Cell Cycle Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Cell division occurs during
Mitosis
What initiates anaphase?
the destruction of cohesins
Prophase
Spindle fibers form. Nuclear membrane disappears. Chromosomes become visible
Metaphase I
23. Tetrads (2 homologous chromosomes, each with 2 sister chromatids) align in the middle/along the equator
Anaphase
third stage where centromeres split and move toward poles
True or false. Plants have centrosomes.
False.
Mitosis
Division of the Nucleas and its contents
somate is another name for ______
body cells
Define tumor:
uncontrolled cell cycle (too much mitosis) causing rapid growth in the number of cells in a particular tissue or organ.
The first phase of mitosis is called?
prophase
Ubiquitination 
A process by which proteins are marked for proteasome degradation. Proteins called ubiquitins are transferred to the substrate protein, targeting it for destruction by the proteasome.
 
 
A proteasome is a large protein complex in the cytosol that is re
responsible for degrading cytosolic proteins that have beenmarked for destruction by ubiquitylation or by some other means
Anaphase I
One homologue from each tetrad will migrate to opposite poles (centromeres are NOT broken at this stage, so sister chromatids are still joined.)
Hypotonic Solution
has a lower concentration of solute (like salt) than the cell cytoplasm around it.
Telophase
The fourth phase where the cell splits to form two new cells and enters the interphase cycle
The structures labeled B in Figure 10-2 are called
sister chromotids.
cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks)
protein kinase that has to be complexed with a cyclin protein in order to act. Different Cdk-cylcin complexes trigger different steps in the cell-division cycle by phosphorylating specific target proteins
Two chromosomes that code for the same traits (but do not necessarily carry
homologous chromosomes
Which of the following is a phase of mitoses?
prophase
Which type of tumors metastasize?
Malignant tumors metastasize; if a benign tumor were to metastasize then it would no longer be benign but change to a malignant tumor.
When during the cell cycle is a cell's DNA replicated?
S phase
43. How is meiosis advantageous to mitosis when it comes to the survival of a species?
44. Meiosis makes new combinations of genes during crossing over, so this means there are new combinations of traits in the next generation since the cells produced by Meiosis are reproductive cells. Mitosis makes new cells, but they each have the same DNA, so this is good for growth and replacing old cells, but not good for reproduction. Having new combinations of traits in offspring means that some may be able to survive better in a changing environment.
Prophase II
May or may not occur. If it does, the spindle apparatus is reassembled.
what is one important event that occurs during metaphase
theads align in the middle or equator
True or False. The Mitotic phase is a large chunck of the cell cycle.
False, it is relatively short.
Which of the following happen when a cell divides?
Each daughter cell receives its own copy of the parent cell's DNA.
nonkinetpchore micortubules from opposite poles overlap and push against each other causing...
cell elongation
Cytokinesis I
May or may not occur
Interphase
Time between division, DNA is replicated, protein synthesis occurs
Which phase do the daughter chromosomes begin moving towards opposite poles?
Anaphase
Daughter cells
The resulting two cells in Mitosis.
In plants, what forms during cytokinesis?
Cell plate.
how many daughter cells are produced in mitosis
2

 
what does this indicate?
cdks need to be phosphorylated/dephosphorylated to be active
what is the # of daughter cells produced in meosis
4
Active transport
the movement of materials where the cell actually uses energy to pump it against the concentration gradient
The structure labeled A in Figure 10-2 is called the
centromere.
In what phase does the cell cleavage become prominent?
Cytokinesis
Define metastasize:
Spread to other parts of the body, thus starting tumors elsewhere in the body.
Cell cycle
The normal life cycle of a cell including interphase and mitosis. It is controlled by enzymes.
What are the 2 types of regulatory proteins involved in cell cycle control
cyclins
cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks)
What causes levels of cyclin to fall ?
targeted proteolysis --- degradation
 
Proteolysis is the directed degradation (digestion) of proteins by cellular enzymes called proteases.   The hydrolytic breakdown of proteins into simpler, soluble substances such as peptides and amino acids, as occurs during digestion.
Identify 3 important events that occur during Interphase:
• Protein Synthesis for that cell’s daily function• DNA replication (for the purpose of dividing)• Grows and makes more organelles
If a parent cell has 20 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will the daughter cells have?
20 in each daughter cell.
What occurs to the chromosomes during metaphase?
chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate (the midway point between the spindle's two poles)
What causes a tumor to form:
usually a mutation in the genes that control/regulate cell division (mitosis) which leads to the cell not spending enough time in interphase but instead repeatedly dividing.
47. What is the purpose of the mitosis portion of a cell’s life cycle? Provide examples of when mitosis takes place in an organism.
48. The steps of mitosis are for dividing the chromosomes (DNA) to form new cells. New cells are needed as an organism grows or when cells get old or worn out. Mitosis ensures that each new cell has all the DNA.
Why would it be a problem if Prophase did not occur?
The DNA must be organized into chromosomes in order to be easily moved and separated, also the nucleus must dissolve in order to move the DNA.
centromere
attaches chromatids
S phase
chromosomes replicated
cyclins
type of regulatory protein
concentration varies
increases from S phase
decrease during mitosis
Prometaphase
nuclear envelope fragmentskinetochore fibers from opposite ends of the mitotic spindle atach to the kinetochores of the sister chromatidschromosome moves toward midline
centrosome
nonmebranous organelle that functions throughout the cell cycle to organize the cell's microtubules
"microtubule organizing center"
The DNA-protein complex, called ________, is organized into a long, thin fiber.
chromatin
g2
third phase, cell divides again
D1
Cyclin that together with Cyclin-Dependent Kinases control progression through the Cell Cycle
Gametes
reproductive cells;
sperm cells and egg cells;
haploid
aster
radial array of short microtubules extending from the centrosome
growth factor
causes other cells to divide
The mitotic phase alternates with ___________ in the cell cycle.
interphase
Cytokinesis
stage where the cytoplasm is divided
Each identical rod of a chromosome
Chromatid
What separates during Meiosis II?
Sister Chromatids
synapsis
meiosis early phase 1 homologous chromosomes find each other and become closely associated
metastasis
The spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site.
chromatin
complex of DNA and associated protein molecules
in eukaryotic chromosomes
________: Just outside the nucleus are two centrosomes, formed earlier by the replication of a single centrosome.
G2
chromosomes
the structures in which DNA is packaged
Somatic Cells
all body cells except the reproductive cells
Mitotic Spindle
An assemblage of mircotubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis
Meiosis
a variation of cell division which yields daughter cells that have half as many chromosomes as the parent cell;
occurs only in the gonads
Phosphorylation
addition of phosphate to amino acid and serine theronine and tyrosine in proteins
Kinetochore fibers
microtubules that attach to the chromatids at the kinetochore
metaphase
The third stage of mitosis, in which the spindle is complete and the chromosomes, attached to microtubules at their kinetochores, are all aligned at the metaphase plate.
transformation
(1) The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell. (2) A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell
Malignant Tumor
An abnormal tissue mass that can spread into neighboring tissue and to other parts of the body
Density-dependent Inhibition
when cells stop dividing after they form a single layer of cells
Mitosis is controlled by _____
Matriculation Promotion Factor (MPF)Low levels of cyclin & MPF activity during interphase (G1, S, G2) and high levels of cyclin & MPF activity during mitosis.MPF artificially implanted in non-dividing cells undergo mitosis!
G2 Restriction Point
studied in saccaromyces pombe (fusuib yeast) and Vertebrate Occytes
Anchorage dependence
a phenomenon that most animal cells exhibit in which they must be attached to a substratum in order to divide
reduction division
meiosis formed with only half of original amount of chromosomes to ensure consist chromosomes for further generations
cell cycle control system
cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle
binary fission
This type of cell division by which prokaryotes reproduce. Each dividing daughter cell receives a copy of the single parental chromosome
Phases of Binary Fission
Lag, stationary, log. (Lag is preparatory time).
Cyclin
a protein that gets its name from its cyclically fluctuating conc. in the cell;
attaches to and activates Cdk
Cell Plate
The precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two
Count _________ to determine chromosome numbers.
Centromeres- the joining 'belt' of chromatids.
Mitotic (M) Phase
The phase of the cel cycle that include mitosis and cytokinesis
List three things that the cell is doing during interphase
Growing to mature sizeReplicatingPreps to divide into two new cells
What does radiation do to chromosomes?
It breaks pieces off of the chromosomes and the parts don't reattach
What happens if you use a ton of Cdc25?
Really small cells since they will activate mpf.
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