Cell Bio 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ion
positive ion
AUG
start codon
encodes methionine
gain of electrons
reduction
nucleotide
5 carbon sugar
phosphate group
nitrogenous base
Adhesion belt: 3 things
cell-cellcadherinactin
Cisternae
Internal compartments of RER
Matrix Space
Internal subcompartment of mitochondria
Oxygen is toxic to
strict anaerobes
Michaelis-Menton kinetics
kinetic study of enzymes
Ribosome
organizes the synthesis of proteins
Expressed in blastocyst, endodermal and mesodermal embryonic tissue and repressed after birth, linked to Igf2 on CHr 7
H19
2 helicly coiled F-actin molecules
Microfilaments
(Cancer/Normal) cells undergo contact inhibition
Normal
cytoskeleton
fibers that provide support, shape, and mobility to cells
NPCs
Huge. Can transport in both directions. Can transport up to 500 macromolecules per second.
what is a cell-free system?
isolated organelles
Location of molecule and function within the Prokaryotic cell:
Coenzyme A
Cytoplasm
RNA polymerase II
protein-coding proteins, miRNA genes
citric acid cycle
aerobic energy producing mechanism
cell membrane
the semipermeable membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell
The inner membrane of mitochondria folds to form __________.
cristae
Resolution
a measure of an image's clarity
commonly described by listing the alleles present in an individual at one or more locie
genotype
reduction is what
the gain of electrons
What procedure turns mRNA into proteins?
TRanslation
Lysozomes can contain (#) different acid hydrolases
50
Griffith
Scientist who was looking to find vaccine for pneumonia in 1928.
Inner Nuclear Membrane
Contains anchor proteins for chromatin.
"Non-coding" "anti-sense" strand
during transcription, RNA polymerase II reads the anti-sense strand to synthesize pre-mRNA
cotranslational translocation
The transport of most secretory proteins into the ER lumen begins while the protein is still being translated (synthesized) and is still bound to the ribosome
True/ False
We can predict that the flow of electrons through the electron trasport system is exergonic becuae the NAD/NADH redox pair has a highly negative ΔEo' and the O2/H2O redox pair has a highly positive ΔEo'.
True
electron microscopes
use electron beam and electromagnetic lens
.1nm
Telomere
end of a chromosome; have repeated nucleotide sequences, help protect end of chromosome from degradation.
High _________ component of oligosaccharide is transported to Golgi, removed in ____ Golgi, then __________ is added in _____ Golgi.
mannosecis-chg. sialic acidtrans
Organelle
a specialized part of the cell, subunits in the cells of more complex organisms
SI
a system of meausrement based on powers of 10
What does undifferentiated mean?
make many cell types
give two examples of Pyridine nucleotides
NAD, NADP
What is the basic component of hemoglobin?
Iron
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts have their own (cellular structures) identical to bacteria?
Ribosomes
DNA
Limited protein synthesis ability
Calmodulin
Calcium binding protein which binds to other molecules affecting many different cellular functions
What is the exception to chemical messengers?
Hormones
Primary Structure
Order of amino acids. Function of protein is controlled by folding, which is controlled by...
Inside Eukaryotic Cells
the membranes of ER, Golgi, Mitochondria, and other membrane enclosed organelles maintain character diffs btwn contents of each organelle and the cytosol.
Major Lipids in Cell Membrane
Phosphoglycerides, sphingolipids and sterols
what stains used for nucleic acids
DAPI
acridine orange
methylene blue
Where would you find in the mitochondria
Fatty acid elongation
outer membrane
condensation reactions
the way in which monomers form macromolecules
describe active transport?
(against a conc. gradient), requires participation of protein carrier and supply of energy. Energy may derive either from simulatneous hydrolysis of ATP (direct active transport) or from ion gradient (indirect active transport or ion-driven transport). Proteins responsible for direct active transport posses properties of ATPases (enzymes are responsible for ATP hydrolysis) and are called pumps.
riboswitch
part of an mRNA molecule that can directly bind a small target molecule, affecting the gene's activity
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
variation between individuals in a population at a specific nucleotide in DNA sequence
N-terminal histone tail
tails which protrude from the nucleosome and can be modified for various effects
*What's enzyme-linked?(receptor tyrosine kinase)
turned on when ligand dimerizes receptors (autoPO4). binds PLCgamma, cleaves PIP2 into IP3 & DAG. RTKs bind adaptor proteins (GEFs) that activate ras. Ras activates kinase cascade, nuclear transcription factors, gene expression. opposed by phosphotases
cyclin-dependent kinase
protein kinase that has to be complexed with a cyclin protein in order to act. Different CDk-cyclin complexes trigger different steps in the cell division cylce by phosphorylating specific target proteins.
Eukaryote
a cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
What can be used for genetic screening to detect disease mutations, pedigree or identify bacterial or viral infections?
PCR
In gene targetting which DNA strand serves as the homologous DNA donor?
exogenous DNA
this does not modify an enzyme's functional regions
reversible inhibition
Kerotyping
Most common way to identify pairs of chromosomes
Singer and Nicholson
created the transformation or mosaic model which stated that the cell membrane is not static but like an oil, proteins are on inner and outer membrane and integral and are constantly moving; fatty acids point out and chains face in
34 A
One complete turn in helix is how long?
Phospholipids spontaneously form bilayers pt.3
These same forces also provide self-healing properties – a small tear in the bilayer creates a free edge with water; because this is energetically unfavorable, the lipids tend to rearrange spontaneously to eliminate the free edge – the only way for a bilayer to avoid having edges is by closing in on itself and forming a sealed compartment – this behavior is fundamental to the creation of a living cell and follows directly from shape and amphiphilic nature of the molecule
what type of stain is fluorescein
specific marker fluorescent stain
template
one strand of DNA double helix used as template to determine nucleotide sequence of RNA
5' untranslated region
the leader sequence beginning at the trancriptional start site of mRNA and ending one nucleotide befor ethe start codon of the coding region, usually containing a ribosome binding site.
Plasma membrane gets its structure by _____________ and ______________.
phospholipids and cholesterol
2. Which of the following is least permeable through a lipid bilayer?
d. Na+
Type of gene transfer involving direct introduction of DNA into the patient's body
Inside (in vivo)
Okazagi fragments
Fragments of DNA that are caused by discontinous breaks in DNA polymerase because it needs to go in 5' to 3' direction
What procedure turns DNA to RNA by RNA polymerase
Transcription
A lysozome that does not come in contact with substrates and has inactive enzymes
Primary lysozome
integral membrane protein (transprotein)
goes through cell membrane, can go multiple times.
Vimentin (type III) IF examples
1. Vimentin. From mesodermal origin. 54 kD. Found in fibroblasts, endothelia, adipocytes, white cells.
2. Desmin. In muscle. 53 kD. Found in smooth and skeletal muscle.
3. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). 50 kD. Found in glial cells, astrolytes, Swann cells.
4. Peripherin. Nerve cells. 66 kD. Found in neurons.
The cycle in which lactate is removed from muscle tissue and returned to the liver to produce glucose is called
the Cori cycle
what ion transporters are in the parietal cell?
Cl-/HCO- exchangerH+/K+ ATPaseCl- channel proteinK+ channel protein
Proteins made in cytoplasm that lack a targeting signal go where?
remain in the cytoplasm
6. Doing the same procedure as in 5 above, which of the radioactive ions would you expect to appear most rapidly in the medium after the axon had been stimulated?
b. K+
What is the ESSENTIAL cuase of failure in animal cloning?
inappropriate genome reprogramming
Where is IGF2 limited to in adults?
choroid plexus and leptomeninges
fermentation deals with two pyruvic acids during the rxn, give 2 examples of these
ethyl alcohol and lactic acid
What are two types of ionophores and what are an example of each?
Mobile ion carriers-Valinomyocin
Channel forming carriers-Garmicidin A
How are microtubulues linked to MTOCs for the following:
1. Ciliates/ flagellates
2. Interphase
3. Neurons
4. Mitosis
1. Basal bodies
2. Centrosomes
3. Centrosomes
4. Spindle poles
what type of speed and time used in differential velocity for isolating large organelles (ex. nucleii)
short time, low speed
Glycosomes are usually regarded as a specialized kind of peroxisome. What other enzymes would you therefore expect to find this organelle? explain
by biochemical definition, a peroxisome is capable of carrying out the generation and degradation of hydrogen peroxide (h2o2) and always possesses at least one h2o2-generating enzyme (an oxidase) and one H2o2-degrading enzyme.
Name 4 adhesions junctions. Tell what they do.
1) adhesion belt: cell-cell, cadherin, actin.2) desmosome: cell-cell, cadherin, IMF.3) hemidesmosome: cell-basal lamina, integrin, IMF.4) focal adhesion: cell-matrix, integrins, actin.
41. How do you expect the activity of a G protein would be affected by a mutation that caused its affinity for GDP to be reduced without significantly changing its affinity for GTP? The mutant would show
b. more activity
Yellow coat colr Avy mice develop...
diabetes, obesity and cancer(also have behavioral abnormalities)
All chromosomes are in pairs. T/F
False
23rd pair could be XY
How does chemical signaling work?
Chemical or chemicals released by one cell, travels a distance, binds to receptors on other cells, targets cell, then may turn on gene or alter rate of protein synthesis or start activation of protein synthesis
what are 2 examples of general fluorescent stains? what do they stain?
DAPI - stains DNA (nuclear stain)
Acridine Orange - nucleic acid stain
(DNA green RNA orange)
Most of the unpleasant effects of hangovers result from an accumulation of acetadehyde and its metabolites.  Where does the acetaldehyde come from?
Acetaldehyde is the immediate product of ethanol oxidation:
Ethanol+NAD+ →→ acetaldehyde + NAD+ + H+
How would you get multiple pass loops in a membrane protein?
more start-stop signals (Beta adrenergic receptor has 7)
Cloned DNA vs. Protein production
cloned DNA is isolated from a plssmid while with protein generation the product or a cloned gene is expressed (Cloned DNA->mRNA->protein)
How do cross-linking proteins work?
2 or more actin binding sites that link actin filaments together
why must cryosectioning freezing be done quickly 
so ice crystals don't form that would expand and break tissues
Given its location in the cell, suggest a mode of action for thermogenin.  what kind of ean experiment can you suggest to test your hypothesis?
The localization of thermogenin to the inner mitochondrial membrane and its mode of action as an uncoupler of electron transport make it likely that thermogenin is a proton translocator that allows electron to move exergonically into the matrix of the mitochondrion jut as Fo does, but without consisting of phospholipid bilayers with and withough thermogenin
What is the quality of life?
a live person has brain activity, we consider the characteristics that vanish at death -- no brain waves.
what happens when a rxn loses electrons
it causes the receipient of those electrons to be reduced
What is the difference between a free ribosome and an attached ribosome?
Peptide or protein translated by RNA
Why does ethonol consumption lead to a reduction in NAD+ concentration and to a decrease in aerobic respiration?
Ethanol catabolism in the body begins with its oxidation(dehydrogenation), with NAD+ as the electron acceptor. The more ethanol that is consumed, the greater the demand for NAD+ and the more serious is the reduction in NAD+ concentration. This means, in turn, that the supply of NAD+ may be inadequate for aerobic respiration of glucose.
What is the Maintenance of Internal Constancy?
The level of chemicals that make up the environment within a cell must remain with in a constant range, even in the face of a constantly changing outside environment. (ex: maintaining body temperature)
What happens in Prophase 1 in Meiosis?
1) Centrioles move to ends of cell
2) Asters form radially around centrioles
3) Spindle fibers form connecting centrioles
4) Nuclear envelope phosphorlyzes
Chromatin condenses forming chromosomes
Crossing over occurs
24. A reporter gene is best defined as
b. a gene whose activity can be easily monitored
Write an overall reaction for cluconeogenesis that is comparable to reaction 9-16 for glycolysis
2 pyruvate + 4 ATP + 2GTP + 6H20 + 2NADH + 2H+ → glucose + 4ADP + 2 GDP = 6Pi + 2NAD+
Turnover Number
Kcat
Ubiquitination (detailed)
-monobiquitylation=histone regulation -multiubiquitylation (multiple sites with one ubiquitin molecule per site)=endocytosis -polyubiquitination (chain of ubiquitin molecules)=proteasomal degradation OR DNA
What stabilized microtubules
MAPs
name symporters?
Na+/sugerNa+/amino acidNa+/Cl-Na+/K+/2 Cl-Na+/H2PO4-
Bling Of DNA
DNA methylation
Endoplasm
Inner portion of cytoplasm
Sphingomyelin
important phospholipid built from sphingosine not glycerol – sphignosine is long acyl chain with NH2 (amino) group and 2 OH (hydroxyl) groups @ one end of molecule.
RNA polymerase III
transcribes tRNA genes
nucleosome
beadlike structure in eucaryotic chromatin, composed of short length of DNA wrapped around an octameric core of histone proteins.
Vacuole
stores enzymes and waste products
PEV
Position-effect variegation (state of chromatin affects gene expression)
small hydrophobic lipid soluble molecules that can combine with and mask charges on particles
Ionophores
Miescher
1869 discovered DNA, collected nuclei and added protease to break down protein, found DNA and RNA, were not what he expected
Synapses:
Sites where neuronal signals are transmitted from cell to cell. Presynaptic cell separated from postsynaptic cell by synaptic cleft.
TOM Complex
Transfers proteins across outer membrane
Cohesin
Binds sister chromatids during mitosis thru G2
an energy-liberating pathway is also know as
catabolic
tertiary structure
structure resulting from interactions among various side chains
stabilized my non covalent bonds
Km
the Michaelis-Menton constant, = .5 Vmax
What's the "go to lysosome" signal?
M6P
Improperly folded proteins are returned to __________ for degradation in __________.
cytoplasm, proteosomes
Nuclear Envelope
double membrane surrounding the nucleus
genetic inheritance that is not encoded by the DNA sequence
epigenetics
this a very important anabolic rxn
photosynthesis
Inosine is a slight molecular modification of _________
Adenine
Adhering junction
Mechanically holding cells together (strong)
fluid mosaic model
outer portion- hydrophilic (H2O loving) head; inner portion- hydrophobic (H2O fearing) tail, with proteins among the phospholipids
Lipid Molecules
continuous double layer ~ 5nm thick
Organelle
A "compartment" with its own enzymes and other specialized molecules
what type of electron microscope staining needs sectioned samples
immunogold labeling
genome
the total make up of genetic information carried by a cell
DNA
a polymer of nucleotides linked by phosphodiester bonds
Chromosome Puff
small visible areas of chromosomes where the genes are being expressed. Chromatin expand to occupy increased volume when genes are expressed.
Archaea
a group of microrganisms that resemble bacteria but differ in their chemical structure like the cell wall
What mediates separation of receptor and ligand in endosomal compartments?
lowered pH
A pair of substances--one being an acid, and one being a base(acid/base pair):
BUFFER
Bisphenol A=
more yellow coat with diabetes, obesity and cnacer
DNA library construction
bacterial culture with recombinant plasmids, transfer to filter paper, lyse bacteria to denature DNA, hybridize with labeleled probe then identify coloniex with clones and pick colonies to multiply.
what type of rxn is photosynthesis
anabolic rxn
Tubulin
Major protein found in cilia and flagella
Ribophorins have the ability to the (#)s subunit
60
microtubules
made of tubulin, lead role in cell division and cilia and flagella
Sorting Signals
Proteins with sorting signals go from cytosol to the nucleus, ER, mitochondria, plastids, or peroxisomes
IF subunit structure
1. N-terminal globular head domain. Varies in size between different IFs
2. 40 nm rod-like domain. Coiled coil dimer between 2 alpha-helices
3. C-terminal global tail domain 
what type of enzymes enclosed in lysosomes
acidic hydrolases
transmission electron microscopy
electron beam passes through the specimen and produces detailes internal structure
heat-shock proteins
proteins that are transcribed when the organism is under heat stress
What is a model G-protein-linked receptor? What does it do?
Beta-adrenergic. elevates glucose.activated receptors --> activate G-alpha --> adenylate cyclase --> cAMP --> PKA --> glucose
M phase
period of euk. cell cycle during which the nucleus and cytoplasm divide.
Cilia and flagella
propel cells through the environment; move materials over the cell surface
Is cloned meat safe?
Yes according to the FDA
Lamarck's theory of evolution
Transformation or Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
give 2 examples of substances which cause irreversible inhibition
insecticides, organophosphates
Inosine can pair with __________
Adenine, cytosine, or uracil
Freeze fracturing
a technique to separate inner and outer membranes (-196 degrees C) creating 4 membranes that can be studied
Membrane Proteins
§  Some cases – myristic acid is added to N-terminal amino group of the protein by during its synthesis on the ribosome – membrane attachment thru a single lipid anchor not very strong so a 2nd is often added to anchor proteins better to membrane – the 2nd lipid modification is attachment of palmitic acid to a cysteine side chain of the protein – this occurs in response to an extracellular signal and helps recruit kinases to the plasma membrane - when signaling pathway is turned off, palmitic acid is removed, allowing kinase to return to cytosol
what are the main classes of structural proteins
cytoskeltal proteins
membrane proteins
binding site
the region of a protein that interacts with its ligand, cavity
alternative RNA splicing
the exons of pre-mRNA are rearranged in different ways to form different mRNAs, allowing a single gene to code for multiple proteins
RNA induced silencing complex
a multiprotein complex that uses either miRNA or siRNA as a template for recognizing mRNA; when it finds a complementary strand, it activated RNase, which cleaves the RNA
Assembly and organization of microfilaments are controlled by _____________.
microfilament (actin or MT) associated proteins
What is the name for adult skeletal muscle stem cells that reside between the basal lamina and sarcolemma?
Satellite cells
Somatic DNA Transfer
Exogenous DNA into a non-germ line cell, so offspring do not have exogenous DNA
is the ETS aerobic or anaerobic
it is strictly aerobic
The entire mammalion genome is (#) bases
3 * 10^9
What is it called When a persistant cells bumps into another cell and stops because of it
Contact inhibition
Nuclear Export Receptors
Same as Import, but in reverse. Still binds to both.
how do specific marker fluorescent stains work?
fluorescent molecules attached to antibodies specific to certain structures/molecules
scanning electron microscopy
electron beam scans surface to give 3D image
Regulatory Site
site to which a regulator can bind (on enzymes or DNA)
Name 2 types of aerobic metabolism that mitochondria does.
1) TCA cycle2) OxPhos
Cell Theory
1. all living things are made of one or more cell 2. cells are the units of stucture and function in an organism 3. cells come only from preexsiting cells
Other histone modifications are dependent upon what?
specific amino acid residue and histone protein that is altered(determines increase or decrease transcription)
a rxn which receives energy is called what
an endergonic rxn
Who said the cell membrane is not static but like an oil, proteins are on inner and outer membrane and integral and are constantly moving; fatty acids point out and chains face in
Singer and Nicholson
ATP-driven pumps (transport ATPases):
hydrolyze ATP to ADP and phosphate and use energy released to pump solutes across membrane. In prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Structure of pre-mRNA and mRNAGeneral Characteristics:
-Single Stranded 5' to 3' molecule-Initial for of pre-mRNA (in eukaryotes)-pre-mRNA has introns removed to form mRNA (splicing)-mRNA carries triplet codons for amino acid sequence
what happens in the inner membrane of mitochondria
1. oxidation reactions/cell respiration
2. contains ATP synthase
What does the length of time to complete the cell cycle depend on?
cell type and environment.
Most proteins are made in the _____ on ________.
cytoplasm on free ribosomes
Organ System
made up of a group of organs that work together to preform a set of related tasks
the temperature, the pH, and the concentration of an enzyme all contribute to what
the activity of the enzyme
What are the 6 types of DNA polymerase? What do they do?
Helicase-Breaks hydrogen bonds
DNA polymerase 1-excizes RNA primers and fills in with DNA nucleotides
DNA polymerase 3- ensures new nucleotides are added 5' to 3' direction
DNA ligase- connects okazagi fragments
Topo isomerase-ensures DNA replication starts at origins
RNA primase-same as ^
What gives connective tissues its characteristics?
Types of fiber present in extracellular matrix
what is negative staining? what type of microscopy most commonly used for?
staining with heavy metals either directly or with Abs
-used largely with TEM
How does apoptosis occur in response to internal signals?
internal damage activates members of the Bcl-2 gene family causing the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria.
How do mitochondria produce ATP? (2 ways) What else do they do in liver?
1) Krebs cycle2) OxPhosbreak down fatty acids
under fermentation aerobic conditions, what happens to the pyruvic acids?
they lose 1 carbon each and are chemically converted into 2 x 2c Acetyl Coenzyme A's
How are hormones different then chemical messengers?
Hormones work over long distances and do not break down easily
what is the structure of a phospholipid
glycerol molecule with
2 fatty acids and
a phosphate group
What does Activated MPF do?
Activated MPF moves cells from G2 to M phase by initiating:
disassembly of nuclear lamina
chromosome condensation
spindle fiber formation
anaphase promoting complex (APC) which tags proteins (anaphase inhibitors and mitotic cyclin) for degredation.
34. SNAREs exist as complementary partners (v-SNARE and t-SNARE) that carry out membrane fusions between appropriate sesicles and their target membranes. In an experiment, however, you observe fusions of identical membraned vesicles. What would explain t
c. the vesicles would be empty and have not cargo
What happens in Telophase 1 in Meiosis?
Spindle fibers and asters break down into individual microtubules
Centrioles double
Chromosomes unravel into chromatin
Nuclear envelope reforms
Cytokinesis
How does a slime mold move?
Secretes cAMP which appears to act as a stimuli to create a pseudopod
Complete table 10-5 for an aerobic prokaryote, what is the maximum ATP yield?
The maximum ATP yield is obtained by summing the bottom like across the table: ATP yield = 8+6+24= 38 ATP/Glucose
3. Which one of the following statements about the diffusion of lipids and proteins in membranes is NOT true?
d. Lipids diffuse across and in the plane of the membrane at equal rates
What is the next step after hte lumen is fed into the ER?
The single polypeptides are then cleaved
What happens if the mom's copy of IGF2 isn't imprinted?
Growth where there would have been suppression
what is a non proteinatious cofactor
it can either be a metal ion or a non protein organic molecule
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