CCRI-Newport Q3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
photo-
light (photosynthesis)
pseudo-
false (pseudopod)
bronchi-
windpipe (bronchiole)
macro-
large (macroscopic, macrophage)
-oid
resemblance (hydroid, mucoid)
-clast
to break (osteoclast)
-brevis
short (peroneus brevis)
hydro-, hygro-
water (hydrolysis)
anti-
against (antibody, antimere)
proto-
first (protoplasm, protozoa, prototype)
mono-
one, single (monocyte, monoecious)
itis-
inflammation (gastritis, neuritis, hepatitis)
-phage, phag-
to eat (phagocyte, sacrophagus)
a-
without, not, negative (asexual, atrophy, asymmetry)
bis-, bi-
two, double (bisect, bivalve, biramous, bilateral)
reduce water loss or gain
Epithelial Tissue
facial
This cranial nerve has parasympathetic fibers. It serves two of the salivary glands. It leaves the skull by two foramina, both of which are in the temporal bone.
sensory neurons
A neuron that usually conducts impulses from sensory receptors to the central nervous system. They are also called afferent neurons. This is a functional classification.
manubrium
an anatomical process or part shaped like a handle: the uppermost segment of the sternum
nasopharynx (nasalpharynx)
This space is the superior/posterior division of the pharynx. Normally air passes through this space on its way to or from the trachea. The pharyngeal and tubal tonsils are found in this space, as well as the eustachian tube of the middle ear.
mouth
This cavity extends from the outside to the oralpharynx. It contains the tongue and the teeth.
spinal accessory
Found deep side of acromiotrapezius. Its a motor nerve that serves the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the trapezius muscle in humans. It enters the cranium via the foramen magnum and leaves via the jugular foramen.
proximal end of clavicle
Articulates with the manubrium
medial cord
This structure is formed from the anterior division of the lower trunk of the brachial plexus. It contains neurons from anterior rami of C8, and T1. It gives rise to the ulnar nerve as well as part of the median nerve.
pronator teres m.
Origin: medial epicondyle of the humerus and on the ulna. It inserts on the radius, specifically on the middle third of the lateral surface of the radius. It is served by the median nerve. It pronates the wrist.
voluntary muscle
See skeletal muscle. The term refers to the fact that the cells can be controlled voluntarily under most circumstances.
ventral
Toward the side where the sternum is. We will mostly use this for cats. For example, the cat's sternum is ventral to the vertebral column. It is sometimes used in humans as synonymous with anterior.
lumbar vertebrae
Has a blunt, short spinous process pointing posteriorly. A transverse process shaped like the wings of a glider and sagittal articulations.
sympathetic trunk
The sympathetic trunk runs along each side of the vertebral column. It receives neurons from anterior rami of the spinal nerves via the sympathetic trunk ganglia. It serves many organs from the head to the pelvis.
larynx
This structure is made up of four major cartilages and houses the vocal cords. Functionally it is important because it connects the pharynx with the trachea, as well as being the structure where sound is produced. It extends between C4 and C6.
middle conchae
Part of the ethmoid bone and functionally important because their curved surface causes turbulence as air moves into the nasal cavity.
vagus
This cranial nerve is the major nerve serving the heart and most of the gastrointestinal tract. It leaves the cranium by way of the jugular foramen, which is found along the suture between the temporal bone and the occipital bone.
axillary tail
This portion of the mammary gland extends toward the axilla, making the shape of the breast almost like a tear drop. Lateral attachment of the mammary gland.
ventral thoracic artery
This artery is the first lateral branch of the axillary artery. It serves the medial ends of the latissimus dorsi and the pectoralis muscles. It runs with the cranial ventral thoracic nerve.
deep brachial artery
In humans it serves the posterior compartment of the arm and forms anastomoses with the posterior humeral circumflex artery. In the cat it serves the triceps brachii, epitrochlearis and latissimus dorsi.
flexes the digits
Only two muscles have this action. They are the flexor digitorum superficialis and the flexor digitorum profundus.
cardiac muscle
Muscle tissue found in the heart. It has attributes similar to both skeletal muscle and smooth muscle. Functionally it is responsible for creating pressure gradients that are responsible for most blood flow.
gladiolus
This is an alternate name for the body of the sternum (four fused bones). It makes reference that the body looks like a small sword. Don't blame me, I am the messenger.
nucleus pulposus
an elastic pulpy mass lying in the center of each intervertebral fibrocartilage
carina
The name for the ridge on the internal surface of the most inferior tracheal ring. It marks the point where the trachea bifurcates into the two primary bronchi.
epiglottic cartilage (epiglottis)
The superior most of the laryngeal cartilages. It projects superiorly and attaches to the tongue. Functionally it is important in humans because during swallowing it covers the opening of the larynx when the larynx moves superiorly.
Eustachian (pharyngotympanic or auditory) tube
Drains the middle and helps equilibrate pressure on both sides of eardrum.
mandibular (sigmoid) notch
A concavity on the mandibular ramus between the condyloid and coronoid processes.
pterygoid process
There is a medial and lateral plate for this process. They project inferiorly from the greater wing. The medial process of the sphenoid bone articulate with the perpendicular plates of the palatine bones anteriorly.
mastoid process
This process is part of the temporal bone. It is the insertion for the sternocleidomastoid muscle. In fact it is this muscle that causes this landmark to develop.
foramen ovale
This foramen is in the spenoid bone and is the first foramen that the mandibular nerve passes through as it leaves the cranium.
cribriform plate
This landmark of the ethmoid bone has many formaina in it for the first cranial nerve. Dr. J says it is similar to the deck of a sailboat.
thoracic vertebra 2, spinous process
Superior angle of the scapula
axillary artery
This artery begins at the end of the subclavian artery and ends with the beginning of the brachial artery. It has three branches that we will study in the cat: the ventral thoracic artery, the lateral (long) thoracic artery, and the subscapular artery.
dorsal scapular nerve
This is the nerve that serves the rhomboid muscles and part of the levator scapulae ventralis muscle.
conus medullaris (terminale)
a tapering lower part of the spinal cord at the level of the first lumbar segment
pleural recess
This is the space inferior to the lung where there is a pleural cavity. It may fill with fluid and can be drained by entering it superior to rib 9, midaxillary on either side.
maxillary nerve (V2)
This nerve is a branch of the trigeminal nerve (V). It is a sensory nerve to the skin of the face, oral cavity, and the teeth of the maxillary bones. It passes through three foramina as it leaves the brain.
optic nerve (II)
Can be found going through the optic canal on the sphenoid bone. It is a sensory nerve for vision.
juvenile phase of breast development
First phase of mammary gland development
extensor carpi radialis brevis m.
This muscle is in the posterior compartment of the forearm. It is served by the radial nerve and is an extensor and abductor of the wrist. It is found on the lateral side of the forearm. It has its origin on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus.
spinal accessory nerve (XI)
This is an unusual cranial nerve in that it is primarily a motor nerve to two muscles, one of which is a muscle that stabilizes the scapula.
posterior root
the one of the two roots of a spinal nerve that passes posteriorly to the spinal cord and that consists of sensory fibers
hypoglossal nerve (XII)
this is cranial nerve XII. It is a motor nerve serving the muscles of tongue. It exits the skull via the hypoglossal canal. It runs with the lingual (sublingual) artery medial to the digastric muscle.
angle of Louis (sternal angle)
This is the manubriosternal joint and is at the level between the bodies of thoracic vertebrae 4 and 5. It is an important landmark as it is where the costal cartilage of rib 2, the first rib that can be palpated, joins the sternum
pronates (medially rotates) wrist (hand)
This is the action of the pronator teres and pronator quadrates muscles.
lumbar vertebrae 1 and 2
Where the Left Crus attaches to the diaphragm.
origin on the infraspinous fossa of scapula
This is the origin for the infraspinatus muscle.
subclavian artery and vein
On the right one of these vessels is a branch of the brachiocephalic artery. On the left one of these vessels is the fourth branch of the aorta. Drains blood from the upper limb back toward the heart.
origin on the coracoid process of the scapula
This is the origin for the coracobrachialis muscle.
origin on the proximal 75% of ulna
This origin is for one of the muscles that move the wrist or the digits. The muscle is in the anterior compartment of the forearm. It gets half of its nerve supply from the ulnar nerve and the other half from the median nerve.
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