Cellular Respiration 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
X-ray diffraction images
Where is glucose made?
Calvin Cycle
anabolism
constructive metabolism; the synthesis in living organisms of more complex substances from simpler ones (
Aerobic respiration
convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Anticodons
A sequence of three adjacent nucleotides in transfer RNA that binds to a corresponding codon in messenger RNA and designates a specific amino acid during protein synthesis.
What is glycolysis?
The initial breakdown reaction
Cellular respirtation
Is all about making ATP
adp
an ester of adenosine and pyrophosphoric acid, C10H12N5O3H3P2O7, derived from ATP, and serving to transfer energy during glycolysis.
Thylakoid
They are the site of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. Lumen, granum. Thylakoids are membrane-bound structures embedded into the chloroplast stroma.
Histone Protein
the major structural proteins of chromosomes. The DNA molecule is wrapped twice around a Histone Octamer to make a Nucleosome.
Krebs cycle
is a series of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part of cellular respiration.
Heterotroph
is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its chemical energy for its life cycle
Autotroph
is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules using energy from light or inorganic chemical reactions.
What yields more energy from glucose?
Aerobic Respiration
Most of the NADH that delivers high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain comes from ______.
chemiosmosis
cellular respiration
the oxidation of organic compounds that occurs within cells, producing energy for cellular processes.
How do cells make ATP?
Photosynthesis, Glycolysis, Aerobic pathways, Anaerobic pathways, fermentation
DNA Helicase
They are motor proteins that move directionally along a nucleic acid phosphodiester backbone, separating two annealed nucleic acid strands
Alcoholic fermentation
Alcohol fermentation is done by yeast and some kinds of bacteria. These microorganisms convert sugars in ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. begins after glucose enters the cell. The glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid. made into energy for cell
Most of the ATP produced in cellular respiration comes from _____.
chemiosmosis
mitochondrion
an organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that functions in energy production.
RNA polymerase
RNA polymerase (RNAP or RNApol) is an enzyme that produces RNA. In cells, RNAP is needed for constructing RNA chains from DNA genes as templates, a process called transcription.
Electron Transport System
Electron transport chains are used for extracting energy from sunlight (photosynthesis) and from redox reactions such as the burning of sugars (respiration). Make ATP. and an electron acceptor (such as O2) to the transfer of H+ ions across a membrane
During respiration in an eukaryotic cell, the electron transport chain is located in or on the _______.
cristae of the mitochondrion
Describe what happens in photosystem I?
Type I photosystems use ferredoxin-like iron-sulfur cluster proteins as terminal electron acceptors
What's lactic acid fermentation?
pyruvate is reduced to NADH, forming lactate as an end product, with no release of CO2.
The function of cellular respiration is to _____.
extract usable energy from glucose
Two kinds of energy releasing pathways are completely anaerobic?
Fermentation and anaerobic electorn transport
What is a good example of lactic acid fermentation?
cheese and yogurt
What is fermentation all about?
produces ATP without the use of oxygen, cellular respiration requires O2 to produce ATP, glycolysis can produce ATP with or without O2 (in aerobic /anaerobic condtions), and in the absence of O2, glycolysis couples with fermentation to produce ATP
What's the definition of oxidation?
a substance loses electrons, or is oxidized
During aerobic respiration, molecular oxygen is used ____.
at the end of electron transport chain to accept electrons and form H2O
What is the formula for Aerobic Respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2---->6CO2 + 6H2OGlucose Oxygen Carbon Water Dioxide
Describe the role of NAD+ in cellular respiration.
Electrons from organic compounds are usually first transferred to NAD+, a coenzyme. NAD dehydrogenase is the enzyme that extracts 2 electrons and 2 protons (H+) from organic food molecule.
The enzyme ATP synthase forms ATP ____.
due to the potential energy of a concentration gradient of hydrogen ions across a membrane
entropy
disorder
reduction
gain of electrons
Products
CO2 & H20
reducing agent
the electron donor
glycolysis produces ___ NADH+
2
Stomata
microscopic pores in the leaves
TCA cycle
CAC
triboxylic acid cycle
Oxidative
overall, cellular respiration is a(n) ______ process
ATP
usable energy released from glucose during respiration
Chemiosmosis
An energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP. Most ATP synthesis in cells occurs by chemiosmosis.
Fermentation
A catabolic process that partially degrades sugars without the use of oxygen.
What does ATP phosphorylate during chemical work?
Reactants
During glycolysis _______ ATP are produced but ___
4,2,2
Where does Glycolysis take place?
in the cytosol
Lactic Acid Fermentation
the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that is called ______ as the main end product
oxaloacetate
A four-carbon molecule that binds with the two-carbon acetyl unit of acetyl-CoA to form citric acid in the first step of the Krebs cycle.
Glycolysis
The anaerobic breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid, occurring in the cytosol, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the form of ATP
inner membrane
site of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation
Cytochrome
an iron-containing protein that is a component of electron transport chains in the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells and the plasma membrane of prokaryotic cells
What does ATP phosphorylate during mechanical work?
Motor Proteins
(citric acid cycle)for each pyruvic acid, one Carbon lost to ____ , and one ___ produced
CO2, NADH+
Mesophyll
the tissue in the interior of the leaf
What drives the addition of a phosphate to ADP?
rotational energy
Kilocalories
a unit of energy equal to 1,000 calories
redox reactions
electron transfers that can also be called oxidation-reduction reaction
inner membrane space
space between two membranes of mitochondria
Alcohol Fermentation
the conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ehtyl alchohol
oxidizing agent
the reactant that accepts an electron; it oxidizes the other reactant by removing its electron
A substance that loses electrons is said to be a ?
Oxidizing Agent
Overall reaction
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O
Electron transport chain
Uses high-energy electrons from Kreb's cycle to convert ADP into ATP
Glucose is what kind of sugar?
a six carbon sugar
Mitochondrial Matrix
the fluid that is inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion
proteins, lipids, polysaccharides
Carbon skeletons to be broken down during cellular respiration can be obtained from...
oxidative phosphorylation
the mode of ATP synthesis that is powered by the redox reactions that transfer electrons from food to oxygen.
Proton gradient
a gradient formed by the difference in proton concentrations across a membrane
What stages of Respiration can Proteins enter?
Glycolysis, No Name, Kreb
What is oxidation?
Loss of electronsLoss of energyLoss of Hydrogens f
What is the theoretical yield for eukaryotes per glucose molecule?
3% ATP per glucose
mitochondrial inner membrane
Where is ATP synthase located in the mitochondrion?
During what stage is CO2 first released?
The No Name Step
The Krebs cycle:
Produces much of the cell's energy in the form of
How does pyruvate get to the Krebs/citric acid cycle?
cells with oxygen carry it
FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)
a compound that acts as a hydrogen acceptor in dehydrogenation reactions
When do Redox reactions release energy?
When electrons move closer to electronegative atoms.
What is the first phase of Glycolysis called?
Preparative stage or priming stage
Which concerning the metabolic degradation of glucose (C6H12O6) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water is true?
e. A, B, and C are correct.
equation for cell respiration
Carb + Oxygen --> C02 + water + energy
What downhill route do most electrons travel during cellular respiration?
Food » NADH » Electron Transport Chain » O2
What are the ATPS in Krebs cycle and glycolysis pr
Substrate level phosphorylationthe Pi group is tra
if run in reverse, glycolysis will build glucose molecules
Glycolysis is believed to be one of the most ancient of metabolic processes. Which statement least supports this idea?
For every electron that moves through each complex,what happens to a proton?
a proton is moved from the matrix to the inter-membrane space
How many ATP do NADH and FADH2 form?
NADH gives 3 ATP and FADH2 gives 2 ATP.
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