Enlightenment Vocabulary 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Voltaire
Wrote "Candide"
Montesquieu
Described "perfect" government
gout
overfed and underexercised
Rousseau
Believed in popular sovereignty
General Baptists
General Baptists (General Atonement)(a) Led by John Smyth(b) In 1606 he led in the formation of a separatistchurch in Gainsborough where the basis ofmembership was a church covenant - mutualagreement between members(c) In 1608, the Gainsborough congregation of 80moved to Amsterdam in order to gain religiousfreedom(d) By 1609, after months of conferring with theMennonite pastor, Smyth acceptedMennonite/Anabaptist views(e) 1609 - at a business meeting the old church wasdissolved and a new one formed with basis ofmembership being confession of faith in Christ andbeliever's baptism (not necessarily immersion)(f) 1612 - Thomas Helwys and 8 others returned toEngland and settled in Spitafields outside London(without Smyth who may have joined theMennonites)
Louis XIII
Queen-regent Marie de’ MediciCardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) and his protege, Jules Marazin (1602-1661)Richelieu refused to call the states generalIf there was a controversy then he put an end to itSet up a royal commissioner over every district in France to collect taxesAlso supported the Swedes in the 30 years war because they were fighting against the Habsburgs (Austrians). He was a political opportunist.Right before Richelieu died He made sure Marazin would take over after him
Baroque
Ornate architecture, music and art influenced by the enlightenment
Frederick II
Enlightened despot who ruled Prussia
Adam Smith
in favor of Laissez Faire
Tokugawa Ieyasu
Created “closed country policy,” used “hostage taking,” banned Christianity
Nicholas Copernicus
“Father of the Scientific Revolution”A new model needed to existHeliocentric hypothesisRejecting AristotleConcentric crystalline spheresRotation of the planetsHe believed the revolution of planets around the sun were perfect circles
Empiricism
John Locke (1632-1704) & ‘tabula rasa’ (blank slate)ConceptsExperience is of the two types - Outward and InnerThree levels of experience - Self, Outer reality, God‘Probability’The level of knowledge from the repeated observation is probably trueThis type of knowledge might be real but there is never absolute certaintyFaith (Revelation)TolerationChristianity (most ‘reasonable’ of all religions)At the core of Christianity he saw the existence of God and faith in Jesus Christ, the Messiah
John Locke
English philosopher. In An Essay Concerning Human Understanding he set out the principles of empiricism, and his Two Treatises on Government influenced the Declaration of Independence.
Catherine II
Enlightened despot who drafted Russian constitution but never put it into practice
Battle of Valmy
The French victorious against Prussians and Austrians. Jacobin leaders had urged draft of French citizens age 18-40.
Diest
believer in a great clockmaker who built an orderly universe and then stepped aside to let it run
Thomas Jefferson
wrote the Declaration of Independence based on Enlightenment thought
Geocentric
Earth is the center of the universe
hobbes
people are evil, need monarch to control
Mary Wollstonecraft
Called for equal rights and education for woman
The Enlightenment
An intellectual movement in the 18th century that challenged ideas about church and government; believers had faith in the human mind to grasp the secrets of the universe. Rational, scientific investigations & experiments.
William Penn
early became a Puritan, influenced by Huguenots(2) became Quaker, 1667--imprisoned(3) obtained colonial grant to settle debt of Charles II to Penn'sfather(4) established Pennsylvania colony--as an experiment(a) bought land (already granted) from the Indians:therefore established good relations with them(b) allowed religious toleration for alli) Quakers persecuted elsewhere, especiallyMassachusetts Bayii) only Rhode Island also allowed tolerationthen(c) Philadelphia = "brotherly love"
Where is the US Bill of Rights located?
US Constitution
Alexander Pope
Esasys on man, poet of maxims and quotable lines
Conflict with Church
The people began to disregard the teachings of the Bible and followed the enlightened thinkers.
Charles Wesley
After serving with his father for a few years he returned toOxford to find that his brother Charles had gathered a groupof students who were determined to take religion seriouslyin the face of Deism. John became their leaders - set out amethodical approach to their commitment
Classic Liberalism influenced which 3 revolutions?
1) American
2) French
3) Industrial
Conditions of France
france is in debtand the people are angered with Louis XVI. at war with Austria.
Long Parliament, 1642-48
a. Charles had to call parliament for financial help when the Scotsinvaded, 1640b. Under John Pym, parliament eroded Charles' prerogative to thepoint that civil war erupted between the Cavaliers and theRoundheadsc. Laud was executed by Parliament, 1645
What 3 branches exist in the United States government?
executive, legislative and judicial
Saint Vincent de Paul
At Notre Dame in late 17th century Paris Saint Vincent de Paulestablished the first Foundling Home - his example spread
Diderot & the Encyclopedia
created a large set of books to which the leading scholars contributed articles and essays. 1751. The censors banned the work since they believed it encouraged revolt- moral corruption, irreligion, and unbelief.
What did Rousseau believe about General Will?
That the majority of people should control the nation like a democracy
What was Jean-Jacques Rousseau's point of view toward human nature?
It was naturally good, but it was corrupted by the materialism of society.
Did women's rights improve in any way, shape or form during the Enlightenment? Name the people who helped.
Mary Astell claimed that marriage and education were not fair or equal with women compared to men.Mary Wollstonecraft argued about the education that women recieved at the time, and how it was unequal to mens. She urged women to enter fields like Politics and Medicine.Emilie du Chatlet translated Newton's work from Latin into French, resulting in an increase of interest in Science for women in France.
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