causes of the French Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Marie Antoinette
...
Old Regime
...
en or
golden
suffrage
right to vote
les conseils
the advice
Napoleon's Invasion of Russia
1812
National Assembly
the third estate
Estates General
-aristocracy
-clergy
-Third estate -Bourgeoisie
venality
susceptibility to bribery or corruption, as in the use of a position of trust for dishonest gain
estate
a class or social ranking
Cahiers
Notebooks preparared, listing their grievances.
Peasants and Artisans
freedom to eat
abolish
to put an end to
9th of thermidor
Robispierre overthrown and executed
guild
A medieval organization of crafts workers or trades people.
who made the concert of europe
meternich
relics of feudalism
aristocratic privileges; obligations owed by peasants to landlords
catalyst
something that causes an important event to happen
Jacobins
extreme radicals, didn't want anyone to support the king
Marat
Danton, Robespiere, Leaders of the Mountain.
Sceintific revolution
-ptolomy decieded each was "geocentric
-coppernicus though world was heliocentric: scientificially proven
-importance of reason and knowledge, instead of religion
-Galilio-astronomy
transfomation is sceince
-newtons laws of motion
-development and empasis of scientific method
-logic over faith
When is Bastille Day
July 14, 1789
weather
this ultimately destroyed French in Russia
Rene Descartes continued...
father of analytical geometry, "Thought cannot be separated from me, there for I exist", mind and body
taille
tax on property and land, provided permanent income for French royal government
Emigres
French nobility who fled France to escape the Revolution.
Continental System
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
Sir Isaac Newton
Principia, law of Universal Gravitation
Girondins
Wanted King Louis XVI kept alive; feared radical mobs; represented areas outside of the cities
Thomas Paine
*Born in England, move to Philadelphia.;
*Became Known as a Revolutionary protagonist authority of the British Government and the Royal monarchy. Main arguments of Common Sense-American Independence.
Napoleon
Takes control of France Nov. 9, 1799
abdication
to surrender the position of ruler (Napoleon does this)
Directory
New government that was under control making it a conservative period.
The Assignats
the assembly authorized the issuance of Assignats, essentially a government bond, in the December of 1789. Their value is guaranteed by revenue generated from the sale of church property. These bonds were so accepted that they circulated as currency. . The assembly issued them to liquidate the national debt and create a body of property owners with a stake in the revolution. However, in a few months, the value of Assignats began to fall in inflation. Put more stress on the urban poor.
People of France were divided into three large social classes
Estates
feudalism
a system in which emperor /king granted land to nobles in exchange for their loyalty.
king
nobility
knight
peasants.
Third Estate
Made up of peasants. Embraced the ideas of Enlightenment. Makes up 98%.
Olympe de Gouges
a journalist that demanded equal rights in her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen.
Reign of Terror
A period (1793-1794) when brutal measures were taken to eliminate enemies and critics of the revolutionary republic set up in France.
louis XVI
king of france during the french revolution, a weak leader who spent more than france had
who was the old regime consisted
people of france
the mountain
a group contesting control of the National Convention in France led by Robespierre and Georges Jacques Danton
The Revolution Begins
*They burned the feudal document because they want freedom and liberty.
Maximilien Robespierre
slowly gather control into his own hands.
Estate System
1. Clergy 2. Aristocracy 3. Other (97%) - most heavily taxed
Civil Code
created by Napolean to preserve the revolutionary gains of the people
Aristocracy
government in which power is vested in a minority
Failure at Moscow
September 14, 1812 napoleon reached the city but it was emptied.
the Great Fear
Peasants unleashed their fury on nobles and clergy in reaction to..
Bastille
grim midievl fortress used as a prison for political and other prisoners
Legislative Assembly
a French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the Constitution of 1791
Napoleonic Code
aka Civil Code. A code of law Bonaparte had that preserved most of the rights gained by the Revolution.
Duke of Wellington
leader of the combined British and Prussian army; would defeat Napoleon at Waterloo
Congress of Vienna
Assembly of European leaders that met after the Napoleonic era to piece Europe back together. They met from September 1814 to June 1815.
Court Nobles
lived with the king in Versailles, had little authority over king's decisions
Tithe
Pay a tenth of one's income, to the church
The Enlightenment
A period within the 18th century in which thought and reason came before religion.
The Terror
a period in which the constitution was post-poned and thousand of suspected "counter-revolutionaries" were killed
Country Card
Louis XVI agreed to call the Estates General after how many years of inactivity?
A: 175 years.
peasant
a member of the lowest social class in Europe, who were small farm workers/laborers.
End of the Empire
treaty of fontainebleau , exiled napoleon to the island of Elba.
radicals
the group of delegates who sat on the left side of the meeting hall and were opposed to the idea of kings and monarchies. They wanted sweeping changes in government and wanted the common people to have full power
Declaration of the Rights of Man
French constitution patterned after the United States Constitution.
Why did Danton fall out of favour?
He wasn't extreme/radical enough.
Fall of the Bastille
hundreds of hungry people stormed the fort in search for bread, guns, and gun powder to save the National Assembly
Committee of public safety
fought real and imagined enemies of revolution (really just to keep their position of power), guillotined up to 40,000 people mostly 3rd estate
louis brought troops to versailles
what caused anger in the people
Phase of Revolution: Liberal
Also known as the radical phase (?); Second phase of revolution; Oligarchy (?)
What did other European countries do about the French revolution?(may not be actual question)
Other European countries attacked France to support the king.
Delectation of the Rights of Man
Revolutionary document of the French Revolution. Written in 1789, it spelled out certain rights believed to be universal to all mankind. Patterned on the American Declaration of Independence
Tennis Court Oath
famous oath made on a tennis court by members of the third estate
October 5 : PARISIAN BREAD RIOT
PARISIAN BREAD RIOT: women gather at Hotel de Ville, demand bread
decide to march on Versailles to appeal to King
Social Servies provided by the first estate
Ran buses, schools, hospitals and orphanages
What did the third class begin to hear that made them want to revolt?
ideas about rights (natural, unalienable)
declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen
A document, issued during the French Revolution that guaranteed certain human rights and other freedoms.
Why were tensions high in Paris in July 1789?
Rising price of bread and expectation of reform
Revolution
change
king
above everyone
First Estate
clergy
Metric System
John Wilkins
Englishman
The Bastille
armory, fort, prison.
Cahier
a Notebook listing grievences
Bourgeoisie
educated middle class; philosophes
Who was the king?
Louis XVI
1774-1792
reign of King Louis XVI
3rd Estate
• Peasants
- Bourgeoisie
o Educated
o Paid high taxes
o Lacked privileges
- Workers of France
o Paid low wages and were usually out of work
- Peasants as a whole
o Paid about their income in dues to the nobles, tithes to the church, and taxes to the kings agents
o Paid taxes on basic staples even
Kabuki
A form of Japanese drama
national assemblh/oath part of
old regime
departements
counties or administrative division were put in the place of historic provinces (Brittany,Normandy), this ultimately had the effect of weakening traditional,local,loyalties and shifting primary loyalty to the french nation
l'Autriche
l'ennemite du France dont Marie Antoinette est venue
parlements
high courts of appeal that registered
Rise of Napoleon
Strengthened central government, Napoleonic Code, order, security, and efficiency was the new slogan of the New Regime
july 14, 1789
Storming of the Bastille
Consitution of 1791
constitutional monarchy replaces absolutism. assembly is now law making body and issues war
which rev? king allows national assembly to form
first
legitimacy
restoring hereditary monarchs that the french revolution or napoleon had unseated
Concordat
a formal agreement especially one between the Pope and a governemnt dealing with the control of Church affairs
Quadruple Alliance
G.B., Austria, Prussia, and Russia united to defeat France and their Bonapartism, and also to ensure peace after war. After Napoleon, they restored the Bourbon monarchy to France.
Radical Stage
Third Stage of Revolution-Reign of Terror
August Decrees
created by national assembly, equality before law, abolish "Feudal Regime", tithes, hunting rights, etc
Jacques Necker
King Louis XVI famous economic advisor, often dismissed, he might have delayed the Revolution had his advice been heeded
CONSTITUTION OF 1791
Constitution prepared by National Assembly which was increasingly referred to as the Constituent Assembly. Document complete in 1791. Established a unicameral(one-chambered) assembly which was the legislature(law-making body). The king had a suspensive(delaying) veto only therefore the executive branch of govt. was weak.
Radical
People who favor quick and far reaching changes.
Great Fear
1789, peasants revolting, ripping up feudal contract, ransacking manors, etc.
Bourgeosie
rich, middle class that was grouped into the Third Estate with the peasantry.
arsenal
place where guns and ammo are stored
women
The Civil or Napoleonic Code preserved most of the gains of the revoltion. However, the rights of ________ were severely curtailed.
Cause
people were starving- no bread; bad harvest inspired by the Enlightenment/ foreign revolutions; corrupt and bankrupt government; unfair representation of 3rd estate
Group that fled France during the revolution
Émigrés
Robespierre
Leader of reign of terror, guillotined anyone who disagreed with him, was eventually guillotined himself
3.6 million
The wardrobe allowance of Marie Antoinette
elba
The tiny island that Napoleon was granted after his abdication. Off the coast of Italy.
Corvee
Corvée is labor, that is often unpaid, that is required of people of lower social standing and imposed on them by their superiors (often an aristocrat or noble). ...
October Days
(Women stormed Versailles) par of the Great Fear; a great mob of women stormed the palace at Versailles and captured the royal family, forcing them back to Tuileries in Paris.
Guillotine
A machine used to behead people; it was suppose to make death quick and painless
The Second Estate
The nobility; heavily involved in government, industry, and church; exempt from direct taxes; sought to overpower the French monarchy
Toussaint L'Ouverture
was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. In a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
Mme. ROLAND
Wife of Girondist. Many of the meetings took place in her home. Even many foreigners visited there - including Thomas Paine, James Watt(son of inventor) and German Cloots.
what was from 1794-1799? (reaction to violence)
the directory
lafayette
the man who issued the declaration of the rights of man and the citizen
Causes of the Revolution
• Wasteful government spending
• Economic crisis
• Class Inequality
• Impact of the Enlightenment and American Revolution
Coup D'Etat
A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group
August 1789
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen published
Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Jacobin Club
A political club consisting of both men and women but leadership was solely bourgeoisie, Main goal was the removal of the king and establishment of a republic. RADICAL!!!
National Convention
The third estate of the Estates General -broke from the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.
Great Britain's navy, indirectly inspired other countries' nationalism, Russia's winter
Napoleans 3 big failures
scientific method
a logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas
Marquis de Lafayette
aristocratic "hero of two worlds"; headed the national guard
plebiscite
a popular vote by which the people indicate or express their wishes
emigre
a person who fled from France because of opposition to or fear of the revolution that began in 1789.
Nationalism
a sense of identity and unity as a people.
Treaty of Luneville
Feb, 1801. Austrians signed this with France after been defeated by Nap at Marengo. Terms of Campo Formio confirmed . In 1802 a peace was also signed with the Brits.
Cahiers de doleances
The list of grievances that the National Assembly presented to the king, detailing how the people of France were being oppressed/exploited.
le Etats Généraux
les trois ordres sociaux, on devait les reunirs parce qu'il avait une crise financielle
Maximillian Robespierre
A Jacobin who led the Committee of Public Safety and wanted to kill any opposers to the revolution
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
a french who believed that people are naturally good, but society corrupts them trough environment, education & laws.
What was the name of the French currency that was backed by the value of land acquired from the church?
The assignat
Beginning of French Revolution
THE THIRD ESTATE'S DECLARING ITSELF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
May 4, 1789
Beginning of EG --> embarrassment of the third estate, mistrust of the aristocracy and the monarchy
Womens March to Versailles
Parisian women marched to Versailles to talk to King Louis XVI about bread prices on October 5, 1789
Necker
Takes over, thinks the economy is in a good place
Georges Danton
(1759 - 1794) leader of the Paris Commune; newly appointed minister of justice.
1812 invasion of Russia
Napoleon beats russia in multiple battles, but winter distroys his army. He is forced to step down, or abdicate, and is exiled to Elba.
2nd estate
Social class of the Old Regime in France. Comprised of the clergy. Had 2% of the population and 20% of the land.
French Constitution of 1791
a constitution adopted during the French Revolution that established a constitutional monarchy in France.
"Night of Renunciation"
Aug 1789. NA halt all royal disturbances. liberal Nobles&clergy renounced Feudal dues. rights&priviledges. All French citizens under law.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
attended the Congress of Vienna on behalf of King Louis XVIII,who had retaken the French Throne.
Levee en masse
mass levy or tax that required all citisens to support the war effort
German Confederation of the Rhine
A federation of German states organized under Napoleon I in July 1806. Formerly under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire, which was dissolved the same year, the new federation placed itself under the "protection" of Napoleon and was governed by one of his close allies. It quickly fell apart after Napoleon's defeat outside Leipzig in 1813 as member states abandoned the French and joined the German nationalist "war of liberation."
Inequities among the Estates
#1 cause of the French Revolution, third esate payed all taxes, while the other estates nearly payed none
Louis 16th King
Proposes a new tax plan---wants to tax his friends ( group 1&2)
b. Calls Estates General into session
c. voting problems--- he decides to vote the old way
Flight to Varennes
[June 20, 1971] Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette attempt to Flee to Austria to Incite War; Captured and Sent Back; Causes Divide in Revolution over whether to Keep Constitutional Monarchy or Not
Madame de Pompadour
Mistress of Louis XV who had influence over him.
Balance of power
no one country has more power than the other
Cashiers de Doleances
List of grievances drawn up by each of the three orders before the meeting of the Estates General in 1789
what was the outcome of the war of 1792?
the radical phase
The Third Estate can be subdivided into three groups:
The Bourgeoisie: Merchants, artisans, traders, professional. Many were educated and had read works of the Enlightenment.
The City Workers: Laborers, apprentices, and domestic servants.
The Peasants: Poor farmers. Made up of 80% of france's population. About half their income was taken in the form of taxes.
Storming of the Bastille
when an angry mob of 800 Parisians demanded weapons from the Bastille prison; began the French Revolution
What was achieved during the Thermidorian Reaction?
end of Reign of Terror after Robespierre's execution; pendulum effect with power going to Girondins; dismantle of Comm. of P.S.; Jacobins removed from power; emigres & nobles come back; period of corruption; church reopens
How did he build an empire?
He divided and conquered. He cared little for the lives of 1 million men. He was a strategist. He put a blockade on European ports that dealt with British. He sold the Louisianna Territory to Americans
Failure of Leadership
#4 cause of FR, Louis XVI was a poor ruler
Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790
an attempt by the National Assembly to secularize the clergy, getting rid of bishoprics, titles, and offices and instituting a voting system
Who is Louis XVI?
He was the King of France from 1791 to 1792.
What took place at the B. of Trafalgar and what did it prove about Great Britain?
British navy under Admiral Nelson crushes French navy and shows Napoleon G.B. can't be defeated militarily, so he instead tries to crush its economy with the Continental System
the social contract felt violated b/c the king was not fulfilling his end and that angered people so they rebelled
how did the enlightenment have a role in the French Revolution?
reasons for america to side with france
it was honorable thing for us to side with france because france helped make it possible for us to win independence
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