Cell Structure and Function Flashcards

Terms Definitions
hold/house dna
nucleus
makes energy/atp
mitochondria
makes protein(white dots)
ribosomes
pinocytosis
water and dissolved solutes
mitochondria
houses of cellular respiration
boundary for protection
cell membrane
what determines most characteristics of membrane
proteins
store packages & processes
golgi apparatus
everything inside cell except nucleus.fluid of organelles
cytoplasm
hyposmotic
osmolarity of the solution being compared is less (fewer total particles)
nucleolus
spherial concentrations of RNA which form ribosomes
owhat is required for respiration reactions to continue and run efficiently
oxygen
primary active transport
NA+, K+, CA++ pumps
nucleus boundary
nuclear envelope containing nuclear pores
microfilaments
slender protein strands for support and movement
Chromatin
DNA + proteins condense to form chromosomes during division
Cell
Basic Unit of structure and function of all living organisms
pump or transporter proteins
involved in active transport
brownian movement
vibrating motion due to kinetic energy
secondary active transport
symporters-2 different substances are moved in the same directionantiporters-2 substances are moved in opposite directions
receptor proteins
sites for attachment for such molecules as hormones, neurotransmitters, and drugs
Dialysis
diffusion of small solutes across a selectively permeable membrane leaving large solutes behind
osmosis
flow of water across a selectively permeable membrane in response to inequalities of impermeable solute distribution "solutes suck"
filtration
fluid and mall solutes are moved across the membrane by a pressure gradient to the exclusion of larger molecules
endocytosis
incorporation of materials dues to an invagination of the membrane to form a vesicle
rest of inside of nucleus.made of DNA & proteins(makes RNA)
chromatin
carrier mediated facilitated diffusion
movement across the membrane sometimes cannot be fully explained by ficks lawspecific protein binding sites which can pick up ions and then release them on the other side of the membraneno expenditure of energy-passive phenomenonbest ex-mov. of glucose in
lipid component of cell membrane types
phospholipids, cholesterol and glycolipids
what provides surface area for mitochondria reactions
internal membraneous folds or cristae
how does water pass through cell membrane
moves through lipid bilayermoves through protein aquaporins
function of carbohydrate part of cell membrane
enables cells to recognize eachothercell to cell adhesions can protect cells from being digested
how is cell membrane formed
forms a bilayer with hydrophobic fatty acid tails of lipid molecules forming central core of bilayered sheet and hydrophillic heads directed toward aqueous environment inside of outside the cell
Organ
Organ System
head with two tails
phospholipids
structure only in animal cells
embedAudio("/card_audio/3295.mp3") lysosome
Chloroplast
Membrane-bound organelle in which photosynthesis occurs.
Eukaryote
Organisms whose cells contain nuclei
ribosomes
a tiny, somewhat mitten-shaped organelle occurring in great numbers in the cell cytoplasm either freely, in small clusters, or attached to the outer surfaces of endoplasmic reticula, and functioning as the site of protein manufacture.
hypotonic
solution is below strength in solute
phosopholipid bilayer
cell membrane is also a..
embedAudio("/card_audio/3287.mp3") Cell Membrane
doorway of cell, support, protection, controls movement of materials in and out of plant and animal cells
 
Lysosomes

Structure: A membrane sac containing digestive enzymes.
Function:
-Digest injested materials and waste.
-Important in programming cell death.
isotonic
noting or pertaining to solutions characterized by equal osmotic pressure.
lysosome
an organelle that breaks things down using digestive enzymes; mostly in animal cells
Only in animal cell, aids in digestion
embedAudio("/card_audio/3295.mp3") lysosome
  
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
(sER)

Structure: Network of membranes creating channels in the cytoplasm from the nucleus to the cell membrane.
Function:
-Site of lipid synthesis.
-Responsible for movement of many materials throughout cell.
-Abundant in cells that produce steroid hormones
Ribosome
Small particle of proteins and nucleic acids which is the site of protien synthesis.
Rudolph Virchow
He studied cell reproduction and concluded that all cells are produced from preexisting cells
A network of protein filaments that eukaryotic cells are given their shape and internal organization by
Cytoskeleton
diffusion
act of diffusing; state of being diffused.
Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm is the portion of the cell outside the nucleus
what is the nuclear envelope
double membrane around nucleus
made in nucleolus, made of RNA, and makes protein for cell
embedAudio("/card_audio/3301.mp3") ribosome
Cell Wall
A rigid, protective layer that lies outside the cell membrane in plant cells, fungi, and many protistss
Nuclear Envelope
A layer of two membranes that surrounds the nuleus of a cell
 
cell membrane
thin, flexible barrier around a cell; controls what enters and leaves the cell.
where lipid components of the cell membrane of the cell membrane are assembled along with proteins & other materials that are exported from the cell
endoplasmic reticulum
phagocytosis
the ingestion of a smaller cell or cell fragment, a microorganism, or foreign particles by means of the local infolding of a cell's membrane and the protrusion of its cytoplasm around the fold until the material has been surrounded and engulfed by closure
what occurs in the nucleolus
free floating ribosomes produce proteins
water solublesubstacnes wont move easily through plasma membrane because
they are stopped by nonpolar middle.
 
 
In what cells are chloroplasts found?
 
 
In some plant cells.
Not animal or prokaryotic.
Structures in a cell that release most of a cell's energy?
What is Mitochondria? (myt-oh-KAHN-dree-uh) Plural is mitochondrian.
 
 
In what cells is the nucleus (including nuclear membrane/nucleolus) found?
 
 
In plant and animal cells.
Not prokaryotic.
Whats the difference between rough er and smoot er
rough er has ribosomes in it
vesicles
membranous sacs
organs
eyes, kidneys, and skin
polyribosome
string of ribosomes simultaneously translating regions of the same mRNA strand during protein synthesis
disorganized strands of genetic material found in nucleus
chromatin
Smooth ER
lacks ribosomes; cell material transport
mitochondrion
in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP
Lysosome
Small, round structure. Found in animals but not usually found in plants. Digests food and old cells.
Structure that gives rise to microtubules of cilia
centriole
concentration gradient
the difference in concentration between two solutions separated by a selectively permeable membrane
glycocalyx
A layer of exopolysaccharide fibers on the surface of bacterial cells which may be involved in adherence to a surface. Sometimes a general term for a bacterial capsules; if compact called capsule and if diffuse, called slime layer
organelles
"little organs". most enclosed by a selectively permeable membrane
endoplasmic reticulum
network of passageways that transports proteins throughout the cell
Portion of bacterial cell interior in which the DN
nucleoid
German Botanist came to conclusion all plants have cells. Cofounder of cell theory
Scheliden
tissue
a group of similar cells that carry out a specific function
centriole
A structure in an animal cell composed of cylinders of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9 + 0 pattern. An animal cell usually has a pair of centrioles involved in cell division.
tube system that has ribosomes attached to its outside
rough endoplasmic reticulum
One of three things ONLY found in plant cells.Use
Chloroplast
Golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
A cell's collection of DNA and all of the proteins
chromatin
What is the nucleus?
- the center of the atam-contains protons and neut
Cell theory says that........
All living things are made of cells
What is a ribosome?
- small particle in the cell on which proteins are
nucleus
membrane-bound organelle that holds DNA
Active Transport
-Works against concentration gradient-Molecules brought into cell by carrier molecules even though there is a higher concentration of molecules in the cell already (requires energy)
plasma membrane
the semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell
leucoplast
Colorless plastids that synthesize and store starches and oils
Secretory Vesicles
-Small, membrane bound sac-Transports or stores materials within cells-Pinch off from Golgi Apparatus
modifies proteins, packages and transports them around the cell
endoplasmic reticulum
A semirigid, permeable structure external to the p
cell wall
necleolus
dense area where dna is concentrated when it is in the process if makeing ribosomal RNA
Cytoplasm
both plant and animal, clear thick jellylike material and organelles found inside cell membrane, supports/protects cell organelles
Phospholipids, mostly, arranged in two layers; the
lipid bilayer
Found on the inside of a cell
Cytoplasm
mitosis
the usual method of cell division, characterized typically by the resolving of the chromatin of the nucleus into a threadlike form, which condenses into chromosomes, each of which separates longitudinally into two parts, one part of each chromosome being
prokaryotic cell
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
eukaryotic cell
A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Examples of organisms with these cells are protists, plants, fungi, and animals; organisms are in the Eukarya domain
chromosomes
thin, rod shaped objects found in the nucleus
lysosomes and peroxisomes
A cell organelle containing enzymes that digest particles and that disintegrate the cell after its death.
homeostasis
the ability of a cell to maintain a stable internal environment
What is Endocytosis?
- the process of taking material into the cell by
Where are cells modified and packaged in vesicles
- in the Golgi Apparatus.
Two types of endoplasmic reticulum are........One
Rough ER HAS ribsomesSmooth ER does NOT have ribos
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