Endocrine System Vocabulary 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Thyroid
Calcitonin
-phasia
speech
kali/i
potassium
-gen-
to produce
glyc/o
sugar, glucose
thyr/o
thyroid gland
Long-acting insulin
PZI
Ultralente
cortisol
elevates blood sugar
Corpus
Body; corpus luteum
 
 
corticoid
resembling the cortex
****Hormone Transport
****Hormone transport
Adrenal Medulla
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
TSH
Thyroid-stimulating hormone or thyrotropin (peptide). Released by anterior lobe of pituitary. Stimulates growth of thyroid gland and release of thyroid hormone.
 
[TSH levels are tested to see if a person has too much or too little thyroid hormone][only 3 amino acids long]
pancreat/o
pancreas
 
ex. panreat/itis - inflammation of the pancreas
Adenogenous
Originating in a gland
____ stimulates RBC production
EPO
Gamete
reproductive cellsperm and ova
pituitary gland
"master gland"
•releases many hormones that reach other glands and stimulate them to secrete their own hormones
•two parts: anterior and posterior
target of calcitonin
osteoclasts and osteoblasts
Melatonin
pineal gland; regulates sleep/wake cycles; regulates day/night cycles; coordinates fertility hormones; inhibits reproductive system development and sexual maturation before adult body size is reached
What is OT?
-Oxytocin-Posterior pituitary-allows for contractions during child birth
Oxytocin
Stimulates uterine contractions during labor and postpartum.
adenohypophysis
anterior (glandular) portion derived from outcropping of the pharynxPars distalisPars intermediaPars tubularis Has sinusoids
Positive feedback
example : increasing estrogen
levels, increases levels of LH until ovulation occurs
GH
Growth Hormone
- Stimulates cells growth and replication
1. GH-RH
2. GH-IH
Hormones
-chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands-have special functions to regulate cells, glands or both
thymus
a ductless, butterfly-shaped gland lying at the base of the neck, formed mostly of lymphatic tissue and aiding in the production of T cells of the immune system: after puberty, the lymphatic tissue gradually degenerates.
glucagon
secreted from pancreas. released with too little glucose
second messenger
provide communication within a hormone's target cell
PTH
Gland: parathyroidAction: target blood, kidney, and intestines to increase blood CaDisease: --
Chief cells
found in the parathyroid gland
 
source of parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Hypopituitarism
Usually one hormone is markedly decreased and the others somewhat decreased.
 
 
 
Bruit over Thyroid is diagnostic for?
 
 
 
Grave's Dz
 
 
cretinism
condition caused by congenital absence of the tyroid gland resulting in hypothyroidism
Upregulation
Increasing the number of hormone receptors in response to a low level of hormone
What is NADH?
It's antidiuretic hormone osmoreceptors in hypothalamus that respond to changes in blood volume and concentration. Oxytocin- parturition and milk ejection.
EPO ____ hemoglobin formation which allows the critical hemoglobin concentration necessary for maturity to be reached at a more rapid rate.
increases
Hypoparathyroidism leads to what 2 conditions?
hypocalcemia

hyperphosphatemia
Pituitarism
any disorder of the pituitary function
heart
ANPwhen bp is high, inhibits mineralcorticoids, decrease in water reabsortpion and increased urine output
aldosterone
made in adrenal cortex; increases Na+ and H20 reabsorption in kidneys
Brain hormone (BH)
promotes development by stimulating the prothoracic glands to secrete ecdysone.
 
anterior
pituitary (208)
 
Master gland that produces 7 different hormones; most of which travel to other glands & stimulates them to produce other hormones.
 
which hormone is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland?
ADH
Progesterone
ovaries; acts with estrogen to bring about menstrual cycle; keeps muscles of uterus quiet during pregnancy
Treatment of diabetes insipidus
Oral chlopropamide (Diabinese)(can cause hypoglycemia;Vasopressin nasal sprays; Daily weights;Drink fluids equal to urine output;Wear med alertHormone treatment is lifelong!!!
Pheochromocytoma
most common disorder of the adrenal medulla. It is a benign vascular tumor that causes hypersecretion of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. Signs of this disorder include severe headache, palpitations, sweating, nervousness, nausea, vomiting, and persistent or intermittent hypertension
 
 
parathyroid glands
four small bodies directly behind thyroid gland. (PTH) hormone produced helps maintain calcium in blood
Chromaffin Cells
Principal cells of the adrenal medullaSecrete epinephrine and norepinephrine into sinusoidsSecretion under control of sympathetic nerves
_____ is the most common endocrine disorder.
Diabetes
Hormone made in the Parathyroid
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Normal fasting glucose is less than ____ in the morning
110
Hypercalcemia
high levels of calcium in the blood
This stimulates the release of GnRH from... A) the ovaries. B) the corpus luteum. C) the anterior pituitary. D) the hypothalamus. E) the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamus.
D
what does calcitonin do?
secreted from the thyroid gland?
lowers calcium in the blood
 
hypothalamus
 
Region of the brain; floor of the 3rd ventricle that helps to maintain homeostasis.
Name functions of prolactin?
stimulates breast development during pregnancymilk secretion after deliveryrelease of milk from glandular cells of the breast
GROWTH HORMONE
Hormone released by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that promotes the growth of the organism; also known as somatotropin.
Which hormone secreted by the anterior lobe is related to the development of lactating tissue?
prolactin (PRL)
syndrome
refers simply to a set of symptoms that occur together
 
 
 
What is the #1 cause of hypothyroid in kids
 
 
 
 
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
What gland are the islets of Langerhans located in?
The pancreas
Glands of the Endocrine system
Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, gonads (ovaries & testes), the pineal gland, thymus, and special secretory cells of the G.I. tract.
Calcium in the bone is bonded to ____
phosphate
What does MSH do?
-stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin.
renal tissue injury caused by protein denaturation b/c of high glucose levels, hyperglycemia with high renal blood flow, and intraglomerular hypertension exacerbated by systemic hypertension
diabetic nephropathy
1) help regulate the internal environment2) respond to stress3) integrate growth and development (biological clock)4) contribute to reproductive processes5) regulate organic metabolism and energy balance
actions of hormones
Protein Kinase
cAMP activates this so that many different activities with in cell can occur
adrenal gland
An endocrine gland located adjacent to the kidney in mammals; composed of two glandular portions: an outer cortex, which responds to endocrine signals in reacting to stress and effecting salt and water balance, and a central medulla, which responds to ner
steroidswhat are the three steroids?
-lipid-soluble hormones made from cholesterolthree steroids:--glucocorticoids = sugar--mineralocorticoids = salt--sex hormones = sex
thymus gland
Lobular gland that lies in the neck and chest area and is necessary for the development of immunity & maturation of T-lymphocytes.
pituaitray gland development
 
Neuroectoderm
 
Rathke's pouch
1) neural structures are derived from neuroectoderm of diencephalons (infundibulum).
2) is connected to CNS
 
 
3) embryonically, a surface ectoderm projection from oral cavity.
4) no connection to stomadeum--starts as hollow structure from adenohyphosis. 
 
 
Describe the overnight Dexamethasone suppresion test
Dexamethasone, which is like cortisol, decreases the amount of ACTH released by the pituitary gland, which in turn decreases the amount of cortisol released by the adrenal glands.
After taking a dose of dexamethasone, cortisol levels often stay abnormally high in people who have Cushing's syndrome. Occasionally other conditions (such as major depression, alcoholism, stress, obesity, kidney failure, pregnancy, or uncontrolled diabetes) can keep cortisol levels from going down after taking a dose of dexamethasone.
The night before the blood test, you will take a pill containing dexamethasone. The next morning, the cortisol level in your blood will be measured. If your cortisol level remains high, Cushing's syndrome may be the cause
Anterior pituitary gland
Secretes GH, Prolactin, LH, FSH, TSH, ACTH,
How does oxytocin and ADH get transported to the posterior pituitary?
through their axons
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Stimulates development of mature ovum during each menstrual cycle, promotes estrogen secretion
action of a lipid soluble hormone
make a new protein
parathyroid glands
located on the outside of the thyroid glands they help deal with the use of calcium and phosphates
What are the 4 types of chemical compounds that have been shown to have hormonal activity?
Steroids
-sex hormones
-adrenal cortex
Polypeptides
-hypothalamic.H
-pituitary. H
-pancreatic. H
Amines
-thyroxine
-epinephrine
-norepinephrine
Fatty acids
-prostaglandins
What is the function of negative feedback?
controls hormone levels
provides hormone secretion to return us to homeostasis
 
 
 
What is Gestational DM (GDM)?
Intolerance to glucose can manifest during pregnancy, where it is termed gestational diabetes (GDM).
Normal increase in the physiologic levels of maternal insulin resistance during gestation stimulated in part by the increase in human chorionic somatomammotropin and estrogen
Physiological increase in maternal insulin production

Risk of perinatal loss and neonatal morbidity is increased when GDM went undetected
Fetal hyperinsulinemia
Increased fetal size (macrosomia)
Which hormones are part of the anterior pituitary
Growth, Thyroid, Adrenocroticotropic, Follicle, Luteinizing, and Prolactin
The endocrine function of the pancreas is performed by small glandular structures called
the islets of Langerhans
What does the pancreas do?
secretes insulin and glucagon and digestive enzymes
What are five characteristics that are necessary for a substance to be classified as a hormone (H)?
chemical substance
secreted by living cells which are isolated in one part of body (glands)
Diffuses or Transported to other parts of the body.
Produces its effect
The cells affected have receptors for the hormone.
 
 
What are the 3 main causes of HypoCalcemia
 
and what are their lab values for
PTH level
Phosphorous level
 
 
Hypoparathyroidism [low PTH, high PHO]
 
Resistance to PTH action or pseudo hypoparathyroidism [high PTH, high Phosphorous]
 
Vitamine D defficiency [high PTH, low phosphorous]
describe synergistic and permissive interactions
2 hormones are synergistic if work together to produce an effect(produce larger effect together than individual effects added together)a hormone has permissive effect if it enhances responsiveness of a target organ to 2nd hormone
How is the effect of a hormone on a target cell altered?
-through amplification
What does the hormone ADH do?
controls renal reabsorption of free water

is a powerful vasoconstrictor
The adrenal glands have two parts. Name them.
the outer cortex and inner medulla
True or False: Epinephrine can act through two second-messenger systems; cAMP and Ca++
True or False: Inhibition of G-proteins would cause an increase in hormone-induced intracellular Ca++ concentrations
Which endocrine gland also has exocrine function?
The pancreas has both endocrine and exocrine cells. Its exocrine function is secreting pancreatic juice which contains digestive enzymes.
T cells or T lymphocytes
A type of white blood cell which play a central role in cell-mediated immunity
What are the differences between water soluble and lipid soluble?
Relative time to onset of response: Water soluble is fast, lipid soluble does this slow.
Relative duration of response: Water soluble is short, Lipid soluble is long.
Relative half life: Water soluble is short, lipid soluble is long.
What could happen if a beta blocker is used before alpha blockade is achieved? (Pheochromocytoma)
may cause a rebound in BP
Why are the sex steroids not important?
the primary source of sex hormones are the gonads rather than the adrenal cortex
 
 
What are some symptoms of Grave's Dz?
Heat intolerance
Weight loss >weight gain
Increased sweating
Cardiac palpitations and achycardia
Diarrhea Amenorrhea/light menses
Tremor Weakness and Fatigue
Nervousness Irritability
Insomnia
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