causes of the civil war Flashcards

Terms Definitions
1st general
battle of shiloh
U.S divide socially
ulysses s. grant
prevents entrance or access.
-Confederacy wins
-Lee splits army
-Stonewall Jackson is shot by his own men and dies
-Leads to final push North
Belle Boyd
female spy for Union
growing crops and rasing animals
(adv) promptly and without formality
a warship covered in iron
Silas Trip
escaped African-American slave; joined the volunteer 54th Massachusetts Regiment (Glory)
Fort Sumter
following Lincoln's election, South Carolina seceded from the Union, and the Confederates attacked, start of the war
Thomas Jefferson
President of the United States
Nathan Bedford Forrest
raised own cavalry (S)
Thirteenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
To remove from office is called?
Popular Sovereignty
Residents vote to decide an issue
free state
states that did not permit slavery
10 percent plan
reestablished governments required to ratify the 13th amendment
Frederick Douglas
Former slave who became important member of the abolitionists movement
north stategies
capture Richmond, Virginia the capital of the CSA
Abe Lincoln
President during Civil war wrote emancipation Proclamation, freed slaves, etc.
Army Women
Nurses, Spies, Mde things like blankets and ammo
the Union
The Northern states were members of
Union general who won at Vicksburg, Fort Henry, and Shiloh
Ten union states
Maine Massachusetts new York Pennsylvania Connecticut rhode island Ohio Michigan Wisconsin Minnesota
Textile Mills
Factories that turned cotton into thread
KIeran ckocd
he is the best pwrocox kdhdndn
lincoln believed that secession of the southern states was
Black Codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Emancipation Proclamation
a document granting freedom to all slaves in states that were rebelling against the US
Battle of Antietam
"bloodiest day" of the war, confederates lost
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
union soldiers had to build a bridge to cross the rappahannock river
George McClellan
What Union general was a good organizer, but too slow and cautious?
The issue of states' rights played a part in the war because it caused problems for the
a selection or drawing of persons, by lot or otherwise, from the general body of the people for military service
Enrollment Act
Instituted a draft for the Northern army. Substitution Clause said if you can't serve than you could pay $300 and find a substitute
disadvantage in the South
constitution favored states rights over nation rights (weak central government)
who was another famous northern general? (he was known for his 'scorched earth' tactics)
william t. sherman
Salmon P. Chase
Ambitious secretary of the treasury who wanted to replace Lincoln as president in 1864.
Washington D.C.
where the capital of the Union was located
Border States
Slave states that did not join the Confederacy and were Deleware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri.
Civil War
The 1860s war that was fought between American citizens of the North against citizens of the South.
Democratic Party
More power for states, less for a national govt. , Were southern, pro slavery. Went to Whigs& democrats. (Whigs thought Jackson was crazy)
Militia Act
This gave Lincoln the ability to call the state militias, which included drafted troops, into federal services
battle of fredericksburg
general burnside wanted to march union army into richmond
- lee's army blocked the path at fredericksburg
- union had 13,000 casualties and south had 5,000
Member of the Union Army in the Civil War
city where the Battle at Bull Run took place
Habeas Corpus
right to know why you are being held
John Brown's raid
attempted to arm slaves with weapons, hoping to get rid of slavery
Dred Scott vs Stanford
Ruled that African-Americans had no rights in America.
Stephen A. Douglas
"I won the debates, but he became President"
US Grant
Who was a general that never lost a battle, but was unsuccessful before the civil war?
required all citizens to help capture runaway slaves
Explain the Fugitive Act
Commander of the Confederate Army (the Army of Northern Virginia) during the Civil War.
General Robert E. Lee
congressional committee on the conduct of war
congressional body dominated by radical republicans
Radical Republicans
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
Congress passed the 13th Amendment on Jan. 31, 1865 (ratified December 6, 1865) -
Ended slavery in the U.S.
Battle of Bull Run
Major shock and set-back for the North that ends Lincoln's hp[e of winning the war in 90 days
who was the second union commander
general mcclellan he was very hesitant
What was the Free soil party?
- consisted of former anti-slavery members of Whig Party & Democratic Party.
- main purpose was opposing the expansion of slavery into the western territories, arguing that free men on free soil comprised a morally and economically superior system to slavery, also that slaves took thier jobs
- later absorbed into republican party
How did grant treat Confederate soldiers after the surrender at Appomattox court house?
he treated them with kindness. gave the hungery soliders food and them keep there personal posseccions and their horses and ride home peaceably
describe battle of antieton
there were 30 000 me killed. it was the bloodiest day of the civil war lee retreated and the south only lost 15 to 16 thousand men. the north lost 19000
What was Lincoln doing about it?
He was desperately trying to keep the Union together
what happened when Lee tried to get into the mountains
Grant blocked Lee's path to the mountains and Lee surrenders
what did soldiers do b/c of all the casualties?
they pinned their names on their uniforms so they could be identified when they died
8th general
Ft. Sumter-Result
North surrendered
freeing of slaves
who proposes nullification?
john calhoun
Cone-shaped minie balls
greater accuracy
Ambrose Burnside
McClellan's short-lived replacement who tried to move toward Richmond by crossing the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg. He launched a series of hopeless, bloody attacks on Lee. He withdrew to the north bank of the Rappahannock. He was relieved at his own request and 1862 ended with a series of frustrations for the Union.
(n) appropriate behavior and ceremonies
John Wilkes Booth
Assassinated Abraham Lincoln
Capital of Confederacy; capturing it was third part of anaconda plan; Jefferson Davis fled from here to run the government on a train
Village in Mississippi. Held by confederates. Union attacked Vicksburg from the rear. After 6 weeks siege, Vicksburg surrendered, Union victory.
Union plan
capture supply lines, capture Richmond, capture Mississippi River to split the Confederacy
when was the cotton gin invented?
Stonewall Jackson
killed at Chancelorsville during Shenandoah campaign
Civil War considered
The second American Revolution
Largest COnfederate Army
Lee's army of Northern Virginia
South's last hope of winning Great Britain's help
someone who wants to "abolish" (get rid) of slavery
Robert E lee
General of the Confederates (South)
Richmond, VA
The capital of the Confederacy was
battle that gave the Union complete control of the Mississippi River
The battle that gave Richmond complete control of the Mississippi river
Becomes the most popular southern crop ("king cotton") in the early 1800's as a result of Eli Whitneys Cotton Gin
What was William Lloyd Garrison's abolitionist newspaper?
The Liberator
what supreme court decision overturned efforts to limit the spread of slavery and outraged abolitionist?
dred scott
To spread out armies to create a battle line
Andrew Johnson
"I never thought I would be impeached"
reconstruction act
divided the former confederacy into 5 military districts and appointed military officers with broad powers to govern each districts also dictated a state be readmitted by guaranteeing blacks the right to vote and ratifying the 13th and 14th amendments
battle of gettysburg
Turning point of the Civil War
Two senate candidates; had a series of debates about slavery
system by which goods and services are produced and distributed to meet people's needs
john brown
planned to capture arsenal at harpors ferry ABOLITIONIST
Commander of the Union armies after Bull Run
George McClellan
John Buford
first Union general who hit Gettysburg and held it for other Union generals
Confederate victories
Ft. Sumter, Battle of Bull Run (Manassas), Peninsular Campaign, Second Battle of Bull Run, Battle of Fredericksburg, Battle of Chancerville,
Merrimack and Monitor
confederate ironclad _________ sank a number of Union ships; Union countered with the ironclad _______, in the end, both withdrew
how many states were there at the beginning of the civil war?
a long range plan made to reach a goal
General Sherman
"March to the Sea" and "March through the Carolinas" destroyed railroads, plantations, and other Confederate resources
Compromise of 1850
In 1850 there were fifteen slave states and fifteen free slave states. California did not allow slavery. The Congress passed five laws called the Compromise of 1850. California came into the Union as a free states and threw off the balance of slave and free states. Slave trade was stopped in D.C.
The Sack of Lawrence
Kansas: Pro slavery faction sacks Lawrence, Kansas
Appomattox Courthouse
Virginia; April 9, 1865; Lee (C) Grant (U); Lee surrenders to Grant; war over
va- RR center. a 9 month siege. pa coal miners built a tunnel underneath csa, put gunpowder and blew it up!massacre!
confederate states of america
the confederation formed by the southern states after their secession from the union
Much of this place was burned to the ground and Shirman distroyed the main railroad line.
Compromise of 1877
Rutherford B. Hayes won the 1876 presidential election and agreed to remove the remaining federal troops from the South
a group of people joined for a common purpose, (forever)
Robert Gould Shaw
Who was the leader of the Massachusetts 54th Infantry?
A ship that had iron plates on it. The first battle was Merrimac vs. Monior in 1862.
amount of emotion about pro-slavery vs anti-slavery lead to violence.
What was bleeding kansas?
George B. McClellan
George B. McClellan was a general for northern command of the Army of the Potomac in 1861; nicknamed "Tardy George" because of his failure to move troops to Richmond; lost battle vs. General Lee near the Chesapeake Bay; Lincoln fired him twice.
kansas-nebraska act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Sherman's March to Sea
60 mile path through Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina
Compromise of 1850:
1. CA admitted as a free state
2. New Mexico and Utah have self-determination
3. Sale of slaves banned in Washington, D.C.; slavery legal
4. Fugitive Slave Act: All citizens of U.S. assist in returning runaway slaves; slaves have no right to jury trials
Battle of Richmond again
Third and final try to capture the Southern capital
lose another attempt at Richmond
besides the death, this is the significance of Chancellorsville
Who was William Lloyd Garrison?
- editor of abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, a founder of the American Anti-Slavery Society
- promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States
- prominent voice for the women's suffrage movement
- kinda got super crazy libral and went sorta kinda nutz
What factors contributed to the spread of disease among soliders?
rotten food, bad hygeine, outdoor latrines
Private Elisha hunt Rhodes
Served in the union forces and kept a diary and is quoted a lot.
Tariffs protected factory owners and workers against foreign competition
Why did the North favor tariffs before the Civil War?
why the Confederate troops entered Gettysburg
they need shoes and there was a shoe factory in Gettysburg
what happened to the soldiers b/c of the fire/smoke?
began firing on their own people, they couldnt see through the smoke
stale bread
anaconda plan
mexican cession
ca,nevada,utah,co,arizona,new mexico,texas
make or declare sacred
(adj) based on guesswork
big weapons, like cannons
Constitutional Union
political party, for compromise
Mark Antony
married Octavian's sister Octavia
Monroe Doctorine
james monroe's statement warning european nations not to colonize or interfere in the americas
charged excessive prices for goods that the government desperately needed for the war
confederacy surrendered
Sherman's march to the sea
someone who dies for their beliefs
Northerner who traveled south to make money off of the Reconstruction-a corrupt opportunist
Soldiers mounted on horse back fighing as a unit.
Negative term Southerners gave to the Northerners who moved to the south during reconstruction
Elijah Hunt Rhodes
Kept a diary, Rhode island
(v) prevent by acting ahead of time
Union army gained greater control of the Mississippi river valley and it was the 1st "megabattle" with over 2000 casualties
Plantation agriculture
SE Southern agriculture required slave labor, without it it would collapse
conoidal bullets
pointed bullets that do more damage
Name of the South during Civil War
Northern Democrats
Supported Lincoln. Douglass was their leader till he died.
For Sumter
attack on which kicked off civil war
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
American reformer who organized the first convention for Women's Rights
14 amendment
africian american men have the right to vote
Republican Party
Politcial Party made up of Free Soilers, Northern Democrats, and Anti-slavery Whigs who were against slavery
what is stonewalls jackson real name
thomas j jackson
Gettysburg Address
Speech given by Abraham Lincoln which captured the spirit of liberty and morality ideally held by citizens of a democracy. That ideal was threatened by the Civil War.
Conquering bear
killed at fort laramie in skirmish with mormons
womans order
order issued by benjamin butler during civil war that stated a woman could be treated disrespectfully if she insulted a union soldier
Andrew Johnson's Plan
Similar to Lincoln's plan offering forgiveness but also gave amnesty to Confederate Leaders
Emanicipation Proclamation
an order issued by president abraham lincoln freeing the slaves in areas rebelling against the union
who won the battle at fredericksburg?
gen. lees army
Leadership[Civilan & Military
*Factories & bussinsesses continued to continue to operate * Run by wemon during the war, but men took over again after the war *Many people from North came to the South to start new businesses *Slaves returened to plantaition. *Sharecroppers people who rented land & paid with a portion of their crops
Clement L. Vallandigham
Prominent Copperhead who was an ex-congressman from Ohio, demanded an end to the war, and was banished to the Confederacy
"Bleeding Kansas" describes:
the struggle between pro-slavery and anti-slavery movements as a result of popular sovereignty
Ex Parte Merriman
Chair justice Robert Taney ruled that safe guards of Habeas Corpus could only be set aside by Congress.
another name for the south
confederacy (confederated states of america)
where was the slave trade outlawed in the compromise of 1850?
washington dc
grandfather clause
law that excused a voter from a literacy test if his grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867- protects the voting rights of southern whites but not those of southern blacks
what was the most productive iron works in the nation in the late 1840's
tredegar iron works
If a strength of CSA, write CSA if strength of USA, write USA
Fighting to preserve union/end slavery (motivation)
This new type of bullet led to higher death tolls than previous wars
Pacific Railway Act (1862)
authorized the building of a transcontinental railroad over a northern route in order to link the economies of California and the western territories to the Eastern states
REsult of this made the missouri compromise unconstitutional
Dred Scott decision
Presidential Election of 1864
McClellan vs. Lincoln; Lincoln had a dream that he wouldn't win, but due to many military victories, Lincoln won
Seven Days' Battles
series of Civil War battles in which the Confederate army successfully forced the Union army to retreat from Virginia
Which did not cause sectional differences that resulted in the U.S. Civil War
Abolotion of slavery in England
Of Missouri, Tennessee, Maryland, and West Virginia, which states stayed in the union?
Missouri, Maryland and West Virginia
Weaknesses For South
they had fewer men, they didnt have good supplies and food that was available to them
Fredericksburg & Chancellorsville
In May of 1863, Union commander Joseph Hooker attemted to flack Lee's troops near these towns, but retreated after several defeats.
Merrimack (also called Virginia)
Southern ship in the famous naval battle
Monitor vs. Merrimack
to fight the blockade by the Union the Confederates reconstructed the Merrimack and destroyed Union ships in the Chesapeake Bay. The Union sent in the Monitor to fight back neither side could claim a victory.
Who won this battle?
After a day of fighting and burning the fort to the ground, the Union surrendered
Houston removed from office
because he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, Convention decides he could no longer hold the office of governor, office of governor declared vacant, Lincoln offered to send troops to keep him in office, Houston declined the offer and left office, Lt. Governor Edward Clark took his place.
what happened when the south got close to the north?
they fired and killed them
they saw that if the North won, slavery would end
why was black northerners more positive towards the emancipation proclamation?
Miss. River- Western Camp; App. Mts.- Eastern Camp.
What were the two areas of the south?
andrew johnson's veto of the civil rights act of 1866
The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was a counterattack against the Black Codes in the southern United States, but was struck down by President Andrew Johnson who believed that blacks were unqualified to be citizens of the United States. He was also concerned that the bill would only protect the colored without regard for the white man. Johnson was notable for being the president who issued the most vetoes to attempt to stop many of the laws Congress tried to pass, like the renewal of the Freedmen's Bureau. However, Congress had enough of this veto power, and the Republicans in Congress chose to override the presidential veto on April 9, 1866. It was one of the moments that led to the growing alienation of President Johnson as well as fodder for his 1868 impeachment.
to leave
Stonewall Jackson
freedom of choice
the people decide
popular sovereignty
Withdrawal from the Union.
1/6 700,000
promised land jews moses canaan
when was the underground railroad created?
Southerners who helped the Northern politicians
people who believed that slavery should be against the law
soldiers from the north were called
commadant of Andersonville (POW Camp), toughest S camp, coincidentally he was Austrian
def: sub-group of Democrats who wanted peace, not war
sig: showed difference of opinion in North, not everyone against slavery and for war
fifteenth amendment
amendment to the constitution ratified in 1870 that gave the right to vote to male citizens of all races
lee surrenders to grant, civil war ends
Rebel Yell
nickname given to the high-pitch scream made by Confederates at the 1st Battle of Bull Run
John Breckinridge
southern democrat, election of 1860. Platform: extension of slavery, annexation of Cuba.
North against & South for; forcing people to work against their will
plessy fergusson
supreme court approved segregation in facilities that were separate but equal
Confed general - wins battles in Kentucky -
David Dixon Porter
Commanded Morter Flotilla on the Mississippi, later commanded a fleet of ironclads
keep in safety and protect from harm, decay, loss, or destruction
Braxton Bragg
CSA officer defeated a Perrysville and Murfeesboro
talk for the sake of reasoning with someone
slaves were required to have these in order to go into town or to prove their freedom
Bull Run
shoed that both the northern and southern soldiers needed training
norths advantages were?
bigger population, more industry and abundunt resources, better banking system, more ships, larger more efficiet railway network, and abraham was an unexpected war leader
Dred Scott
United States slave who sued for liberty after living in a non-slave state.
Abraham Lincoln
president of the united states during the Civil War
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
David Farragut
Who was the Union admiral who commanded the fleet in southern Louisiana?
Writ of Habeus Corpus
Court order requiring that the imprisonment of a person be justified; a fundamental right suspended by President Lincoln during the Civil War.
Battle of Atlanta
Union Victory, led by William Sherman, captures city of Atlanta
African Americans fight
def:allowed to fight in Union army
sig: big step for North, b. regiments not treated as well as white. dont earn as much money, cant be above a captain, get more laborious jobs (higher death rate), racism, not treated with same respect, without their manpower may not have won war
Battle of Vicksburg (1863)
Last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River
that was captured by General Grant. Effectively cut the Confederacy in half.
600 thousand
how many people died in the civil war?
Slavery in Connecticut
textile mills relied on cotton from plantations in the south worked by slaves
crucifixion thesis (either way...)
Lincoln would've been impeached either way bcs wasn't hard enuf on S
Dred Scott Decision
(Dred Scott vs. Stanford 1857) (1857) Dred Scott was an American slave who was taken first to Illinois, a free state, and then Wisconsin, a free territory, for an extended period of time, and then back to the slave state of Missouri. After his original master died, he sued for his freedom. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Congress could not prohibit slavery in the territories, on the grounds that such a prohibition would violate the Fifth Amendment rights of slaveholders, and that no black person could be a citizen of the United States.
Who was mary lyon?
started first women's college "Mount Holyoke"
Popular Soverignty
before the Civil War, the idea that people living in a territopry had the right to decide by voting if slavery would be avoided there
Battle of Chancellorsville
Major battle in Civil War. South won. Stonewall Jackson accidentally shot and killed by his own men after the battle.
Plessy v. Ferguson
RR could separate cars if they were equal (1896)
12.What was Sherman's March?
It was the journey that General William T. Sherman led Union soldiers on as they marched from Georgia through South Carolina burning towns and plantations (causing a lot of destruction) during the war.
where did most of the fighting take place?
in the south
What is the name of the cemetary dedicated for the
Gettysburg National Cemetery
How did Grant stop Lee?
Lee tried to escape but Grants forces got ahead of Lees troops and blocked the road at Appomattix Courthouse
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 1857
Dred Scott, a slave, had been taken from Missouri, a slave state, to Illinois, a free state, and then back to Missouri. Scott sued for his freedom arguing that he by living in a free state he was free. Court ruled that Scott did not have the right to sue because, as a slave, he was not a citizen of the United States and that the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was unconstitutional because Congress denied slaveowners their property without due process.
Lowered the Court's prestige amongst northerners and widened the sectional divide. Invalidated popular sovereignty as a solution to the statehood slavery question.
What Southern General surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant
Robert E. Lee surrendered to Grant, at the Appomatox Court house in VA
Hooker fails to stop Lee so what does Lincoln do?
He switches generals again, George Mead this time
What did the Union soldiers do when they heard that reinforcements were on their way?
They decided to act, and demanded that the federals leave Fort Sumter or else
"Redemption" ("redeemers")
13th Amendment
abolished slavery
Confederate or southerner
Lecompton Constitution
Kansas Act allowed slavery
General Jackson was killed there
unfair treatment to a particular group
Daring Union naval leader from Tennessee whohad the task of capturing New Orleans
23,000 casualties, stalement 3 days, south retreat, lincoln mad that general didnt total "destroy" conferderates when he had the opportunity so fired him and hired U.S Grant. , the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
to not take part in some activity
william s. rosecrans
union general, replaced buell, defended murfressboro
Blockade Runner
Southern who slipped past Northern defenses
king cotton
Expression used by Southern authors and orators before Civil War to indicate economic dominance of Southern cotton industry, and that North needed South's cotton. Coined by James Hammond
Advantages of South
only had to deffend
had the "cause"
Overland Campaign
known also as the Wilderness campaign was a series of battles that Grant and Lee engaged in that ended in heavy casualties and no victor
smaller rivers that flow into a larger river
A system in which landowners give farm workers land, seed, and tools in return for a part of the crops they raise
Battle of Monitor and Merrimack
The battle of iron clads.
A novel, "Uncle Tom's Cabin," changed many attitudes about the cruelty of slavery. This novel was written by ____.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
The Freedmen's Bureau
Developed by Congress on March 8, 1865. Dedicated to educating, training, and providing financial and moral support for former slaves. White Southerners campaigned against it. President Johnson allowed it to expire in 1872. In general, it helped a former slaves achieve some degree of success. Freed slaves began to develop a political unity, learned civil responsibility, and began entering politics.
One part of the Compromise of 1850 was the creation of the New Mexico and this territory
what was abraham lincolns goal at the beginning of the civil war?
preserve the union
Fugitive Slave Laws
made northerns upset that they had to help slavery
Kansas Nebraska act
a law that allowed the people in kansas and nebraska to decide of slavery would be legal.
war of attrition
A war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses
Pottawatomie Massacre
John Brown let a part of six in Kansas that killed 5 pro-slavery men. This helped make the Kansas border war a national issue.
Shearman's march to the sea
atlanta to savannah then north to meet grant
What did southern slaveholders think about slavery?
They thought that slavery should be allowed in any territory
why did lincoln free only the slaves in the confederate states?
thought constitution allowed it as a military move
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