causes of reformation Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Savonarolla
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Sola Scriptura
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Puritans
Calvinists in England
Johann Tetzel
Invented indulgences
Idolatry
The worship of idols.
Ignatius Loyola
established the Jesuits
Pluralism
led to absenteeism (church officeholders ignored their duties and hired underlings who weren't always qualified)
Ulrich Zwingli
lead reformer in Zurich
Elizabeth
Moves England very protestant, compromises, good politics
Amish
American follower of the Mennonite religion, people who live in rural areas, refuse to use electricity and other modern things, and dress very plainly.
Results Of Reformation
Short Term:
Strenghened civil authority
ended religious unity
Fostered Nationalism
Led to religious wars
Dutch rebel
Spanish naval war
French civil war
Edict Of Nantes
John Calvin
Instituting banishment and public whippings, he turned Geneva into a Protestant paradise
1398
Invention of printing with moveable type.
Augsburg Confession
document that summarized Luther's teachings
Propaganda Wars
Controlling public opinion, spreading of ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause
Mary Tudor
Catherine of Aragon's surviving daughter. Became queen after Edward died. Tried to convert England back to the Catholic faith. Hundreds of English Protestants were burned for heresy during her riegn.
John Knox
established the Presybeterian Church in England
1618
two unhappy Protestants threw Catholic officials out of a window
Index
List of books prohibited by Catholic Church
Counter-Reformation
Catholic Church's attempt to stop the protestant movement and to strengthen the Catholic Church
Plenary
indulgence that remits all time spent in purgatory
Laity
the body of religious worshipers, as distinguished from the clergy.
Bishop
Originally a spiritual overseer in the Christian Church. Ruled over dioceses, which are made up of a number of different parishes. Higher than an priest but lower in rank than a cardinal.
Machiavelli
Wrote "The Prince", a book that recommended harsh and arbitrary rule for princes
Hapsburg
a royal German family that provided rulers for several European states and wore the crown of the Holy Roman Empire from 1440 to 1806
1517 (AD)
Martin Luther issues the 95 Theses
Martin Luther
fought aganist the selling of indulgences, believed people could only win slavation through forgiveness, teachings based on the word of the Bible, people w/ faith were equal
Instituted the Act of Supremacy
King Henry VIII
Peace of Westphalia
recognized the independent authority of the German princes. Made the peace of Augsburg permanent with addition of Calvinism
simony
the selling of official positions in the medieval roman catholic church
Jesuits
Members of the society of Jesus founded by Ignatius
Thomas More
A Catholic, Christian humanist advisor of King Henry VIII (England), and author of 'Utopia' (in 1516); his book talked about a 'perfect' fictional society, which became the paragon for Utopian Socialists, who set up communities in the 1800s; Thomas was beheaded after he opposed King Henry VIII's split from the Roman pope; in 1935, he was made a saint.
Ecclesiastical Ordinances
Written by John Calvin that defines organization of the church and the relations between the political and religious powers in Geneva
Great Schism
the split within the Catholic Church with 2 popes.
Wycliff
Name one of three heretics named in Class.
ignatius of Loyola
Spaniard and Roman Catholic theologian and founder of the Society of Jesus
recant
to withdraw a statement or belief to which one has previously been committed
Henry VIII
The first Tudor of England, married Catherine of Aragon after his brother married her, then died.
Jane Seymour
produced male heir (edward) for Henry and died in child birth
the elect
chosen ones who are predetermined to go to heaven in calvinism
Union of Ultrecht
William the Silent's Protestant union; opposes the Spanish; in the north; free of Spain long before the Union of Arras
95 Theses
-They were a reaction against John Tetzel.
-On Oct. 31 1517, Luther posted the 95 formal statements on the church door at the Wittenburg castle.
-These statements were attacking indulgences.
-His words were copied and mass printed, causing the Reformation to begin.
Council of Constance
condemned Wycliffe's writings and dug up his bones and burned them
Areas the Reformation Spread
presbyterians, huguenots, puritans and pilgrims
Mary I
This was the queen who reverted back to Catholicism in England for five years and during this reign, she executed many Protestants. She was the wife of Philip II of Spain and when she restored Roman Catholicism to England many Protestants were burned at the stake as heretics (1516-1558)
Leo X
______ was the Pope that began the whole Indulgences business
Clement 5th
Which pope moved church from Rome to Avignon?
Edward I
Led England in the fight against the Scots who were funded b Phillip IV of France
Neo-Platonism
Views based on the ideas of Plato that one should search beyond appearances for true knowledge
this item helped Luther's new ideas spread faster
the printing press
Edict Of Nantes / Henery IV
Religious tolerance for Huguenots
Diet of Worms
Charles V's assembly of German estates that declared Luther's teachings heretical.
Congregation
an assembly of people that belong to a church
indulgences
piece of paper that had to be paid for that was a complete pardon of sins, used to have to do a good act to get one but eventually had to be bought
"Institutes of the Christian Religion"
written by John Calvin, expresses beliefs in protestant thought and the sovereignty of God
what is clerical ignorance
preists who lacked education and could not read or write. could recite mass in latin but didnt know what they were saying
Edict of Nantes
passed by Henry IV to allow Huguenots to practice in certain areas
scepter
a rod or wand borne in the hand as an emblem of regal or imperial power
Translating the Bible
A bible NOT written in Latin; a bible that anyone could read.
Defender of the Faith
title given to Henry VIII by the Pope in recognition of Henry's written attacks on Martin Luther
The Institutes of the Christian Religion
Book written by John Calvin containing two main beliefs: 1. Predestination and 2. Good works are a sign that you are destined for Heaven. Led to the "Protestant Work Ethic".
The main idea of John Calvin's teachings
God's will decides everything in the world in advance
Where did Luther first defend his 95 Theses?
At the Disputation of Leipzig (vs. Eck)
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