH)
True or False
Normal basal secretion of ACTH and cortisol occurs in a pulsatile pattern and demonstrates a circadian rhythm which follows the sleep-wake cycle. 
germinal centers in thyroid gland
PRL: Male- testosterone production upFemale- maintain effect of lutenizing hormone
hypoventilation should be avoided as..increases ionized calcium
95 % of hypoth is
Prolactin increases ___ synthesis & release from the hypothalamus.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
-From Anterior Pituitary
-Targets Adrenal Glands
-Stimulates growth and secretion of the adrenal cortex
activating mutations in tyrosine kinase receptor, RET, on chrom 10.
- tumors involving medullary carcinoma and adrenal medulla.
renin secretion
stimulated by catecholamines, sympathetic nerual action, hypokalemia, decreased blood perfusion (decreased solutes like Na+)

hyperkalemia suppresses renin
Clinical use of oxytocin
stimulates labor
uterine contractions
milk let-down
controls uterine hemorrhage
HLA subtype associated w graves disease
Pheo tx
Surgery. Pre-treat with Alpha-blockers, THEN BB / CCB.
surgical excision of the parathyroid gland
What two conditions can elevate cortisol levels measured in Cushing's screening tests?
TSH stimulated by:
TRH, cold temps, pregnancy
Collection of endocrine cells. Secrete 6 peptide hormones: TSH, FSH, LH, GH, Prolactin, ACTH. Relationship w/ neural & endocrine. Hypothalamic-hypophysial portal blood vessels link them & provide blood Supply to anterior lobe. Long & short.
Patient Teaching
What is the patient's perspective
dexamethesone is..x as potent as cortisol
parafollicular cells in the thyroid will secrete
stimulates the release of steroid hormones
decreased TSH, elevated T3/T4, increased radioactive iodine uptake
primary hyperthyroidism
What does APO B100 bind to?
prolonged starvation
prolonged decrease of insulin
increase in glucagon
utilization of fatty acids and ketone bodies for energy
increased lipolysis - formation of ketone bodies
HSL not inhibited by insulin
glucose shunted to brain by lack of insulin-dependent glucose uptake
brain utilizing ketone bodies after 3-4 days of starvation
decreased cortisol to spare protein stores
insulin secretagogues; bind to a different component of the sulfonylurea receptor. cause losure of the potassium channel resulting in insulin secretion
short acting
Follicular cells physical appearance
simple cuboidal epithelium
The anterior Lobe of the Pituitary =
Papillary carcinoma
all papillary thyroid neoplasms are considered malignant); about 2/3 of all primary thyroid malignancies. Histologically, they may be papillary, solid, or follicular.Cytologically they typically have cells with clear (“ground glass”) nuclei. Psammoma bodies (laminated circular calcified concretions) may be present.Tend to metastasize to regional lymph nodes; some papillary carcinomas may even initially present as an enlarged node from metastasis.Long-term survival is common: >95% ten-year survival
Caused by any destructive lesion, but because the physiologic reserve capacity is great, 80-90% destruction is required.
pineal gland
gland that secretes melatonin, an antioxident that is otherwise no well understood
What is the effect of glucocorticoids on bone?
What body cavity contains the following:Cranial cavity, Foramen magnum and spinal cavity?
Dorsal Cavity
chemical signal binds to _ _
receptor site
hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
axons of hypothalamic neurons which terminate in the post. pituitary
do NOT synapse w other neurons - end directly on capillaries
vit d increased
gi calcium and phosphte abs
pth and calcium
Bone resorption of calcium
Kidney ↑’s reabsorption of calcium (distal tubules) & ↓ reaborption of phosphate
Also intestinal absorption indirectly by vitamine D activation
Diabetes Mellitus
-due to insufficient insulin or insulin-resistance
-symptoms: polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, slow healing, etc
What disorder of the parathyroid gland is characterized by bone decalcification and the development of renal calculi containing calcium?
painless goiter, rubbery, can be asymmetric
Hashimoto Thyroiditis
Medullary carcinoma
- parafollicular C cells --> secrete calcitonin
- totary thyroidectomy
Primary hyperaldosteronism
suppresses RAS and decreased plasma renin activity.
BP elevation is common.
released by fat
inhibits NPY and AgRP but increases alphaMSH
levels increase with body fat
apo B-100
structural protein for VLDL, IDL, LDLD, Lp(a),
ligand for LDL receptor
adenohypophysis description?
large anterior portion of the pituitary gland
Which endocrine hormones act through the cGMP pathway
TR- β 1
most highly expressed in liver andkidney
Adrenergic Response to Hypoglycemia
1. Epinephrine stimulates hepatic glucose production, activates productionof alternate fuels (lipolysis, free fatty acid production) and limits glucose utilization.• 2. Symptomatically, the subject notices anxiety, palpitations, tremor,hunger, and sweating.• 3. Threshold is usually at glucose of 60-70, but can change
FSH Role

In women: FSH is responsible for  directing follicle development.
In Men: FSH is the primary regulator of spermatogenesis.
FSH helps maintain high local androgen concentrations in the vicinity of developing sperm by stimulating the production of androgen-binding protein (ABP) by Sertolli cells. 
FSH stimulates the conversion by Sertolli cells of testosterone to estrogen.

LH is the main stimulus for the production of testosterone by Leydig cells. 
11. Gonadotropic hormone essential in stimulating the growth of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. It is located in the Anterior Lobe of the pituitary gland?
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
the study of the endocrine system and the treatment of dieases and disorders of the endocrine system
Acute Complications of Diabetes
-Type 1: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
-Type 2: Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNKS)
-Hypoglycemia/insulin shock
GH enhances conversion of fatty acids → ..... → used for energy
acetyl- CoA
In a chronic diabetic, the hyperosmolarity of blood can cause what damage?
- neuropathy (motor/sensory/autonomic)
- cataracts
Will a pt. with cushings disease have hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia?
what is acromegaly?
excessive GH secretion from ant pituitary
Carcinoid syndrome
- caused from carcinoid tumors
- can be present in MEN-1
- flushing due to serotonin release is common
- vague abdominal symptoms
- carcinoid + MEN-1 presents in men in the thymus and women in the lungs.
GLUT 4 is found where?
muscle and fat cells
follicular thyroid tumor
slow growing
mid to old age
uncommon lymph node metastases
distant metastases common
What does the zona fasciculata secrete
glucocorticoids like cortisol
Name the two long acting insulin drugs
Glargine and detemir
Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type I(APS1)
Never associated with graves disease!APS1 is a rare autosomal recessivedisease that arises due to mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene onchromosome 21q22.3. The AIRE gene is important in regulating thymic T-cell tolerance to autoantigens and immune system homeostasis. APS1 manifestations:Hypoparathyroid.Oral CandiasisAddison's diseaseprimary hypogonadism (45%),primary hypothyroidism 12%Nonendocrine – malabsorption syndromes, alopecia, pernicious anemia, chronichepatitis, vitiligo.
Gonadotroph-cell adenomas and Thyrotroph cell adenomas
Small, slow growing and usually non-functioning clinically. If symptomatic, may cause ovarian hyperstimulation with elevated estradiol causing amenorrhea in premenopausal females, and breast development and vaginal bleeding in prepubertal females
what stimuates proliferations of chondrocytes and what stimulates their differentiation?
IGF-1 stimulates proliferation of chondrocytes (cartilage cells), resulting in bone growth. Growth hormone does seem to have a direct effect on bone growth in stimulating differentiation of chondrocytes.
Two major layers of of the skin.
epidermus and dermis
Relationship b/w hypothalamus and anterior & posterior pitutary.
Long hypothalamic hypophysial portal blood vessel
receptors can occur in three places
Cell membrane surface
Cell nucleus
Wot is Grave's Disease?
Type II, autoAb's STIMULATE TSH receptors --> hyperthyroidism with bulgy eyes, pretibial myxedema, diffuse goiter, low TSH
Whom and what age group are more likely to develop hashimoto's disease?
women 30-50
How to follow disease in acromegaly?
IGF (also called somatomedin)
What is an Adrenal Crisis?
development of adrenal insufficiency symptoms suddenly
- weakness, decreased responsiveness, hypotension, electrolyte abnormalities, unexplained nausea/vomiting/diarrhea or abdominal pain.
corticosteroid binding globulin
75% cortisol in circulation bound to CBG. 15% to albumin. only physiologically active when unbound
excess cortisol production can be seen in urine
Which nutrients in feed exacerbate IR?
simple sugars and starches
what do mineralocorticoids do?
controls water and electrolyte balance through kidney tubules
Expected blood work for Conn's syndrome?
hyperna, hypok, metab alk, (Hypernatremia and hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis)
Which end of PTH is active, N or C terminal
Thyroid US findings for benign mass
comet tail, inc peripheral vasculature, hyperechoic, halo, cystic
What are the differences between primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism?
Primary Hyperaldosteronism: is a structural or functional abnormality of the adrenal cortex that may result in non-physiologic oversecretion of aldosterone.  It is characterized by high serum aldosterone with conversely low renin serum levels.
Secondary Hyperaldosteronims: is characterized by high serum levels of both aldosterone and renin, both as a compensatory physiologic response to a decrease in effective circulating volume, bp, reduced renal perfusion, and/or an increase in serum potassium. 
What does a hormone do?
Stimulates the response in another tissue or organ.
..% of people with type I DM have tmp instability
lipolysis of fat leads to (3)
↑ cholesterol & phospholipid concentrations
hyperth causes ..levels of tsh and..levels of t3 t4
low tsh high t3 t4
What are some s/sx of diabetes insipidus?
polyuria, polydypsia, dehydration, hyponaturemia, hypotention.
What does euthyroid refer to?
State of normal thyroid hormone production
What is the initial test for evaluation of thyroid masses?
Fine- needle aspiration biopsy
pain over the thyroid gland
subacute thyroiditis, usu after viral URI, enlarged firm painful gland
What are the causes of acromegaly?
1. pituitary adenoma
2. extrapituitary tumor producing GH (pancreas)
3. elevated production of GHRH (hypothalamic tumor, pancreas, SCLC)
If you crossed an H/N with an N/N, what percentage of the offspring would be affected?
50% HYPP
Suprarenal gland stroma structures
1) Capsule 2) fine trabeculae 3) reticular fibers
What are some possible complications of thyroidectomy?
Injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (hoarseness)
Accidental removal of parathyroid glands (hypocalcemia)
Lab tests in amenorrhea
FSH (ovarial failure if > 35), PRL, TSH, Free T4.
What enzyme catalyzes the extra-adrenal conversion of adrenal androgens to estrogen? Where is it located.
Enzyme P450 aromatase; it is located in fat cells.
paracrine hormones are also know as what other kind of hormone? what do they do?
\"local hormones\"they are secreted into tissue fluids to affect nearby cells
Insulin promotes utilization of CHO & depresses utilization of .. so…..
Insulin promotes utilization of CHO & depresses utilization of fats so…..
What does the posterior pituitary release? Where in the hypothalamus were those products made?
ADH - supraoptic nucleus
Oxytocin - paraventricular nucleus
How is hashimoto's disease diagnosed?
based on the histologic appearance of the inflammed thyroid gland
Criteria to diagnose DM
1. sx's and plasma glucose >200, 2. FPG >126 x 2
more remodeling occurs in ______ bone than in __________ bone.
more in trabecular then compact.
What mgmt changes would you recommend if a farm has ketosis problems?
Lowering BCS, Adjusting diet, Improving genetics
Zona glomerulosa physical description
thine zone is under the capsule made of arcade groups of cells. They are columnar with vascuolated cytoplasm separated by blood capilaries
When might you measure T3?
• T3 toxicosis• F/U of some Graves pts who may have nl. FT4 but persistently T3• Increased FT4 with nl. TSH as occurs 2º to unusual binding abnormalities such as FDH, or decreased T4-T3 conversion e.g. amiodarone, propranolol. T3 would benormal• In non-thyroidal illness T3 is invariably very low 2º tomarked inhibition of peripheral de-iodinases that convert T4-T3
what artery supplies the anterior pituitary?
A branch of the superior hypophyseal artery -> capillary bed in the lower hypothalamus (median eminence), and hypothalmic hormones destined for the anterior pituitary are secreted into that capillary blood -> hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins-> capillaries within the anterior pituitary carry hormones secreted by that gland, coalesce into veins (cavernous sinus veins) that drain into the systemic venous blood.
How does Aldosterone Producing Adenoma presents as compared to Idiopathic Hyperaldosteronism?
APA: typically develops in one adrenal gland and thus represents a unilateral source of excess aldosterone.  It represents a cause of hypertension which potentially can be cured by surgical resection of only the involved adrenal gland.
IH: can be bilateral hyperplasia of the zona glomeruosa and thus both adrenal glands contributes to excess aldosterone secretion.  This condition is treated medically.  
delivering high concentration of hypothalamus hormones to anterior pit without appearing in high concentration in rest of circulation.
WHat is the sequence to which hormones are released in? give example
how does blood volume and plasm and osmolarity effect secretion of vasopressin
↑ plasma osmolarity
↓ blood volume
What is the function o f1,25- Dihydroxyvitamin D?
Stimulates calcium absorption from the intestine
Who would treatment via iodine 131 be contraindicated in/
during pregnancy, breast feeding, women who want to get pregnant within 6 months
Pt comes in with blurred vision, HA, feelings of detachment, slurred speech, weakness, low blood sugar, sx's in early AM or late afternoon or after fasting or exercise
insulinoma or factitious insulinoma (insulin injection)
What are the differences btwn stages 1,2, and 3 of parturient paresis in dairy cows?
*Stage 1: Hyperexcitability* --us. go unobserved. An. standing, head bobbing, m. tremors, sens. to stimuli. *Stage 2: Recumbent but still sternal* --us. when detected. Sternal w/ S-curvature to neck. GI stress, uterine inertia (arrested delivery or retained placenta). *Stage 3: Lateral recumbency/unconscious* --complete flaccid paralysis (weakness), tachycardia (>120bpm), weak pulses, shortly before dying.
what does pars intermedia do?
not sure, but may be involved with melanocyte stimulating hormone
what are the different parts of the adenohypophysis?
The adenohypophysis is further divided into the main pars distalis (most distal to the hypothalamus), pars tuberalis (extension of the glandular tissue up the infundibular stalk) and pars intermedia (along the fold line remnant of Rathke’s pouch).
Why would the adrenal display hyperplasia in the context of an ACTH secreting tumor (be it pituitary or ectopic)?
The 'T' in ACTH stand for 'Trophic', meaning that it stimulates growth as well.
below levels of...glucose in the CNS, symptoms develop including
Below levels of 50 mg/100ml CNS symptoms develop including
What are characteristics of follicular adenocarcinoma?
It appears after 40 yrs of age, encapsulated, feels elastic or rubbery on palpation, spreads through the bloodstream to bone, liver, and lung, prognosis is not as favorable as for papillary adenocarcinoma
Diabetics should be screened for what
1. retinopathy q year (Type 1 can start 5 years after dx), 2. proteinuria (suggesting renal disease) q year, 3. foot exam
How would you manage an HYPP patient longterm?
1. Low potassium (<1%) diets--avoid alfalfa hay, brome hay, canola oil, SBM and oil, molasses. Commercial HYPP feeds. 2. Small meals frequently. 3. Regular exercise. 4. Acetazolamide TID/QID - carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, alters the H+ and HCO3- balance in tubular cells. Less sodium reabsorbed from urine, more 3Na-2K ATPase activity, more K+ exits the body in the urine.
What inhibits secretion of TSH  & TRH?
Secretion of TRH, and hence, TSH, is inhibited by high blood levels of thyroid hormones (T3 + T4) in a classical negative feedback loop.
5% albumin in pts with hypocalcemia should be ...because
avoided because it binds ca and may lower ionized ca
When is the best time of day to take coritcosteroids?
7 am to 8 am
What will the blood tests look like for hyperthyroidism?
- HIGH T3 and T4
A 1-year-old male child is found to have a right inguinal hernia with incarceration of a loop of small intestine. A laparotomy is performed and the defect is closed. The tissue from the hernia sac is excised. The surgical pathology report indicates the pr
Small rests of adrenal cortex are not infrequent in hernia sacs, testis, ovary, or kidney capsule. They may undergo the same changes as the adrenal proper. c
In order to inspect or swelling or asymmetry of the thyroid, what should you instruct the patient to do?
Instruct the pt. to extend the neck slightly and swallow. Thyroid tissue normally rises with swallowing.
What is the best initial test for acromegaly? what is confirmatory test?
IGF-1. Need to confirm with oral glucose challenge (100g glucose) --> then check GH. Confirmed is high GH since glucose load should normally suppress GH.
What will happen if there is damage to the pituitary stalk to PRL secretion?
PRL secretion will increase bc of loss of inhibitroy control
SIADH precusions for
Insulin production site
What do mineralocorticoids secrete?
endorcrine dysfunction
Physical assessment:
visual head-to-toe
tactile examination
current health probs. inlcuding energy levels, elimination, sex & repro., physical appearance
demographics; age & gender
Parathyroid hormoneControls calcium and phosphatemetabolism
elevated blood glucose levels
stress hormones
cortisone, glucogon, catecholamines, growth hormone
Excess GH in adults
Clinical manifestations:
Hypertrophy of vocal chords
Hypertrophy of Eustachian tubes (ears)
Nerve entrapment
Demyelinization of peripheral nerves
Glucose Intolerance
TX can include:
Somatostatin (sandostatin)
Dopamine agonists (bromocriptine)
Growth hormone receptor antagonist (pegvisomant)
Other name for growth hormone
a decreased serum sodium level
s/ DI
increased serum osmolality decreased urine osmolality, hypernatremia
Pituitary Gland
Master gland: influences other endocrine glands
controlled by the hypothalamus; which is connected by pituitary stalk
Anterior pituitary secretes:
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
lutenizing hormone (LH)
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
growth hormone (GH)/somatotropin 
The hormone that increases the excretion of potassium ions by the kidneys isA) ADHB) PTHC) cortisolD) aldosterone
What stimulates ovulation and the formulation of the corpus luteum?
surgical removal of the pituitary gland and tumor
person receiving enteral feeding is at risk of
Adult onset hypothyroidism
Most prevalent in women
Incidence increases after the age of 40, although not uncommon after childbirth
May cause acceleration of CAD and cardiac complications
Thyroid storm nursing interventions
Administer acetaminophen for hyperthermia
Cool sponge baths, ice packs
Administer PTU and/or beta-blockers as ordered
IV fluids as ordered to prevent vascular collapse
Administer sodium iodide as prescribed and only after PTU administration to avoid exacerbation of symptoms
Monitor for hyperglycemia and administer insulin as prescribed
Supplemental O2 as indicated
Secondary hyperparathyroidism
compensatory response to states that induce or cause hypocalcemia, the stimulus of PTH secretion, vit D deficiency, malabsorption, CRF, hyperphosphatemia
The hormone aldosterone is secreted by the ___, and its target organs are the ___.A) adrenal cortex / blood vesselsB) adrenal medulla / blood vesselsC) adrenal medulla / kidneysD) adrenal cortex / kidneys
The hormone cortisol is produced by theA) adrenal cortexB) adrenal medullaC) pancreasD) thyroid gland
Calcitonin function
Decreases reabsorption of calcium from the bones
decreased production of all of the anterior pituitary hormones; an extremely rare condition
What is aldosterone controlled by?
renin-angiotensin system (not ACTH)
What is the purpose of aldosterone?
maintain fluid balance
hhnk precipitating factors
elderly dehydrated patient, type 2,
Posterior Pituitary Hormone
Secretes  vasopressin known as ADH; antidiuretic hormone
Vasopressin controls excretion of water by kidneys
Oxytocin secretion is stimulated during pregnancy & birth.
Medical management of hyperparathyroidism includes hydration as well as administering _______ in increase _____ca+ excretion, as well as administering ______(_______) to increase _______ _______ ________
administering lasix to increase excretion of urine calcium and plicamycin (mithracin) to increase bone resorption of calcium
What events can precipitate a catecholamine release from an angry pheochromocytoma?
-Surgical Manipulation
- Medications
- urination and defication in some pts. (dependent on tumor location)
-poking it with a stick
The effect of oxytocin on the uterus is toA) contribute to the growth of the placentaB) help increase circulation in the fetusC) prevent contractions before the end of gestationD) cause contractions for delivery
The hormone that increases the use of all three food types for energy isA) thyroxineB) insulinC) GHD) cortisol
Hormone that stimulates the release of bile
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
Secondary Hypothyroidism
caused by failure of the anterior pituitary gland to stimulate the thyroid gland or failure of the target tissues to respond to the thyroid hormones (pituitary tumors).
Hypersecretion of Aldosterone
Monitor BP, elevated Na, low K, (hypokalemia and alkalosis), water balance
What is name of condition from overproduction of GH?
Acromegaly or Gigantism
route of glucogone injection
IM ... DO NOT give IV.
Thyroid Storm
Precipitating factors include:
Infection, trauma or emotional stress, post surgical partial thyroidectomy
If the patient has severe bone disease we expect to administer _______(_______)
Plicamycin (Mithatracin)
36. You need about 1mg/week of this substance to maintain normal thyroxin production.
Erythropoietin StimiulatesA) white cell productionB) sperm productionC) red cell productionD) the release of gastric acids
CPG 209: Erythropoietin stimulates red blood cell production.
The adrenal medulla is the ___ part of the adrenal gland, and produces the hormones ___.A) inner / epinephrine andnorepinaphrineB) outer / cortisol and aldosteroneC) inner / cortisol and aldosteroneD) outer epinephrine and norepinephrine
Primary Hypothyroidism
most common caused by disease or loss of the thryroid gland (iodine deficiency, surgical removal of the gland).
What are SE/adverse effects of Glucocorticoids?
hyperglycemia, abnormal fat deposits, muscle wasting, edema, hypertension, euphoria, psychosis
What do you watch for if thyroid removed?
hypothyroidism;watch for parathyroidism.
Secretion of T3 and T4 is regulated by the.....
pituitary gland
27. The hypothalamic-hypophysial portal system. Why do I care?
Neurons in the hypothalamus synthesize and secrete hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones that are released into the HHPS which then flows to the anterior pituitary sinuses. These hormones then stimulate or inhibit the release of anterior pituitary hormones.
Where are the baroreceptors located? 
What are the Afferent and Efferent limbs of each?
Baroreceptors are located in the carotid and aortic bodies.
Carotid baroreceptors: 
Afferent: Via Herring's nerve to tractus solitarius of the medulla
Efferent: from medulla excitation of parasympathetic vagal centers
Aortic baroreceptors:
Afferent: via vagus nerve to tractus solitarius of the medulla
Efferent: from medulla excite vagal parasympathetic center.
What are the side effects of large amts of oxytocin?
Maternal water intoxication
Uterine Tetany (therefore fetal distress d/t hyperstimulation)
Transient hypotension d/t relaxation of vascular smooth muscle
reflex tachycardia
Deficiency of the gonadotropins
changes sexual function in both men and women
treatments for DKA
1. IV fluid replacement (NS or 1/2 Ns in 1st hour then add D5W2. insulin IV3. k replacement.4 Bicarb drip only if pH
______, vitamin D deficiency, high levels of ______, malabsorption, exposure to _______ and ________ _________, and hx of _____ _____are all risk factors for _______parathyroidism
Adenoma, Vitamin D deficiency, high phosphate levels, CRF, Malabsoption, exposure to head and neck radiation and hx of neck/thyroid surgery are risk factors for hyperparathyroidism
What 2 things greatly improve cardiovascular stability intraoperatively with removal of a pheochromocytoma?
-Use of alpha blockers (primarily phenoxybenzmine)
-Use of fluids
The hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that causes the growth and development of ova is calledA) estrogenB) progesteroneC) steroidsD) follicle-stimulating hormone
DPG 203: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the growth and secretion of ovarian follicles in women and the production of sperm in men.
Adrenal crisis
a.k.a. acute adrenal insufficiency
rapid onset; it is a medical emergency.
In hyperthyroidism, what happens to you TSH and T3 levels?
Your TSH levels decreases and T3 elevates
13. I have a hypothesis about the hypophysis. What am I talking about?
The pituitary gland
Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary gland
- Growth Hormone (GH)
- Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
- Prolactin
- Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
- Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Thyroid Storm
a.k.a. Thyrotoxic crisis
a result from a sudden surge of large amounts of thyroid hormones into the blood stream, causing an even greater increase in body metabolism.  This is a medical emergency with a high mortality rate.
What is Diabetes insipidus and what are the 2 types?
Diabetes insipidus is the absence of vasopressin due to:
1) Destruction of post. pituitary (neurogenic DI)
2) Failure of the renal tubes to respond to ADH (nephrogenic)
The thyroid gland is unable to function correctly if the body does not have an adequate dietary intake ofA) vitamin KB) ironC) folic acidD) iodine
DPG 206: The thyroid secretes two hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones are synthesized in the thyroid gland from iodine. A person's diet must supply this iodine.
33. Describe the iodide pump/ iodide trapping. What is this controlled by?
Iodine is transported from the blood into the thyroid glandular cells. The membrane of the thyroid has the specific ability to pump iodide actively into the interior of the cell. This is called iodide trapping. The concentration/ amt of iodide that is trapped is controlled by the thyroid stimulating hormone (from the ant. pituituary which happens to be stimulated by release of thyrotropin releasing hormone from the hypothalamus)
The human body requires which of the following to metabolize glucose?A) AdrenalinB) GastrinC) InsulinD) Lipase
CPG 208: Insulin stimulates the liver to convert extra glucose into glycogen
9. This type of hormone is made from tyrosine and is stored as a complex or is stored in vesicles. Please provide 2 examples.
Amine hormones. Include thyroid hormone which is synthesized and stored in the thyroid gland bound to thyroglobulin. Also epi and norepi are formed in the adrenal medulla and stored in vesicles.
The amount of T3 and T4 produced by the thyroid gland determinesA) the quantity of breast milk producedB) the contraction of blood vesselsC) the speed of body metabolismD) muscle strength and coordination
CPG 206: It is believed that T4 is converted to T3 before it can work in the body. These hormones regulate body metabolism, controlling the rate at which cells do their work.
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