block pain nerves
|Three physical environments/compartments||
also biosphere (organsims)
produce general sedation
year or more
TD50/ED50 or TD1/ED99
Contains solanine when green.
|natural compound in asprin||
also has phototoxic effects
naturally synthesized from cholestrol
Tropane poison. Used as beauty aid to dilate pupils.
Sarin: war gas that kills within minutes, but atropine is an antidote.
Drugs that cause temp. relief
related to atropine, isolated from henbane, powerful sedative, used to treat motion sickness
oxalic acid or its salts
penicillins; first expensively produced until it was relized that it was usable in patient's urine
Allergic contact dermatitis: delayed skin reaction
foreign chemical w/ androgenic properties
Floating - blocks sunlight
Thermal - power plant uses cold water to cool itself. Makes water warmer.
Japanese biological wweapons programs used over 3,000 POWs for experimentation
Considred founder of toxicology
foreign chemical w/ estrogen properties
|what does dose-response data represent?||
Scrotal cancer + chimney sweeps
poisons that act at neuromuscular junctions
occurs in highly industrialized areas.
Winds can cause acid rain somewhere else even though it is caused in another area. Northa AMerica to Europe.
Includes water bodies and water atmosphere. Recycles itself via hydrologic cycle. All living organisms are living on 2% fresh water supply.
use of biological organisms to alleviate the problems associated with toxic chemicals or other chemical wastes.
Organism Types – Selected organisms can be bacteria, fungi, plants, etc.
Accept an H+ or donate -OH.
naturla chemical that affects an organism other than that producing it.
represents uptake of chemicals via water, soil, air
represents cheimcal uptake via all routes
hormones which control many activiites, including development, reproduction, and behavior.
cancer that arises from epithelial cells (covering body or tisssue surfaces)
poison celery contains xanthotoxin is at its highest level. circulates around the blood ending up in the skin. Once exposed to sunlight, symptoms appear which are similar to that of poison oak
|viral hemorrhagic fevers||
hemorrhagic is uncontrolled bleeding.
abnormal concentration of a chemical in an environment.
fishes that produce aggressive venoms (causes intense pain, cardiac failure, complete limb paralysis
stimulants that suppress appetite.
cocaine is an example. Numbness of the tongue; local anastethic.
-caine: related to cocaine.
Tend to be needle-shaped single cells.
They are photosynthetic and have silica walls.
They exist in colonies of long chains.
They tend to bloom in the spring.
cancer aht arises from pigmented cells of the skin
Sublethal dose for 50% of tested population
the study of the interations between organism and chemical
Longer - lower energy
shorter - higher energy
Ultraviolet light has more energy than infrared
crystallizes in your brain and kidneys
|Nickel And Cadmium||
commonly found in batteries.
Cadmium selectively ends up in kidneys and is carcinogen
Both are likely to replace calcium.
Contains laccol, easily absorbed into the skin.
weak human evidence, some animal evidence
sugars attached to an alcohol (lima beans)
|Dinophysis acuta, D. acuminata||
Type of dinoflagellate
Diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) - “ I can’t …!”
Found in Europe and eastern Canada.
Okadaic acid and other dinophysistoxins.
Causes diarrhea, stomach ulcers and cancerous tumors.
How well does it work? relative ranking of the effectiveness of different remediation techniques with various oils and under varying sea state conditions
Layer of gases that extends upwards 62,000 mi.
Source of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide.
Acts as a freshwater distillery.
Absorbs cosmic rays and UV radiation.
Insulates the earth – the “Greenhouse Effect.”
the inherent probability that a chemical exposure will resul in an adverse effect
sunlight evaporates water. It’s a distilling process. Water vapor condenses in the atmosphere and comes back down.
|Exposure to which compound results in upper respiratory tract irritation, shallow rapid breathing and decrease in pulmonary compliance?||
Also known as accepted daily intake
made from the root of the plant derris; general pesticide. More toxic to fish than humans
amount of chemical needed to cause an effect
a chemical that causes cancer by any means:
many carcinogens serve to cause cancer by non genetic means such as by supressing the immune system or naturally creasing cell divion rate.
plenty of human evidence and many animal evidence
|Catherine de medicis||
Middle ages: probably true first toxicologist. Used toxic procedure to study poisions
Time till onset
Specificity: where in the body does it take effect
clinical science: symptoms
originally an naimla diseas w/ a rodent host and a flea vector.
characterized by buobes: nodules of tissue swelling filled w/ the bacterium
|Sea turtles in hawaiian islands||
suffered from fibropapillomas; expected to be caused by planktonic toxins or by viruses
|Remediate Acid Rain||
Lake Liming: throw crushed limestone into acid lakes. Not a permanet solution.
Catalytic converters: convert nitric oxide in auto exhausts to nitrogen and oxygen gases. Expensive
Smokestack Scrubbers: convert sulfur dioxded to gypsum.
|Normal chemical effects||
predictable effects based on the physical/chemical properties
Key determinant of increased levels of CO2
Break up oil into smaller and smaller portions until it is digested by bacteria.
utilize sulfur or nitrogen to perform any anerobic respirtion. Givee off methane, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia. Gives off some toxic chemicals.
cancer atha rises from teh cells of the lymphatic system
|what is the ability of a chemical agent to cause injury in a given situation or setting?||
|what is the expected frequency of the occurrence of an undesirable effect arising from exposure to a chemical or physical agent?||
|which compound results in formation of sulfurous acid on contact with moist membranes, and 90% is absorbed in the upper respiratory tract?||
Makes it easier for things to get in.
agent orange is an example. used to erdicate the vietnamese jungle: mimics growth hormone of plants. stimulates uncontrollable growth and uses up the nutrients in theground.
Dioxin found to be an impurity of agent orange.
The octane rating of gasoline can be enhanced.
Reforming can be used to convert straight alkanes to branched alkanes.
Until 1975 TEL was used as a less expensive means.
Until recently MTBE was used.
Methanol and ethanol (gasahol) are now used.
Recovery – removal via the use of booms, collecting agents (e.g. straw), and mechanical skimmers.
Burning – combustion only works well on fresh oil.
Sinking – use of agents that cause oil to sink to the bottom of the sea.
Dispersal – use of detergents (dispersants) to disperse oil into the water column and off the surface.
Bioremediation – Use of bacteria to degrade the oil.
similar to poison oak. Often found in bouquets and cut flowers
Advantage is that they can be selected based upon the known non-toxic products they produce; disadvantage is that they might not be adapted for the local environment (enhanced bioremediation).
what is considered chronic toxicity?
(number of exposures occurring over what period of time)
multiple exposures continuing over long period of time
|Ways to reduce global warming||
Reduce fossil fuel combustion for energy.
Switch to renewable sources of energy.
Enhance global photosynthetic capacity.
Sequester carbon dioxide in deep oceanic sites or geologic formations.
First to put out idea that if one sees toxic symptoms one must do analysis to find out if it was from a toxic cause
|chemicals subject to bioremediation||
TCE and other cleaning solvents in groundwater.
Pesticides such as DDT and atrazine in sediments.
Crude oil in coastal estuaries.
Gasoline in groundwater from station storage tanks.
Sewage – normal treatment and in groundwater from sewer pipe seepage.
|What does benzene cause?||
depression of the CNS, bone marrow injury, aplastic anemia, leucopenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia, acute myeloid leukemia
|Approximate Distilled Fractions||
Natural gas (BP < 20C) – C1 to C4.
Petroleum ether (BP 20 to 60C) – C5 to C6.
Gasoline (BP 30 to 180C) – C5 to C9.
Kerosene (BP 180 to 230C) – C10 to C14.
Heating oil/diesel fuel (BP 230 to 305C) – C15 to C18.
Lubricating oil (BP 305 to 405C) – C19 to C25.
Asphalt (non-boiling) – C26 to C60
|Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil||
Oil consists of literally hundreds of organic chemicals.
Carbon lengths vary from C1 to about C60.
Different size hydrocarbons have different uses.
Hydrocarbons can be separated into size “fractions.”
Separation involves using their unique boiling points.
Boiling point = the temperature at which a chemical transitions between as liquid and a gas.
|what is considered acute toxicity? (number of exposures occurring over what period of time)||
single or multiple exposures occurring over 1 or 2 days
|Removal of CO2||
Takes on average 50 - 200 years for it to come back. Could take a while before we see an improvement.