ENGLISH EXAM Literary Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Motivation
Figurative Language
ominous
menacing; threatening
Chiasmus
A word reversal
Torpor
Laziness; inactivity; dullness
Personification
personificationnounFoote is the personification of heroism embodiment, incarnation, epitome, quintessence, essence, type, symbol, soul, model, exemplification, exemplar, image, representation.
Despotic
Exercising absolute power; tyrannical
irony
suggests discrepancy between appearance and reality
verbal irony - what is said is the opposite of what is meant
dramatic irony - characters reveal inability to understand their own situation
situational irony - incongruity between what the reader expects and what actually happens
exposition
background information on character, events, and conflict needed to understand what is going to happen.
allusion
a passing or casual reference
Rhetoric
Using language effectively to influence or persuade
fiction
stories that are NOT real
Imagism
A twentieth-century movement in European and American poetry which advanced the creation of hard, clear images, concisely written in everyday speech.
Euphony
Attempting to group words together harmoniously, so that the consonants permit an easy and pleasing flow of sound when spoken
Alitteration
the repitition of consonant sounds, especially at the beginning of words. (Peter Piper Picked a Peck of Picked Peppers)
hyperbole
exaggeration for the purpose of emphasis
Analogy
a comparison between two things, typically on the basis of their structure and for the purpose of explanation or clarification : an analogy between the workings of nature and those of human societies | he interprets logical functions by analogy with machines.
SPATIAL
The order of logically describing where things are located or how they are situated.
antagonist
character against the main character, usually the bad guy or villian
"49. paradox"
"a seemingly contradictory statement which may be true"
Anecdote
A little story, often amusing, inserted in an essay or a speech to help reinforce the thesis. 
Litotes
particular form of understatement that generated by denying the opposite or contrary of the word which otherwise would be used. Depending on the tone and context of the usage, it either retains the effect of understatement, or becomes an intensifying expression
 

Heat waves are common in the summer.

Heat waves are not rare in the summer.
contrast
to identify the differences between two or more things
Genre
established type or category of written work
Antagonist
The opponent who struggles against the hero/protaganist. The villian
homily
literally means "sermon;" can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice
myth
a traditional or legendary story, usually concerning some being or hero or event, with or without a determinable basis of fact or a natural explanation, esp. one that is concerned with deities or demigods and explains some practice, rite, or phenomenon of
persuasive technique
Strategies employed (such as emotional appeal or bias) to convince a reader of a writer's point of view.
theme
the central meaning or dominant idea in a literary work; it provides a unifying point around which the plot, characters, setting, point of view, symbols, and other elements of a work are organized
sythesize
combining or bringing together two or more elements to produce something more complex
Assonance
the repetition of similar vowels in the stressed syllables of successive words

juxtaposition

a poetic a rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or
phrases are placed next to one another, often creating an effect of surprise
and wit.
apostrophe
usually in poetry (not grammar, but sometimes in prose), the device of calling out to an imaginary, dead, or absent person or to a place, thing, or personified abstraction either to begin a poem or to make a dramatic break in thought somewhere within the poem
dynamic character
character that changes throughout the story
And the silken sad uncertain, rustling of each purple curtain...
Alliteration
ballad
 a short, narrative folk song that fixes on the most dramatic part of a story, moving to its conclusion by the means of dialogue and a series of incidences.
conceit
a far-fetched metaphor or simile; a concept or idea making a striking parallel between two highly dissimilar things
Enjambment
The continuation of a syntactic unit from one line or couplet of a poem to the next with no pauses. 
Consonance
the repetition of a consonant sound within a series of words to produce a harmonious effect. "And each slow dusk a drawing=down of blinds." ... The d and the s are in consonance.
aside
Words to the audience that are supposed to be thoughts in a character's head
Character
a person or animal of the story
ottava rima
(stanza type)
eight-line stanza (usually iambic pentameter) 

rhyme scheme: abababcc
characterization
methods by which a writer creates people in a story so that thet seem actually to exist
synecdoche
a part stands for the whole
e.g.-all hands on deck; 35 head of cattle
Autobiography
An account of the writer's own life.
sonnet
14-line lyric poem, usually written in iambic pentameter
diction
style of speaking or writing as dependent upon choice of words:
Motif
a term for an often-repeated idea or theme in literature.
paradox
A statement in which there is an apparent contradiction which is actually true.
Foreshadowing
A hint to what's happenening next in the story
metaphor
a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity
Monologue
A (usually long) dramatic speech by a single actor
protagonist
The main character in a drama or other literary work
any kind of fallacious argument that criticizes an idea by pointing something out about the person who holds the idea, rather than directly addressing the actual merit of the ideal

Example: "Of course that writer supports gun control; she's a Democrat!
ad hominem
PROBLEM-SOLUTION
The format of stating a problem and then offering a solution.
Colloquialism
A word or phrase used in everyday conversation and informal writing, but that is often inappropriate for formal writing.
Falling Action
The sequence of events which follow the climax and end in the resolution. 
Flashback
An interruption to go to an earlier event that disturbs the chronological order
DIALECT
the speech pattern of a region or class
soliloquy
a speech delivered by a character when he or she is alone on stage
symbolism
a sign of something other than its literal meaning -- that image which stands of another or "higher" meaning than the literal one
Oxymoron
A figure of speech that puts together two opposing or contradictory ideas.
Forms of Dicourse
A system of classifying writing according to its purpose. (description, narration, exposition, and persuasion)
parody
a work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule
metonymy
A figure of speech that consists of the use of the name of one object or concept for that of another to which it is related, or of which it is a part, as scepter for sovereignty, or the bottle for strong drink, or count heads or noses for cou
Pun
The humorous use of a word or phrase to suggest two or more meanings.
Foreshadow
To give hints or glues of the future or future situation.
OXYMORON
An oxymoron is a figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory terms in a brief phrase.
Picaresque Novel
An episodic novel about a a rogue-like wanderer who lives off his wits.
Legend
A legend is a widely told story about the past.
plot
the action or sequence of events in a narrative or a drama. the events are arranged to catch and hold our interest as we proceed through the work
CHEVILLE
A WORD OR PHRASE USED BY POETS TO SECURE THE NECESSARY NUMBER OF SYLLABLES IN A LINE OF VERSE SO IT SCANS PROPERLY.
third person omniscient POV
narrator relates the thoughts and feelings of ALL characters
3rd person
Narrator is not one of the characters, but stands "outside" events and uses third person pronouns
Structure
The way that a work of literature is put together.
Epithet
a word or phrase used in place of a person's name; it is characteristic of that person.
I know not what course others may take but give me liberty or give me death
Patrick henry
verbal irony
when you say the opposite of what you mean, sarcasm meant to cause pain
POINT OF VIEW
The point of view is the vantage point from which the writer tells a story.
3rd Person Limited Point of View
the perspective of a story told from a narrator who reveals the thoughts of only one character
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