Cell Bio Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Stabilize microtubules
proteins that catalyze
where does glycolysis occur
enzyme that degrades proteins
What is chiasmata?
Crossing over
Singer and Nicholson
Created Fluid-mosaic model
what guide protein folding?
chaperone proteins
hydrolyzes polysaccharides in bacteria and causes lysis of bacteria
focal adhesion: 3 things
cell-matrixintegrinactin filaments
characteristics of an individual determined by genotype
The nuclear envelope contains ribosomes and goes through protein synthesis and vacuole formation. T/F.
Lysozomes are specialized (Organelle)
Golgi Bodies
More solutes outside membrane. Water moves out.
Membrane Proteins
Transmembrane proteins and many proteins held together by lipid groups or hydrophobic polypeptide regions that insert into the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer cant be released in these ways – they are known as integral membrane proteins.
Resilient fibers that resist mechanical cell stresses
Intermediate filaments
type I proteins
LDL receptor
Insulin receptor
growth hormone receptor
Influenza HA protein receptor
C-terminus of the cytosolic side
N-terminus on the lumen side
Has a signal sequences that targets the protein to the ER membrane
have a negatively charge phosphate group
integral part of cell membranes
m.o. for cell cycle, cytoskeleton, cell differentiation
a non-protein molecule that is necessary for an enzyme to function properly
Organization and behavior of microfilaments are controlled by _______________.
actin-associated proteins.
stage of mitosis that precedes metaphase
what are often used as markers?
Chromosal insertion
insertion into DNA sequence, integrates into host genome so becomes a part of the DNA and is there for the duration of the animal's life
Heterochromatin that reverts to euchromatin
Facultative heterochromatin
Fibrous polysaccharide embedded in a gelatinous material consisting of pectin, hemecellulose, and protein elastin held together by a beta bond
allowed through
small uncharged polar molecules and hydrophobic
Types of cell junctions
cell-cell anchoring,channel forming, cell-matrix
Endoplasmic reticulum
organelle where lipids and proteins are synthesized
beta sheet
formed from different segments of polypeptide
backbones parallel to each other
Unity of Cells
1) similar basic chemistry
2) reproduce themselves
3)use energy for metabolic activities
4)plasma membrane
5) environmental stimuli
3' end of a nucleic acid
hydroxyl end
a unit of hereditary in an organism
What's the IMF in mesenchymal cells (connective tissue)?
45. Proteins totally synthesized in the cytoplasm are targeted toward all of the following EXCEPT
c. lysosomes
a more easily detected entity that indicates the presence of a less easily detected entity
Most genetic mutations occur in the (euchromatin/heterochromatin)
Long hollow cylinders composed of 13 protofilaments
What are some examples of what receptor mediated endocytosis moves? (3)
Sometimes (macromolecule)s are added to proteins as they enter the RER? Example
Manos 6 Phosphate
Mitochondrial Membranes
Inner and outer, forms the two subcompartments
Coupled transporters:
Transfer of one solute depends on transfer of a second.
Structure of transfer RNAStructure:
1. Intramolecular base pairing important for structure2. Anticodon at one end of "cloverleaf" with amino acid bound to other end
Composed of a large and small subunit, that physically move along an mRNA molecule, catalyze the assemly of amino acids inot polypeptide chains. They also bind tRNAs and various accessory proteins neccessary for protein synthesis
Human Genome Project
13 year project
-to identify all genes in humans
-to determine sequences
-store in databases
Found in tears and saliva. consists of 2 IgA monomers a J chain and a secretory component which probably protects the molecule from degredation by proteases.
measurement of energy in the form of heat
Nuclear Lamina
fibrous meshwork of proteins on the inner surface of the inner nuclear membrane
What's the word for different # of chromosomes in a cell?
8. Transport may be active or passive. Transport by carrier proteins is always positive whereas transport by channel proteins is always passive.
b. false
long linear molecule of DNA packaged with histone and nonhistone proteins
eukaryotic chromosome
The placement of exogenous genes into an animal or human is called?
Gene Therapy
What happens during spermiogenesis?
Sperm cell adds a tail
What do microbodies do to stop peroxisomes?
Create peroxidase
What is called When lamellipodium of different cells come in contact the cells?
Contact inhibition
the translocation of the phosphatidylserine in apoptotic cells is thought to occur byt 2 mechanisms:
The asymmetric distribution of glycolipids in bilayer results from addn of sugar groups to lipid molecules in lumen of Golgi – thus the compartment in which theyre made is topologically equivalent to exterior of cell.
Info on kertain filaments
1. Composed of many different subunits. 44-70 kD. Found in epithelial cells
2. Acidic keratins (type I). ~15 subunits. Small C-terminal globular domains
3. Neural/basic keratins (type II). ~15 subunits. Large C-terminus globular domains
4. All keratin filaments contain equimolar parts acidic and basic/neutral subunits
5. Hard cytokeratins present in wool/hair/horns. Extensive disulfide bonding
Tumor suppressor
a normal gene that can become an oncogene due to mutations or increased expression
what does collagen assembly require?
What are elastins?
Collagen assembly requires proteolytic cleavage of procollagen before incorporation into fibrils
Elastins are covalently linked polypeptides that can adopt alternative configurations to stretch and recoil.
lambda repressor protein
in the prophage stage, the lambda repressor occupies the operator, blocking synthesis of CRO and also activating its own synthesis
Which phospholipid group adds to membrane fluidity and why?
glycerophospholipids b/c cis-double bond kink
spindle pole
one of two centrosomes in a cell undergoing mitosis. MT radiating from these centrosomes form the mitotic spindle.
How can HR be enhanced?
Double-strand break in target increases interaction with exogenous donor of DNA, because DSB must be repaired and HR is one mechanism of repair.
tests to detect the presence of a particular target DNA sequence in a sample
DNA markers
what does one call an enzyme bundled with a cofactor?
a holoenzyme
How are nucleosomes organized
Octomers containing 2 (H-2a, H-2b, 2H-3, and 2H-4)
Primary lysozome
A lysozome that does not come in contact with substrates and has inactive enzymes
Choline headed phospholipid
Occur on outer surface of cell membrane
Major Lipids in Cell Membrane
Main phospholipids in animal cell membranes are phosphoglycerides – 3 C glycerol backbone – two long-chain fatty acids linked through ester bonds to adjacent C atoms of the glycerol and third is attached to a phosphate group which in turn is linked to one of several diff types of head group – doing this, cells make diff phosphoglycerides (main in mammalian CM’s are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylcholine
what are the 2 parts of fractionation
1. differential velocity centrifugation
2. density gradient centrifugation
membrane lipids are responsible for...?
the cells very existence, the fluidity, self sealing high electric resistance and limited permeability (allow transport of gases such as O2, CO2, N2, lipid soluble molecules such as urea, ethanol, steroid hormones, and of some water).
internal ribosome entry site (IRES)
specific site in eukaryotic mRNA, other than 5' end, where translation can be initiated
Glycerophosphoipids have __________ tails with ______.
fatty acid tails with cis-double bond kink
Heart healthy pork
omega 3 fatty acids: n-3 fatty acid desaturase found in C. Elegans is used to create a fat-1 transgene to result in production of n-3 fatty acids in cloned offspring
loos of function of one or both alleles by disruption of existing gene
Gene knock-out (gene-targetting_
What are the three parts of a chromosome?
Arms (spindle fibers)
Satellite bodies
What happens to cells that can not synthesize cholesterol? why?
Spontaneously burst
Cholesterol stabilizes cell membranes
MAP2 and tau purposes
1. Both: shift rxn kinetics in favor of adding new subunits; stabilize SS microtubule, like taxol
2. Tau - possibly from overexpression of tau in brain, leading to Alzheimer's from aggregated proteins
what is freeze-fracturing?
what is used most often to view?
when tissue samples are frozen rapidly then cracked, giving cross section.
-used often to view cell membrane structures
The dehydrogenases that oxidaize isocitrate, α-ketoglurate, and malate are all allosterically inhibited by NADH
High NADH levels mean adequate reduced coenzme for the generation of more ATP, so it makes sense to shut down the catabolic machinery of the cell.
what are the types of transport proteins?
carrier proteins, channels, and pumps
*What are the 4 types of signal receptors that ligands bind?
1) contact-dependent2) paracrine3) synaptic4) endocrine
When what type of stem cell divides is there the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function?
Adult Stem Cells
What happens in Metaphase 2 in Meiosis?
Cells elongate
Chromosomes line up along equatorial plate
Chromosome pairs begin to seperate
Where do you find Desmosomes?
In Cells that are subject to mechanical stress like muscles or skin
Lipid asymmetry is functionally imp, especially in converting extracellular signals into intracellular ones
Animals exploit the asymmetry of their PMs to distinguish btwn live and dead cells – when animal cells undergo apoptosis (form of cell death), phosphatidylserine, which is normally confined to the cytosolic monolayer of the plasma membrane LB, rapidly translocates to the extracellular monolayer – the phosphatidylserine exposed on the cell surface signals neighboring cells, such as macrophages, to phagocytose the dead cell and digest it
what happens in electron transport system
1. high energy electrons go through redox reactions
2. creates proton gradient
3. protons driven through ATP synthase
what are the types of ionophores?
mobile ion carrier: bind to a particular ion, shielding its charge from the surrounding environment, and thus facilitating its crossing of the hydrophobic interior of the lipid membrane. channel formers, introduce a hydrophilic core into the membrane, allowing ions to pass thru while avoiding contact w/ the membrane's hydrophobic interior
What are 2 ways of obtaining energy?
1. PHOTOSYNTHESIS- plants and some single celled organisms capture energy from sunlight and store it in energy rich sugar molecules2. Fungai, animals, and most bacteria CONSUME ENERGY RICH MOLECULES contained in the body of other organisms
How does cytokinesis occur in plants?
A thickening spreads towards side of cells until it seperates
How is a protein that is integrated into the RER distinguished?
Hydrophobic halt transfer signal attaches to protein chain
what carbohydrates are synthesized in the golgi complex
1. carbs destined for ECM (animal) or cell wall (plant)
2. carbs attached as side chains to proteins or lipids
4 Mechanisms how Enzymes are Regulated
- cell controls how many molecules of each enzyme it makes by regulating the expression of the gene that encodes that enzyme- cell controls enzymatic activities by confining sets of enzymes to particular subcellular compartments, enclosed by distinct membranes- enzymes are covalently modified to control their activity- an enzyme acting early in a reaction pathway is inhibited by a late product of that pathway (feedback inhibition)
How about cloning of endangered species?
Must have perfect DNA and a closely related species to provide oocytes that would not be rejected to due foreign appearance
In females, both Xs on the 23rd chromosome are always expressed.
One is inactivated and condenses into heterochromatin
What is teh purpose of adding carbohydrates to proteins as they enter the RER?
Identifies proteins that end up in lysosomes
how does the Na+K+ATPase pump work?
Binding of Na+ to the cytoplasmic domain activates ATP-hydrolysis with concomitant phosphorylation of that protein. Phosphorylation leads to conformational change which results in the relase of Na+ to the extracellular space and exposes binding site for K+. Binding of K+ causes dephosphorylation of the proteins and its return to the former conformation which leads to the release of K+ on the cytoplasmic site. 3 ions of Na+ are removed from the cell and 2 ions of K+ are pumped into the cell per every cycle of the pump.
Methyl donors in diet to cause DNA methylation
diatery foliates , vitamin B6, B12, choline, betaine and Mg2+
-zinc, methionine, choline, folate and B12
what role does EDTA or other chelating agents play in homogenization
binds up Calcium ions needed by many of the molecules involved in cell to cell bonds 
how does electron transfer work in riboflavine derivatives
they can take 2 electrons and give 1 electron
Why do red blood cells not have nuclei?
If they had it they would not be able to fit through narrow corridors in bone
Govern assembly
peripheral proteins
receptor proteins
Smooth ER lacks
Nuclear localization signals- targeting of a protein to the nucleus req's a signal
α helix
secondary protein structure
Chromosomes are considered (loosely/tightly) packed
inner portion of chloroplasts, surrounded by 2 outer membranes, light independent process of photosynthesis occurs
Nuclear pore
4 subunits: Lumenal-contain transmembrane protein that anchor pore to nuc. memb.Column- forms wallRing- form cystolic/nuclear facesAnnular-extends spokes
enzyme activity regulation
1)gene expression
2)cellular localization
3) degradation by proteins
4) conformational change
mediate direct cell-cell communication by allowing exchange of small molecules
gap junctions
Are siRNA exogenous or endogenous?
Generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate substances
golgi apparatus
proteins, lipids, and other macromolecules sent here to be modified by the addition of sugars etc. to form glycoproteins, then sent in vesicles to different parts of the cell
Channel proteins:
Form hydrophilic pores across membranes. Create gap junctions which connects cytoplasm of two cells. Narrow, highly selective pores that open and close rapidly.
1. ss antisense RNA inhibits translation (no surprise)2.ds RNA inhibits translation 10x better (big surprise)3.Dicer enzyme (endonuclease) cleaves dsRNA into shorter oligonucleotides4. Shorter dsRNAs associate with proteins -> RNA induced silencing complex (RISC)5. Anti-sense strand of dsRNA binds mRNAa. Endonucleases in RISC cleave mRNA -> no translationb. May not always be 100% inhibition (knockout versus knockdown)
set of three-nucleotide sequences that specify a particular amino acid
trans. termination
RNA polymerase releases once termination sequence is reached
Cell Junctions
Specialized structures that join cells.
3 types in animal cells:Adhesive Junctions, Tight Junctions, and Gap Junctions
In Plant cells: Plasmodesmata
Enzyme Inhibition
(competitive and not)- competitive competes with the active site (Vmax doesn’t change, usually reversable binding), non-competitive changes Vmax, binds to allosteric site, renders enzyme inactive, non-reversible
What's the word for mitDNA variation?
centrally located organelle of animal cells that is the primary mt-organizing center and acts as the spindle pole during mitosis, in most animal cells in contains a pair of centrioles
Are maternal and paternal genomes functionally equivalent?
Facultative heterochromatin
Heterochromatin that reverts to euchromatin
Where do lysozome membranes realease hydrolytic enzymes (inside/outside)
Outer Membrane
Is in contact with the cytosol
10% of DNA packaged tightly in periphery of nucleus
Location of molecule and function within the Prokaryotic cell:
dicarboxylate carrier
not present
protein kinase
catalyze addition of phosphate group to protein
consist of one or more polypeptides which are a chain of amino acids held together by peptide bonds
Urea on polypeptide?
denatures proteins at high concentrations
What are proteosomes?
degrade ubiquinated proteins w/ protease activity in central cavity.
Actin filament organized into __________ or _________.
meshworks or bundles
31. Nuclear localization signals (are/are not) cleaved off after transport into the nucleus as are signal sequences for import into other organelles because during mitosis, the nucleus disassembles and then reassembles in the new daughter cells and the p
b. are not
forms covalent phosphodiester bonds to repair break in DNA
DNA ligase
Genetically modified organism, plant and animal
Heterochromatin that never relaxes and is tightly condensed
Constitutive heterochromatin
Each cell contains (#) kinds of intermediate filamet
Quaternary Structure
Two or more polypeptides come together spontaneously because of R-groups.
Nuclear Envelope
Encloses the DNA and defines the nuclear compartment. Two membranes, has pores.
what are the two main staining techniques for electron microscopy? 
negative staining
cell culture
process of growing cells isolated from an organism in cell culture dish
which cells are equiped with protein transporting amino acids?
all cells
Active Site
the location on an enzyme responsible for the catalytic activity
endosymbiont theory
a theory that says that mitochondria and plastids originated as separate prokaryotic organisms that were taken inside the cell as endosymbionts
What kind of tail does sphingomyelin have?
ceramide tails
17. In glycolysis in absence of oxygen, the prokaryotic equivalent of eukaryotic pyruvate is
d. ethanol
Yellow fur coat Avy gene contains
IAP in pseudoexon1
What shields bacterial DNA to block restriction enzymes from binding?
DNA methylase
______ was studied as model organism for cell cycle
Frog eggs
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum of a muscle cell
Seals one cell against another; no intracellular space
Tight junction
Cytoskeleton filament systems and properties
1. Intermediate filaments: numerous subunits, form long fibrous filaments (8-12 nm)
2. Microtubules (tubulin and associated proteins): Tubulins alpha/beta/gamma subunits, form long cylindrical tubes (25 nm)
3. Microfilaments (actin and associated proteins): Actins alpha/beta/gamma subunits, form long thin filaments and meshworks (6-8 nm)
procaryote (prokaryote)
group of living cells that don't have a nucleus.two examples of archaea and eubacteria domains
How does cancer work?
Defects in apoptosis/the cell cycle can lead to cancer.
cancer usually results from mutations in the following genes:
proto-oncogenes (converted into oncogenes)
tumor supressor genes
DNA repair genes
Gene duplication
having multiple copies of a gene on different chromosomes.
What's ONLY on the outside (extracellular side) of plasma membrane? 2 things...Tell what property this gives the membrane:
1) oligosaccharides2) cross-linked sulfhydryl groups (S-S)ASYMMETRY!
43. In contrast to the more direct signaling pathways used by nuclear receptors, catalytic cascades of intracellular mediators provide numerous opportunities for amplifying the responses to extracellular signals.
a. true
If you know your gene sequence what process can be used to obtain a pure sample of a gene?
PCR CLoning
this is when a molecule similar in shape to the substrate competes with the substrate for a binding site and can be removed
competitive inhibition
What is the male strategy to reproduction?
Strength in numbers
What are the two fates of a protein stored in the RER?
Describe microtubule structural polarity
All subunits point in the same direction. Alpha tubulin exposed at the minus end, beta at plus end. More dynamic end is beta end.
aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
attaches a specific amino acid via a high energy ester bond to the A terminus (CAA) of a tRNA
role of lipids in biological membranes?
*make the membrane*enable self-sealing of the membrane*influence fluidity of the membranedetermine permeability of the membran*regulate function of some membrane proteinsserve as precursors for biologically active molecules
general transcription factor
any of the proteins whose assembly at a promoter is required for the binding and activation of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription
2 kinds of metabloic reactions:
1. anabolic- require energy, when reactions build up2. catabolic- energy producing, when reactions break down
How does RNAi work?
targets and inhibits a SPECIFIC mRNA for post-transcriptional gene silencing
What are the minimum requirements for constructing a recombinant gene for expression?
promotor, cDNA(transgene) and termination signal(Poly A site)
Ankyrin and Band 4.1
common in arthyrocytes, bound to actin and spectrin to form mesh arrangement
What are microtubulues composed of?
1. Alpha, beta, and sometimes gamma subunits.
2. Gamma subunit specific example - MTOC centrosome/ spindle poles.
3. Multiple isotypes of each subunit exist and are coded by separate genes (6 alpha and 6 beta)
what are the 5 types of light microscopes?
bright field
dark field
phase contrast
True/ False
The terminal phosphate of ATP is a high-energy phosphate that takes its high energy with it when it is hydrolyzed.
False; The phosphate group doesn't posses any intrinsic energy of its own. The term high-energy applies only to the phosphoanhydride bond that links the phoshphate group to the rest of the ATP molecule.
what do proteins of the membrane skeleton do?
preserve integrity of membrane, regulate mobility of protein, enable mechanical deformation of the cell, participate in preservation of asymmetry within the lipid bilayer.
kinesin moves along MTs toward _____ ends.dynein moves toward _____ ends.
Kinesin toward +Dynein toward -
What are the uses of animal cloning?
basic research, animal reproduction, preservation of endangered species
Nuclear pores function is...
To allow materials to move between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm
What is density dependent contact inhibition?
When contact inhibition stops the process of mitosis

IF class, cell type, and function for IFAP paranemin
1. Vimentin desmin
2. Muscle
3. IF crosslinking
what are the 3 steps of homogenization
1. disrupt cell adhesion molecules
2. break cell-ECM bonds
3. disrupt cell membranes
what does the sodium gradient enable?
regulation of cell volume, Na+ driven trasport of substances (ex: glucose), regulation of intracellular pH and Ca 2+ level, conduction of electric signals (in nerve and muscular tissue)
13. Cells use various methods to restrict proteins to specific regions of the plasma membrane; however, the lipids are still free to move around these restrictions, like water flowing around rocks. The methods used by the cell to restrict proteins to spe
d. insertion of active transport channels
What is the purpose of nuclear lamina?
Breaking and reforming of lamina during prophase and telophase
What are the 2 main functions of the SER?
Lipid metabolism
Conversion of chemicals
Why is it not possible to accomplish gluconeogenesis by a simple reversal of all the reaction in glycolysis.
a reaction sequence that is thermodynamically feasible (exergonic) in one direction will not function in the other direction by simple reversal of each of the reactions because it will be endergonic in that direction under the same conditions.
How are microtubules anchored in cell?
by their minus (-) ends in an organizing center (MTOC)
Synchronizing cells to which stage of the cell cycle shows improvements to cloning efficiency?
Synchronization of donor cells at the non-dividing stage(G0)
Describe the process of translation
1) 5' of mRNA binds to 30s ribosomal subunit
2) tRNA binds to first 3 bases of mRNA (AUG) with its anticodon (UAC)
3) UAC carries methionine (AA) which attaches at end
4) Large subunit binds to the methionine
5) mRNA moves through ribosome
6) AA's bind every time a mRNA binds to a tRNA
Lipid compositions of 2 monolayers of LB in many membranes are diff –
in human RBC membrane, for ex. almost all phospholipid molecules that have choline in head group (phosphatidylcholine and sphignomyelin) are in outer monolayer, whereas almost all that have a terminal primary amino group are in inner monolayer.
how is transport of a given molecule achieved?
by a conformational change of the respective transport protein
How do miRNA and siRNA affect target proteins?
siRNA and shRNA cleave RNA, while miRNA inhibits translation
Charge of:C, N, O, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl
C=-4, N=-3, O=-2, N=+, K=+, Ca=2+, Mg=2+, Cl=-
how does electron transfer work in Pyridine nucleotides
they both can take 2 electrons as well as give 2 electrons
what is the net rxn for cellular respiration
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ---> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy as ADP+P (ATP)
Ester Bonds
hydrolyze nucleic acids
PGAL is what
m.o. for plants (photosynthesis)
Can phospholipids laterally diffuse?
Internal compartments of RER
carries out oxidative phosphorylation and produces the majority of ATP in eukaryotic cells, has a membrane
Fibrous Protein
protein that makes fibers
protein that makes up microfilaments
Somatic overgrowth-too much proliferation, increased tumor frequency(imprinted genes on human Chr11)
Beckwith-Wiedermann Syndrome
What breaks down nucleic acid?
Long slender contractile extensions which are rich in microfilaments and microtubules
Monera kingdon, no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, divided through binary fission
ABC transporters:
1.      primarily pump small molecules across cell membranes, where P and F only transport ions.
what does the nucleolus do?
produce ribosomes
in vitro
experiments performed in test tubes
technique for monitoring the kinetic parameters of a protein by analyzing how fluorescent protein molecules move into an area of the cell bleached by a beam of laser light.
The nuclear envelope is continuous with _____.
Cell Wall
supports and protects the cell
Methods of transfection:
chemical, electroporation and liposomes
give an example of iron-porphyrin compounds
(#) chromosomes are present after mitosis occurs
What are Long slender contractile extensions which are rich in microfilaments and microtubules?
discovered chromosomes are made of DNA and protein
interact with the solute to be transported. Weaker than transporters. Form pores, that when open allow transfer of solutes.
These fibers enmesh the nucleus, emanate from specialized cell junctions, and form mesh of nuclear lamina
Intermediate filaments
translocon outer membrane, this is the general import pore where the import receptor transfers the protein.
cell fractionation
includes two steps to separate organelles of the cell:
1) homogenization- breaking cells or tissues apart by physical or chemical methods
2) centrifugation- organelles will settle down at rates based on size, shape and density
what are the types of phospholipids?
phosphatidylcholine(PC), sphingomyeling(S), phospatidylserine(PS), phosphatidlyethanolamine(PE)
enzyme that transfers enzymes from one molecule to another
Extends the leading edge and retracts the tail of crawling cells.
What is a virus?
"A" cellular--obligate intracellular parasites
maintains size and shape of the cell
Define Energy Balance
Calories in to calories out
the symbol for redox potential is what
Most higher organisms cells have (#) nuclei per cell
Communicating junctions
Allow certain materials to pass freely
Pauling and Corey
discovered alpha helix structure of DNA
Sorting Signals
Some proteins do not have sorting signals and stay inside the cytosol.
Selectivity filter:
Formed from short alpha helix and loop. Structure of filter explains selectivity of ion channel.
what is the general structure of steroids
ring structures
Where would you find in the mitochondria
succinate dehydrogenase
inner membrane
Watson and Crick
discovered DNA double helix in 1953
transport via proteins may involve...?
uniport, cotransport (symport, antiport)
amino acid in its natural state (pH=7) having a positively charged amino group and a negatively charged carboxyl group
What is at the polar head of sphingomyelin?
chromosome condensation
process by which a chromosome becomes packed up into a more compact strucure prior to M phase of the cell cycle.
groups of cells that carry out a specific function
Which type of qPCR involves a plasmid-dose response in which a few copies of DNA requires many cycles to detect amplification, while with an increase in DNA o start with have amplification sooner?
Absolute qPCR
cells that are not differentiated, but cannot generate an organism if transferred to zona pellucida
pluripotent cells
define an endergonic rxn
a rxn which receives energy
A series of fibrous proteins that contact the nucleoplasm through the nuclear pore complex
Nuclear lamina
When Amino acids are tagged with radio isotopes to watch the path
Davson + Danielli
showed bilayer coated with protein to improve surface tension
Cholesterol modulates the properties of LBs
when mixed w/phospholipids, the permeability-barrier properties of the LB are enhanced – it inserts into the bilayer w/OH group close to polar head groups of phospholipids making its rigid & making platelike steroid rings interact & partly immobilize the regions of the hydrocarbon chains closest to polar head groups.
what stain would you use to stain RNA
acridine orange
A phophoanhydride bond
Is broken by hydrolosis
has a standard free energy of hydrolosis of -7.3 kcal/mol
Is a high-energy bond
Histone H4
One of the core proteins involved in forming a histone. Forms a dimer with H3. Two of these dimers come together to form a tetramer before being joined by two H2A-H2B dimers.
Gangliosides are a type of ________________ that have ________________.
glycolipidsnegatively charged sialic acid groups
12. The basic structure of biological membranes is determined by the ____, but their specific functions are carried out largely by ____.
e. lipids, proteins
What is the major hurdle to cloning inefficiency?
epigenetic programming
Where does the nuclear envelope fuse together?
Nuclear pore complexes
As plant gets (older/younger), it becomes stiffer (why?)
Lignin gets into cell
A type of coated vesicle found on the inside of the RER that as a finity for Manos-6-Phosphate; once they bind it is the precursor to a lysozome

Component polypeptide for and location of axonal IF
1. Neurofilament proteins (NF-L, -M, -H)
2. Neurons
Fermentation of glucose to lactate is an energy-yielding process, although it involves no net oxidation (i.e. even though the oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to glycerate is accompanied by the reduction of pyruvate to lactate and no net accumulati
the oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate that occurs at step gly-6 involves the oxidation of a carbonyl group to a carboxylic acid group, which is a highly exergonic reaction.
what is the glycocalyx?
is a network of polysaccharides that project from cellular surfaces, e.g. those of bacteria. It serves to protect the bacterium by creating capsules, or allows the bacterium to attach itself to inert surfaces
Cell migration: __________ extends edge, ____________ retracts tail.
actin extends, actin and myosin retract tail
5. If you were to inject a squid giant axon with a tiny folume of solution containing 0.1 M NaCl and 0.1 M KCl in which both Na+ and K+ were radioactive, after placing that axon into a seawater medium, which of the radioactive ions would you expect to ap
a. Na+
Maternal and paternal complement of impringed genes are
not equivalent in genomic imprinting
Michalis and Menton did what
they developed the equation to describe the two types of enzyme-mediated rxns
Amine headed phospholipid
lipids that Occur on inner surface of membrane
What are the four types of cell junctions?
Adhering junction
Impermeable junction
Communicating junction
Septate junction
Steps in tubulin synthesis and assembly
1. Nucleation: formation and dimers, association of dimers into protofilaments, lateral association of protofilaments to form tubulin wall
2. Elongation and propogation of microtubule from dimers
what happens in kreb's cycle
1. CO2 given off
2. high energy electrons generated
3. 2 ATP produced
Energy is stored in speacial high-energy bonds in molecules such as ATP and is released when these bonds are broken
False; energy is always required to break a covalent bond, including the phosphanhydride bond that links the terminal phosphate group to the rest of the ATP molecule. ATP is a "high-energy" compound because its hydrolysis is exergonic, which means thatmore energy is releae as the bonds between the -H and -OH groups of water are formed than is required to break the phosphoanhydride bond of ATP
After an activated G-alpha subunit of a trimeric complex binds and activates its target, what's the effect of the target protein on the G-alpha subunit?
make cAMP, hydrolyze GTP-->GDP, dissociates and rebinds beta/gamma, thus inactivating enzyme.
What is specific heat?
the amount of heat necessary to raise 1gram of material 1degree C (measured in calories)
Knock-out of any of the methyltransferase genes is what?
lethal during developoment (DNMT1 or 3B) or shortly thereafter (3A)
What are two examples of banding?
Giemsa leads to G-banding
Quinacrine + UV lead to Q banding
An area where there are no proteins in the cell membrane
Lipid rich area
how does a bright field scope work?
light passes through object into lens
Assuming concentrations of ATP, ADP, and Pi are such that ΔG' for the hydrolysis of ATP is about -10kcal/mol, what is the approximate ΔG' value for the overall reaction for gluconeogenisis that you wrote in part b?
2 pyruvate + 4 ATP + 2GTP + 6H20 + 2NA
The ΔG' for the glucolytic pathway under typical cellular conditions is about -20 kcal/mol and therefore +20 kcal/mol in the opposite direction. Because four additional phosphoanhydride bonds are hydrolyzed to drive the pathway n the opposite direction and each of those bonds has a ΔG' of about -10 kcal/mol, the net driving force in the gluconeogenic direction is ΔG'= 20+ 4(-10) = -20 kcal/mol
Where do you find glycolipids? Why? Name the 2 types while you're at it...
on extracellular surface b/c sugar residues1) cerebrosides (uncharged)2) gangliosides (- chg. sialic acid)
what is the pathway for gene therapy in dogs with low growth rate?
Multiply plasmid in lab->inject into skeletal muscle of animal-> muscle makes hGHRF protien-> protein enters blood and goes to pituitary->protein produces dog growth hormone which enters the blood to go to the rest of the body to improve anabolic and hematological levels in old or cancerous digs
What are two examples of Wobble bases?
Uracil-can pair with adenine or guanine
Guanine-can pair with uracil or cytosine
what is the disadvantage to immunogold labeling
only molecules on surface of section can be seen, Abs can't penetrate resin used to hold sections
True/ False
The orderly flow of carbon through the TCA cycle is possible because each of the enzymes of the cycle is embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane in such a manner that their order in the membrane is the same as their sequence in the cycle
The orderly flow of carbon through the TCA cycle is possible because most (all but one) of the enzymes of the cycle are present in soluble form inthe mitochondrial matrix
What are 2 diseases associated with peroxisomes?
1) ALD - cannot oxidize long-chain fatty acids. (lethal).2) Zellweger - peroxisomes empty. (lethal).
what is the main function of an enzyme
lower activation energy of a rxn
How do capping proteins work?
Bind to one end of an actin filament (the growing f actin); they regulate the length of F-actin disallowing more G-actin
what happens in the outer membrane of mitochondria
1. contains enzymes that aid in synthesizing lipids needed inside mitochondria
What happens if you fuse a mitotic cell with an S cell?
induce mitosis b/c there's a MPF (mitosis promoting factor)
Why are cyclin and CDC 2 important to a cell?
Cyclin accumulates and combines with CDC 2 creating pre-MPF(Maturation Promoting Factors)
preMPF is modified by enzymes (CDC 25) and becomes active MPF
Nuclear phosphorylation is facilitated by active MPF
Active MPF also activates cyclin degrading enzymes as a mechanism to stop the cell from dividing constantly
36. The one strict requirement for a protein to exit from the Er is
b. the SNAREs are on the cytosolic side the membrane, inaccessible to viruses
What are cilia and flagella made up of?
9 pairs of microtubules in a circle and 2 microtubules in the center; 9 + 2 arrangement
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