Cells Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
light
provides light
bacteria is a
prokaryote
chromatid
half a chromosome
Chromatin
DNA bound to protein
cytosol
intracellular fluidcontains ions, proteins and stored carbohydrates
ribosomes
where proteins are made
peroxisome
hydrogen peroxide is produce--break fats down into smaller molecules that can be used for fuel, used in the liver to detox compounds ex alcohol
Rubisco
EnzymeMost abundant proteins on earth
Who took Photograph 51
Rosalind Franklin

Determine how changing conditions such as temperature, light availability, water availability, or carbon dioxide concentration will affect the rate of photosynthesis in a cell.

 
What are " communicating junctions"?
Connexons
cytoskeleton
a microscopic network of actin filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells (esp animal cells) that gives the cell shape and coherence
Golgi Apparatus
Transports substance from endoplasmic reticulum store and typically change their chemical reaction
Neutrons
Neutrons usually = number of protons
*Number can vary
Ex. C can have 6 or 8 neutrons
Cytoplasm
Clear, gelatinous fluid inside the cell.
Alternate gene splicing
Splicing removes intronsAlternative splicing produces different peptides from the same RNAThousands of different peptides through splicing of a single geneVery rare in bacteriaRare in low complexity eukaryotes e.g. yeastCommon in higher eukaryotes
Lysosomes
Structure that conatins enzymes that breakdown waste.
Mitochondrion
provides energy cell needs to survive
Chemoautotroph
Prokaryote that gets energy from inorganic molecules using chemical reaction
What is the effective pH level?
5
What permits reformation of nuclear envelope during cell cycle
Lamins
hydrophilic
having a strong affinity for water.
Matthias Shleiden
(1838) worked with Schwann, stated that all living things are made of cells, unified the cell theory, extending it to include the plant and animal kingdoms
phospholipid bilayer with cholesteroal and embedded proteisn
fluid mosaic model
common fatty acids
palmitic acid (16 C)-palmitoleic stearic acid (18 C)-oleic, linoleic* all are in synthesized in 2C increments (12-20)
Inducible Genes
Regulated - transcribed only in response to certain extracellular cues.  Only in certain types or maybe only certain times, ex. keratin 14
 
typically have closed promoter - core promoter is associated with nucleosome. Nucleosome keep GTF and Pol II from having easy access to the core promoter.
Can be turned on by the combined action of upstream regulatory elements and so called activators.  When cell is in need, activators are recruited to upstream regulatory elements and turn on gene.
proteasomes act primarily on proteins that have been marked for destruction by the covalent attachment of which small protein?A. proteaseB. histoneC. ubiquitinD. termination factor
C. ubiquitin
ribosomes?
can be found in two places
free floating in the cytosol or attached to the er
produce proteins
made of rna
Contractile Vacuole
Pumps excess water out of cell
Hooke
Discovered the first cell in cork bark
Plants cells contain a ___________ while animal cells do not
Cell wall
Leucoplast
a colorless plastid especially in the cytoplasm of interior plant tissues that store foods like stach.
Chediak-higashi syndrome:characteristics,defects.
-Characterized by a defect in microtubule polymerization.
-Defects in cytoplasmic granules:
a)delayed fusion phagosomes with lysosomes in wbc--> preventing phagocytosis of bacterias;
b)Increased fusion of melanosomes in melanocytes--> albinism;
c) Granular defects in NK cells and platelets.
digestion
process of breaking down food so that it can be used by living things
plasma membrane is comprised of
1. phospholipids2. proteins3. cholesterol
Cell Wall
Strong wall outside a plant cell's plasma membrane that protects the cell and maintains its shape
Atomic Number
Number of protons in an atom
Always constant for each element
C is always 6
H is always 1
O is always 8 
N is always 7
*Ununhexium has highest atomic number at 116
what comes out of glycolysis (apart from energy molecules)
2 pyruvate
Eukaryotic cell division
-four phases of cell cycle:-Interphase (growth phases)1. G1- Gap; new daughter cells begin life, cell grows, increases cytoplasmic contents2. S- Synthesis; DNA replication3. G2- Gap; cell growth, preparation for division-Division phase4. M -mitosis- nuclear division -cytokinesis- cytoplasmic division
Histone Deactylase
class of enzymes that remove acetyl groups from an ε-N-acetyl lysine amino acid on a histone. Its action is opposite to that of histone acetyltransferase.
organ
in a plant or animal, a speciliazed structure that performs a particular function, such as the heart
electon microscope
focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or onto its surface from 100um to .1nm
Eukaryotic Cells
-Include all cells alive today except bacteria and archaea

-Are larger than prokaryotic cells


-Have a much more complex architecture
Possess nucleus and a variety of membrane bound organelles
Mitochondria
any of various round or long cellular organelles of most eukaryotes that are found outside the nucleus, produce energy for the cell through cellular respiration, and are rich in fats, proteins, and enzymes.
does southern blotting work for DNA or RNA?
DNA
nucleus
a central part about which other parts are grouped or gathered; core:
pictures taken by a scanning electron microscope can be viewed by
a fluorescent screen
EGF Signaling -EGFR
A plasma membrane protein (IMP) spans plasma membrane once, past ouside clel binds, portion inside cell has Y kinase activity (Y = tyrosine), has several substrate, undergoes intermolecular autophosphorylation, one active EGFR can phosphorylate another.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Highly folded membrane that is the site of chemical reactions in the cell. Appearance is similar to an accordian.
nuclear envelope/membrane
layer of 2 membranes that surronds the cell
Write down 10 parts that animal cells contain and compare your answer with the definition
1.Nucleus

2.Nucleolus

3.Nuclear Envelope
4.Rough ER
5.Golgi apparatus
6.centrioles
7.Smooth ER
8.Mitochondrion
9.Cell membrane
10.Ribosomes
Inner mitochondrial membrane is what % protein and lipid?
75% protein25% lipid
Cytoskeleton - Function
a. cytoplasm skeletonb. offers support and limits organelle movement
How are mitochondrial precursor proteins kept from folding up after they are synthesized but before they reach the mitochondria?
Chaperone proteins known as hsp70s prevent the MPPs from folding after synthesis.
DNA replication - RFC
Replication Factor C aka clamp loader - binds to RNA - DNA installed by DNAPA and binds to PCNA
interphase _________ and mitosis _________
(chromos duplicate) . (cell divides)
only organelle that does not have a membrane around it; floats in cytoplasm and ER; it is a ___________
ribosome; protein synthesis
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
A microscope that uses an electron beam to scan the surface of a sample to study details of its topography.
four main factors of diffusion
(1) the concentration gradient -- the relative density of a chemical substance, (2) the temperature -- molecules move faster at higher temperatures, (3) the charge -- the net positive or negative charge on a molecule, (4) the diameter of the molecule -- the width of a molecule
GP - glycogen phosphorylase
has the job when active of converting glycogen into glucose.
DNA has 3 components ___ ____ ____
phosphate group, sugar, nitrogen base
What is epithelial tissue?
It covers the surfaces of the body and lines the cavities, protecting them against injury, invasion, and desiccation
Molecular motors and direction of transport in cell?
-Dynein: retrograde (DIES back towards nucleus)
-Kinesin: anterograde (MOVES kinetically forward)
Role of oxygen in cell respiration
Oxygen is final electron acceptor. Hooks up H+ and e- to make H2O to be exhaled so that electrons and hydrogens aren't backed up
functions of the phosphate groups on sugars (3)
- membrane impermeability- binding or recognition by enzymes- becoming the terminal group in ATP conserves energy
What is a cell wall?
A tough outer cell wall that protects the cell from external stimuli and desiccation
What is the cell wall?
(only in plants) a rigid outer layer made of cellulose that supports and protects the cell; allows materials to pass into and out of the cell; non-living
What complex binds G-Actin to control its ADP/ATP state and how does it work?
Profilin: It binds to G-Actin, induces ADP release, and thereby allows a new molecule of ATP to bind. It works together with formin.
- nuclear material
- cell membrane
- cytoplasm (ribosomes)
What are the 3 basic features common to all types of cells?
What is characteristic of the signal sequence of mitochondrial precursor proteins?
They induce the protein to form an alpha helix at one of their ends.
How does an electron microscope work?
It uses a beam of electrons to allow a thousand fold higher magnification than is possible with light microscopy
What is the range in size of most plant and animal cells? The smallest cells, often as small as 0.2 nanometers are ___________.
Most plant and animal cells are between 10 and 100um. Atoms are as small as 0.1um.
Describe the word and symbol equations for cellular respiration


 C6 H12 O6 + O2 → CO2 + H2O + Energy (as ATP)
Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy (as ATP)
 
anthrop
man
Intercellular junctions
as
multicellular
means''many cells''
Nucleus contains
Chromatin(Chromosomes), Nucleolus, RNA,DNA, and Nucleur membrane.
balance
the remainder or rest:
Q- directs cell activities
A. nucleus
Regulates temperature, prevents water loss and sensation are functions of what organ?
Skin
thrombus
abnormal clot in blood vessels
hypertonic
having greater concentration of solute than another solution
Exocytosis
When large particles are transported out of a cell. A cell ejects waster products or specific secretion products such as hormones by the fusion of a vesicle with the plasma membrane.
Fibrous connective Tissue
* Structural proteins
*collagen Fibers
*reticular fibers
* elastic fibers
 
collagen fibers is the most abundant in the body 30% dry weight
Digestion
The breakdown of absorbed substances (167)
Nucleolus
In the nucleolus ribosomes are made
genes
specific site on chromosomes that dictate heredity. Genes may control one specific phenotypic trait, whereas other traits may require many genes for proper expression. Pairs of genes that control the same trait and are located on the same part of the chromosome are called alleles.
parch
to make extremely, excessively, or completely dry, as heat, sun, and wind do.
lysosome
a cell organelle containing enzymes that digest particles and disintegrate the cell or foreign bodies, sometimes destroying itself.
Contrast
The visible differences in parts of the sample.
plasmodesmata
porous holes between the plant cells; lets the cytoplasm become continous between the cells
diffusion
the movement of molecules down their concentration gradients without the use of energy; a passive process during which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a lower region of lower concentration
free ribosomes
found in the cytoplasm; product proteins
____________ ____________ works as an intermediary between R.E.R and the cell membane 
Golgi apparatus 
Hypertrophy


Growth of an organ or tissue due to an increase in the size of
its cells. 

-it’s a normal response of skeletal muscles cells to exercise.


-its different from hyperplasia b/c the cells increase in
size, not number







Vacuoles
Vacuoles are the storage areas of cells.
tubulin
a protein present in the microtubules that gives support to the microtubule and also aids in the motility of the cell.
anatomy
the science dealing with the structure of animals and plants.
peter out
to diminish gradually and stop; dwindle to nothing:
Cell Walls
Stiff walls that support and protect cells. Only found in Plant cells
Active transport
Uses ATP
moves particles across bio membrane
against concentration gradient
Within me there are membrane bound structures; I am a:
Eukaryotic cell
Golgie Bodies
The golgie bodies recive protines and other material from the endoplasmic reticulum and distribute it to the other cells.
macrophages
Any of the large phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system
tatter
a torn piece hanging loose from the main part, as of a garment or flag.
metabolic alkalosis
body holding onto CO2, reduces pH level, more acidic
(Modern) Cell Theory
All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic unit of all organisms. All cells arise from preexisting cells.
Cell Cycle:
G1: first phase: Resume high rate of speed. G indicates gap growth-enzymes
M: Nuclear division + cytoplasmic division forms a new cell wall.
S:Startswhen DNA synthesis commences DNA in the cell doubled.
G2: Production if the microtubules whch are required during mitosis.
nuclear membrane
is around the nucleus and holds it together
a bacterium is classified as a prokaryote because it............
has no membrane-bound nucleus
Effects of the Lymphatic System
Collects excess tissue fluid invading microorganisms, damaged cells, and protein molecules that are too large or too toxic to return directly to the blood system
what are the 7 characteristics of life?
order, regulation, growth, energy, response, reproduction, evolution
Photosynthesis
Process that allows plants,algae,and manytypes of bacteria to make food
Who invented the microscope?
Robert Hooke
chromosomes
genetic information (DNA)used to make new cells
vacuole
sac that stores water,nutrients, and other chemicals. the largevacuole found in plant cell helps the cell maintain shape
plastide
small structure that can store food(leucoplast) or pigment (chromoplast)
mitochondria
organelle where energy is released from broken-down food molecules. Power plant of the cell. About the size of bacteria (power houses of the cell)
cell membrane
the semipermeable membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell.
 
Tissue:
 
 groups of similar cells that all do the same sort of work


Ribosomes


 are the components of cells that make proteins from all amino acids.
plasma membrane
a double layered membrane that surrounds the cell. also called the cell membrane, it regulates what enters and leaves the cell
"powerhouse" or the cell; place where molecules are broken down and their energy used to make energy-rich molecules
mitochondria
cellular respiration
chemical reactions in plants and animals that break down food molecules into energy (ATP)
Consumers
Organisms that can't make their own food
chloroplast
an organelle that converts the radiant energy of the sun into chemical energy through photosynthesis
plastid
small sructure that can store food (leucoplast) or pigment (chromoplast)
Nuclear envelope
a double layered membrane that sourrounds and protects the nucleus
lysosme
a small sac the contains digestive chemicals
cell
basic unit of structure and function in living things
Cells make their own protein on round structures called ___________.
ribosomes
circulatory system
delivers oxygen and nutrients to all cells in the body
centromere
a non-DNA region of a chromosome where sister chromatids are held together and spindle fibres attach
Organ System
A group of organs working together to do a certain job.
cell that only permits certain certain substances to diffuse in the cell
selectively permiable membrane
Eukaryotic
An organism made of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane; eukaryotes include animals, plants and fungi but not archaea and bacteria
fog
formed when air is cooled to its dew point near the ground & forms a stratus cloud
cell theory
a basic tenet of modern biology, first stated by Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann in 1838–39, that cells are the basic units of structure and function in living organisms.
Give an example of a multi-cellular organism
humans, fish, animals, plants
temperate zones
lie between the polar & tropic zones & have moderate temperatures. Most of the US is in the temperate zone
In __of the cell cycle, the nucleus divides in the process of __
 
[1] stage 2
[2] Mitosis
Who was the person to observe animal cells. what did he determine?
Schwann-concluded that animals are composed of cells
Whats the difference bewteen a light microscope and an electron microscope?
A light microscope can only be used to display objects larger than 0.2 micrometers. Electron microscopes can view up to a million times so you can look at parts, but you can't view a living thing.
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