cell parts 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
photosynthetic organelle.
Bundles of DNA
smooth er
no ribosomes
Cellular respiration
ATP made
passive transport
-doesn't use energy-engulfing
hereditary material in the cell
cellular organelle active in mitosis
Receives, packages, and ships materials through out the cell
digestive substance within the cell
gel-like material inside the cell, holds all of the organelles
Food Vacuole
Vacuole that fuses with lysosome.
Formed by phagocytosis.
-finish protein synthesis (mRNA to Protein or translation)
-Free: cytosol; protein made for IN the cell
-Bound: to endoplasmic reticulum; protein for membranes, organelles, and EXPORT
place where the DNA if stored
Attached to the endoplasmic riticulum or float around freely in the cytoplasm. Makes proteins.*Factories
Small compartments inside the plant and animal cells that isolate chemical reactions
small membrance-bound sacs in the cytoplasm
a cell organelle containing enzymes that digest particles and that disintegrate the cell after its death.
Powerhouse of the cell. Makes energy by burning sugar.
central vacuole
In mature plants, stores compounds.
Intracellular Junctions; Plants
Plasmodesmata: cell wall perforations; water and solute passage in plants
cell membrane
-a cell structure that controls whcich substance can enter or leave the cell
The protein factory of the cell
Rough ER
makes proteins & is found either free in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Signal Transduction
-sends signals from outside to inside, receptors (testosterone)
Made mostly of cellulose, this encases or surround
Cell wall
Cell Membrane
the flexible outer layer of a cell that chooses what materials can go in and out of the cell.
is what takes in sunlight and uses it to make food
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface
short, hairlike projections from the cell
move the fluids around the cell
a plastid containing chlorophyll.
What are inherited physical traits directly related to?
What is the transfer of information from the nucleus to the organelles accomplsihed by?
nuclear membrane
the double membrane surrounding the nucleus within a cell.
What is ATP?
Adenosine triphosphate, a product of decomposing starch, a chemical associated with the mitochondria, a from of chemical energy.
What is DNA?
(deoxyribonucleic acid). The chemical structure of genes which control inheritance.
What are genes?
Coded information carried on the DNA.
What are mitochondria?
The tiny rod-shaped cell bodieswhere aerobic respiration occurs; the cell powerhouses.
How are cell activities ordered and contolled by the nucleus?
Chemical messages.
What is a distinguishing feature between plant and animal cells?
The plant's cell wall.
What are ribosomes?
The tiny, dot-like bodies in the cytoplasm or part of the endoplasmic reticulum; important in protein synthesis.
rough endoplasmic reticulum
a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface
What is the most important part of a cell for carrying out life activities?
The cytoplasm.
How many chloroplasts may be in one square millimeter of a leaf?
About half a million.
What makes the phrase "simple cell" obsolete and misleading?
The known operational complexities of the cell.
What determines what kind of cell a cell will be?
The amount and type of protein.
fluid in the nucleus
Storage area for cells
tiny part inside a cell
What transports the newly made proteins from the proteins to the Golgi
important in the syntheesis of proteins(contains ribosomes on the surface)
Rough ER
group of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function
use chemicals to break down certain material in the cell

Robert Hooke
looked at dead cork cells under microscope
Anton Von Leewenhoek
looked at living cells under the microscope
organ system
a group of organs that work together to preform a major function
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