Cell Bio Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ATPases
hydrolyzes ATP
Membrane Proteins
o   Bacteriorhodopsin
autonomously replicating plasmid
vector
RNA
single stranded polynucleotide, transcribed from DNA
hemidesmosome: 3 things
cell-basal laminaintegrinIMF
Intermediate filaments are (easier/harder) to break down than microfilaments
Harder
mitochondria
doubled membrane organelle, production of ATP
PDI
protein disulfide isomerase transfers the disulfide bond and has the ability to change the bonds to help form the correct folding of the protein. 
Gap Junctions
Communicative junctions between adjacent animal cells.
kinetochore
complex protein containing structure on a mitotic chromosome to which MT attach. Forms on the centrosome of chromosome
mitotically or meitoically heritable change in gene expression that occurs independently of an alteration in DNA sequence
epigenetics
Cytoskeleton
Organized system of proteinaseous fibers within a cell
Hemidesmosome
Attaches cells to a substrate
ribosomes
host organelle for protein synthesis, composed of large and small sub-units
Outer Membrane
Each subcompartment contains a specific set of proteins
what scopes use fluorescent stains
fluorescence and
confocal
genus
the second lowest taxonomic rank, above species and below family
in vivo
experiments conducted in living organims
all transport proteins are...?
multipass transmembranes proteins
Kcat
turnover number, number of enzymatic reactions per second
What's the IMF in muscle cells?
desmin
27. Membrane-bound and free ribosomes, which are structurally and functionally identical, differ only in the proteins they happen to be making at a particular time.
a. true
What methylation modifier is synthesized from DNA and deals with the formation of heterochromatin
small RNA
Heterozygote only expresses phenotype if mutant gene is inherited from the father
polar overdominance
In Meosis, DNA is replicated (#)
1
What is ATPase?
break ATP to ADP
enzymes
amino acid sequence is the structure of
Inner Membrane
Encloses the matrix and forms inVAJinations called cristae
Signal Patch
Transport between Cytosol and Nucleus (Gated Transport)
Sorting Signals
Directs delivery of proteins outside the cytosol.
SIR proteins
Bind, package DNA into tight coils
Location of molecule and function within the Prokaryotic cell:
Coenzyme Q
Plasma membrane
tRNA synthesis
removal of 5' sequence
add CCA sequence to 3'
modification of bases results in non-covalent bases
remove introns
nucleosome
basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wrapping around histone core
Desmosomes
Type of Adhesive Junction that are points of strong adhesion between adjacent cells.

Beneath the plasma membrane of each adjoining cell is a plaque (fibrous material including plakoglobin and desmoplakin which associate with intermediate filaments extending into the cell interior).  The plaque is connected to the transmembrane proteins, desmocollin and desmoglein (both cadherins; glycoproteins that complex with Ca+2 to join cells;

 
ubiquitination
attaching a ubiquitin to a protein (sometimes for destruction)
IMFs are anchored to plasma membrane at ____________.
desmosomes
Ionic Bonds(Ionic=Incomplete)
atom completes outershell by either adding or giving electrons.
Prokaryote
a unicellular organism that lacxks a nucleus andmembrane bound organelles
What are chromosomes that are paired in both sexes; and contains all chromosomes except x and y. These pairs are homologs of each other. The maternal homolog is inherited from the mother; the paternal homolog is inherited from the father
Autosomes
Foreign DNA becomes part of animal genome
integration
What is cytokinesis?
Cellular division (happens in T)
Impermeable junctions
Prevents molecules from moving through intracellular space
Chargaff
Discovered that A, G, C, T, ratio wasn't all 25%. A and T were similar and C and G were similar.
Inhibitory neurotransmitters:
Open Cl- or K+ channels, suppresses firing of action potential. Acetylocholine can excite or inhibit. GABA and glycine.
Water channels/aquaporins:
protein complexes that allow water to move quickly across membrane.
what are the two main functions of proteins
structural
regulatory
 
organelle
a structure in a eukaryotic cell which carries out a specific job for the cell
fluorescence activated cell sorter
FACS
separates different cells by fluorescence
what do ionophores do?
a lipid-soluble molecule, usually synth. by microogranisms to transport ions across the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane. *they disrupt transmembrane ion concentration gradient, req-d for the proper functioning and survival of microorganisms, and thus have antbiotic properties (they are used to incr. permeabilility of biological membranes to certain ions)
coupled reaction
Energy produced by one reaction drives another
chromatin remodeling complex
enzyme complex that alters histone-DNA configurations, changing accessibility of DNA to other proteins
Where does the TCA cycle happen?
matrix of mitochondria
What is life?
quality that distinguishes a vital functioning being from a dead body.
Cell
the smallest unit that can carry on the process of life
proteins associated with DNA can be acetylated/deacetylated or methylated/demethylated
Histone modification
what can lower the activation energy of a rxn
an enzyme
Nuclear pore complexes
Where the nuclear envelope fuses together
What are subunits of a muscle cell called
Sarcomeres
SHOULD I PUT IN ACTIN-SPECIFIC AND MICROTUBULE SPECIFIC DRUGS?
Don't know yet
Where would you find in the mitochondria
Conversion of lactate into pyruvate
Not in Mitochondria
where are SGLTs located?
the apical surface (where glucose conc. is high)
Histone H3
One of the core proteins involved in forming a histone. Forms a dimer with H4. Two of these dimers come together to form a tetramer before being joined by two H2A-H2B dimers.
Hydrolytic enzymes destined for degradation in lysosomes are tagged with ________ that is recognized by receptors in _____________.
mannose 6 phosphate (M6P)trans Golgi
11. Upon stimulation of a nerve cell, resultant processes that limit the entry of Na+ ions are: (1) the Na+ concentration reaches equilibrium across the membrane or the membrane potential reaches the Na+ equilibrium potential (2) the Na+ channels are ina
a. true
What is excess fat not only in adipose tissue, but also inside other organs?
obesity.
What is the number of protein-coding regions in the human genome?
20,000 to 23,000
this is a very important catabolic rxn
aerobic cellular respiration
Cell spends most of its life in (Part of cell cycle)
Interphase
Lysozomes are important in (4 functions)
Intracellular digestion
Destruction of foreign entitites
Metamorphosis
Reproduction
When do globular heads use ATPase?
In presence of actin
Functional role of keratin filaments exposed by skin diseases
For epidermolysis bullosa:
1. Severe blistering after mild pressure
2. Mutations in keratin genes expressed in basal cell layer
3. Keratins important for resisting mechanical stresses on epidermis
α-ketoglurate dehydrogenase is allosterically inhibited by succinyl CoA
High levels of succinyl CoA signal adequate levels of TCA-cycle intermediates, so it seems reasonable to shut down further TCA cycle activity.
what are the main types of membrane lipids?
phospholipids, cholesterol, glycolipids (gangliosides), sphingolipids (?)
Which adds more membrane fluidity to the membrane, glycerophospholipids or sphingomyelin, and why?
glycerophospholipid b/c cis-double bond kink
Why is reproduction essential?
for a population of organisms to survive from one generation to the next
In nuclear transfer embryos what happens to the methylation of DNA?
It is exceedingly methylated= hampering expression of key genes for proper development
what is a coenzyme
the cofactor of the enzyme by itself
common in arthyrocytes, bound to actin and spectrin to form mesh arrangement
Ankyrin and Band 4.1
Neurofilaments (type IV) features
1. Found in neurons
2. Present in all eukaryotes
3. Stabilize nuclear envelope and help organize chromatin
4. Contains Lamin A,B,C
why is it hypothesized that endosymbiosis occurred?
early eukaryote cells were anaerobic so engulfed prokaryotes capable of carrying out cellular respiration
Glucose is transported in the bloodstream to cells in all parts of your body.  In body cells, glucose has four main fates
Glucose is used to synthesize glycogen, is converted to acetyl CoA to make body fat, is catabolized to carbon dioxide and water, and is converted to lactate.
What is O-linked glycosylation and where does it take place?
oligosaccharides attach to serine and threonine residues only in Golgi.
Imprinting in genetic diseases result from
loss of imprinting or uniparental disomy
What is the difference between a malignant and benign cancer?
Malignant is invasive
Benign is noninvasive
Lipid rich area
An area where there are no proteins in the cell membrane



Component polypeptide for and location of epithelial IF
1. Type 1 keratins (acidic), type 2 keratins (basic)
2. Epithelial cells and their derivatives
endocytosis (compared to exocytosis)
uptake of material into the cell in a vesicle, compared to output of material from the cell
poly-A addition site
the poly-A tail is added to the 3' end of the RNA after the poly-A signal is recognized by the RNA9 cleavage complex
49, 50. Acetylcholine acts at a G-protein-linked receptor on heart muscle to make the heart beat
A high concentration of a non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP. Modification of the acetylcholine-receptor-linked G protein a subunit by cholera toxin.
What is the job of nucleoli?
Contain the DNA that codes for ribosomal RNA
Explain growth & shrinkage stages of dynamic instability
1. Growth: rate of tubulin assembly  > rate of GTP hydrolysis. Subunits have higher affinity for one another, making tubulin cap stable and growth stable.
2. Shrinking: GTP hydrolyze faster than assembly and expose beta end. Terms a catastrophe. Causes rapid shrinkage.
3. When cap reforms, tubulin able to grow again. Termed a rescue.
In what sense might arsenate be called an uncoupler of substrate-level phosphorylation?
It allows substrate oxidation to proceed without concomitant ATP generation, releasing this step in the glycolytic pathway from its normal sensitivity to, and regulation by, the availability of ADP and Pi.
What is the role of cyclinE/cdk2 at G1 to S transition?
phosphorylate Rb and CDK4/6-cyclin D. Internal feedback. activate DNA synthesis.
When is the imprint erased and reestablished?
erased as primordial germ cell and established with gametes
How do monomer stabalizeing proteins work?
Bind to G-actin which prevents it from polymerizing
what is the general progression of DNA - protein
DNA transcribed to pre mRNA
pre mRNA spliced and modified
mature transcript mRNA leaves nucleus
transcript translated to protein
actin subunits add at the _____ end and get removed at _____ end. This treadmilling means they're in ______________.
add at +, remove at -DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM
is glycolosis aerboic or anaerobic
it can be both, but the amount of ATP produced changes between the two (2 atp for anaerobic, 8 ATP for aerobic)
What is the process of Dehydration Synthesis?
to remove water and put it back in, repeating.
the activity of an enzyme is dependent upon what
the temp, the pH and the concentration of the enzyme
Carboxy group
COOH
acetyl CoA
carrier molecule
Sarcolema
Muscle cell membrane
Structure of proteins
1)primary-sequence
2)secondary-local folding
3)tertiary-long-range folding
4)quartenary-multimeric organization
5) supramolecular- large scale assemblies
 
what is RNAi?
RNA interference
Acetylcholine
a type of Neurotransmitter
flip-flop
Studies show that phospholipid molecules in synthetic bilayers very rarely migrate from the monolayer (leaflet) on one side to that on the other.
True/False
Energy is always released whenever a covalent bond is formed and is always required to break a covalent bond.
 
True
mercaptoethanol on polypeptides
breaks S-S bonds
Mitochondrion
transfers energy from organic compounds to ATP
TUmor suppressors/transcriptional repressors
pRb and RP58
Nonspecific endocytosis
Endocytosis involving nonspecific molecules getting into a cell
Nucleotides
Sub-units of nucleic acids. Nitrogen base, deoxyribose sugar, phosphate
Neurotransmitters:
Signal molecules released when change of electrical potential in presynaptic cell occurs. Bind to transmitter-gated ion channels in postsynaptic cells.
SAM Complex
Helps Beta-Barrel proteins fold correctly
Kinetochores
Attach sister chromatids to the spindle
Oxidation in biological systems is usually accompanied by
dehydrogenation
denaturation
disrupting of covalent bonds in unfavorable conditions
1st law of thermodynamics
energy is conserved
What defines the cytoplasmic compartment?
plasma membrane
Microtubules radiate from the cell center with their ___ ends projecting outward.
+
Golgi Body
processes and packages substances produced by the cell
Controls activity of transposons which can be viral DNA
sRNA
reducing agent
a substance that is oxidized
In mrNA there are (#) codons
61
The (longer/shorter) the fatty acid chain the slower the movement of lipids
Longer
microfilaments
constucted form actin, big part in muscular contraction
Mitochondrial Hsp70
Completes protein import by binding and releasing the protein.
Patch-clamp recording:
Examine transport of molecule through channel in membrane that covers mouth of pipette. Helps to study ion channels of all types. Shows that channels open in all-or-nothing fashion.
what type of scope combines multiple planes of focus
confocal
endosymbiont theory
the theory that mitochondria and plastids originated from separate prokaryotic organisms that were taken by the cell to live inside it
karyotype
an ordered display of pairs of chromosomes from cell
Standard Free-Energy Change
delta G at standard conditions
What process can be exploited by viruses and bacteria to enter a cell?
endocytosis
________ is the tendency to respond immediately to stimuli and can be essential for survival.
Irritability
Demethylation of IAP cryptic promoter=
transcription can occur
what do transferred electrons represent
they represent energy
Myofibrils
Cylindrical units of actin and myosin that run the length of the cell
Contact inhibition
When lamellipodium of different cells come in contact the cells
Most secratory proteins are (type of protein) which means that they have (molecule) added
Glycoprotein
Carbon
Target cell
Cell which chemicals messenger is targeting
cell wall
found in all prokaryotes, shapes and protects cell
Long-term potentiation:
Short burst of repetitive firing. Activated by high levels of Ca2+
Nuclear Export Receptors
Nuclear localization signals are not removed after the envelope breaks so proteins can be repeatedly imported.
where does electron tranport system occur
inner mitochondrial membrane
fluorescence microscope
most useful to localize a specific protein or structure in the cell
hybridoma
a hybrid cell made from fusing a specific B cell with a specific B cell with a myeloma that produces only one type of antibody
Protein interaction map
shows relationships between all the proteins in an organism
____________________ anchored to plasma membrane stabilize cell shape.
Contractile bundles (stress fibers) of microfilaments
chromatid
one compy of a chromosome formed by DNA replication that is still joined at hte contromere ot the other copy.
Abnormalities observed with cloning
large offspring with underdeveloped placenta, thyic aplasia, body temp fluctuation, kidney atrophy, liver/heart hypertrophy, immunosuppression and high leptin concentration
Extra- Chromosomal insertion
plasmid DNA inserted into nucleoplasm and is transient, so doesn't last for the life of the animal
define photosynthesis
the conversion of radiant energy into chemical energy
Mitosis (overall)
The division of cells into 2 genetically identifical cells
a technique to separate inner and outer membranes (-196 degrees C) creating 4 membranes that can be studied
Freeze fracturing
cristae
folds created by the inner of the 2 membranes, where oxidative phosphorylation occurs
what type of bond joins monomers of nucleic acids
phosphodiester bonds
confocal scanning microscope
use lasers or optics to selectively focus on narrow region of specimen thus producing sharp images 40 micrometers
reporter gene
genetic construct in which a copy of the regulatory DNA of a gene of interest is linked to a sequence coding for an easily-detectable product
Human Accelerated Regions
Regions of DNA which have changed rapidly in the evolution of humans since diverging from chimpanzees.
Can cholesterol flip flop? Why/why not?
yes, adds membrane fluidity
Phospholipid
a lipid made of a phosphate group and fatty acids
extracting of a fragment of Dna from one source and inserting or cloning it into the DNA from another source
DNA cloning
As long as the rxn requires less energy than an exergonix rxn, then (blank) is enough to power it
ATP transfer
In males, the X on the 23rd chromosome is always expressed. T/F
True
What are the two ways cells communicate?
Gap junctions
Chemical signaling
the translocation of the phosphatidylserine in apoptotic cells is thought to occur byt 2 mechanisms:
Glycolipids contain sugar, are found in noncytosolic monolayer of LB – have most extreme asymmetry in their membrane distribution – in animal cells they are made from sphingosine – they tend to self associate, partly through H bonds btwn sugars and partly thru VDW forces btwn long and straigt hydrocarbon chains, and may partition into lipid rafts.
what are the two main components of a confocal scope
pinhole opening
computer
Classification of amino acids
-based on structure of side chain
1) nonpolar-hydrophobic
2)polar-hydrophyllic
3)electrically charged
Repeated DNA sequence:
sequences of DNA that are repeated. duh.
T/F: actin filaments are inserted into the membrane.
FALSE. Integrins connect actin filaments to matrix at focal contact
Electrom Microscope
uses a beam of electrons to form an image of a specimen
Four thing imprint must be:
epigenetic CpG islands, invovled in gene expression control, stably maintained during mitosis, erased and reset during gametogenesis
is the krebb's cycle aerobic or anaerobic?
is it strictly aerobic
What are the ideas that suggest how cells move through body to get to end spot (4)
Actual roadways-grooved channels
Mesenchymal cells nudge each other starting movement and stop movement by nudging others
Chemical gradients lead to source
Electrical fields lead to source
Structure of ribosomal RNAGeneral Characteristics:
1. rRNA genes found in nucleus2. Transcribed exclusively in nucleolus3. Exit nucleus to form ribosomes in cytoplasm4. Polyribosomes are site of protein synthesis in cytoplasm
what are some molecules transported in to the nucleus? out?
in: histones, nucleotides, replication enzymes, transcription enzymes
out: mRNA, ribosomes
What does Ascorbic Acid deficiency do?
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) definciency prevents proline hydroxylation and causes scurvy (arrrr drink your orange juice! arrrr)
Can integral proteins flip flop?
no, they're stuck in the membrane, duh.
25. If one were interested in studying the phenotype of a series of cells with varying gene expression, one would compare
b. c-DNA of the cells
What are the mechanisms of genome programming?
DNA methylation and histone acetylation
What does colchine do?
Freezes cell and stops it in whatever phase its in
What is a Myosin filament composed of?
Composed of 6 peptide subunits
what are the three stages associated with staining
1. sample prepped (w/microtome or cryosectioning)
2. permeabilized - detergants used to put holes in cell membrane
3. fixed - freeze or hold cells at particular stage. freeze cellular components
How can channel size be regulated?
At low calcium concentration and high pH the channels open.
At high calcium concentration and low pH the channels close.
Cadherin receptors - permissive for cell division or not?
NOT b/c cell-cell jcns. Beta catenin links filaments to cell-cell jcns, but can also enter nucleus to promote cell division. APC inhibits cell division by keeping B-catenin out of the nucleus.
What happens to a gene during PEV?
could be moved to heterochromatic region by an inversion which would tend to switch off gene expression
What does cAMP dependent protein kinase do?
Breaks ATP down to ADP+P which activates a protein to regulate cellular activity
what modifications are made between pre-mRNA and mature transcript mRNA
guanosine cap at 5'
poly A tail at 3'
What do tight junctions block and what does this allow?
Tight junctions prevent the lateral movement of integral membrane proteins within membranes. This allows for discrete functional domains at opposite ends of cells.
47, 48. During the mating process, yeast cells respond to pheromones that are secreted from other cells. These pheromones bind to G-protein-linked receptors on the surface of the responding yeast cell and lead to activation of G proteins inside the cell.
Gbg activates the mating response but is inhibited when bound by Ga.
these types of rxns occur in the stroma of chloroplasts
dark rxns, do not require light
Why are sponge cells different?
They live next to each other but are all individual organisms
Indicate on Table 10-5 the changes that are necessary to calculate the maximum ATP yield for a eukaryotic cell taht uses the glycerol posphate shuttle to move electrons from the cytosol into the matrix of the mitochondria.
For a eukaryotic cell that uses the glycerol phosphate shuttle, substitute the parenthetical values shown in the Glycolysis column; because the glycerol phosphate shuttle transfers electrons from NADH in the cytosol to FAD in the mitochondrion, the ATP yield per cytoplasmically generated ATP is 2 instead of 3, and the ATP yield is therefore decreased by 2
4. Which of the following about composition of membranes is true?
c. The inner and outer membranes of mitochondria have different protein composition
What are the two hypothesis about why when secretory vesicles bind to a membrane there is an influx of Calcium
1-Calcium binds to receptor in cells cytoplasm to activate enzymes to allow fusion
2-Calcium binds to cytoskeleton causing fibers to contract moving proteins away allowing fusion
7. Acetylcholine is made in the cytosol and then transported into synaptic vesicles. When synaptic vesicles are isolated from neurons, they can take up additional acetylcholine added to the solution in which they are suspended, but only when ATP is prese
d. ATP is used to maintain a H+ gradient [higher in vesicle] for an antiport action for H+/acetylcholine membrane reverse transport
What is the primary role of adult stem cells?
to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found, if knockout adult stem cell= premature aging
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