Cellular Respiration Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
kilocalorie
1000 calories
FAD
Falvin Adenine dinucleotide.
reduction
gain of electrons
Means "splitting of Glucose"
glycolysis
Glycolysis Location
inside the cytoplasm
Aerobic
a process that requires oxygen
products of photosynthesis
glucose and oxygen
The reduced substance _______ energy
gains
Anaerobic
glycolysis, fermentation. Does not require oxygen except for Glycolosis.
Mitochondria
Membrane-enclosed organelles that are the main site of energy production.
heterotroph
an organism requiring organic compounds for its principal source of food.
Cellular respiration equation
C6H12O6+6O2 = 6H2O+6CO2+ATPglucose= water+ carbon dioxide+ ATP
products of cellular respiration
CO2 H20 ATP
_________________- The release of energy stored in food.
Cellular respiration
glycolysis
breaking glucose into 2 pyruvate molecules (2 NADH + 2 ATP)
Cellular respiration is an example of
metbolism
Mitochondrion
Cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food in to compunds that are more convenient for the cell to use
What are mitochondria?
Mitochondria are membrane-enclosed organelles distributed through the cytosol of most eukaryotic cells. Their number within the cell ranges from a few hundred to, in very active cells, thousands.
Cellular Respiration breaks down food molecules to release _____________.
energy
fermentation
the break down of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacterias, yeasts, or mold in the abscence of oxygen
Alcoholic Fermentation
some plants and unicellular organisms such as yeast, use this to convert pyruvic acid into ethyl alcohol.
The combination of adenine and ribose is _________.
adenosine.
Oxidation
atom LOSES an electron (hydrogen and energy)
KREBS CYCLE 
Second stage of cellular respiration, where pyruvic acid is broken down
into carbon dioxide
{takes place in mitochondria}
photosynthesis
provides the energy to power a chemical process that makes organic molecules
Outer Membrane
the membrane that surrounds the mitochondria.
energy releasing process that allows food to be used by cells to produce ATP or some other type of energy molecule
cellular respiration
The final electron acceptor of the electrion transport chain is
oxygen
The total number of ATP's produced during cellular respiration is ______________.
38
Calorie
amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1°C
Disadvantages of Glycolysis
Does not use oxygen, uses ATP
oxaloacetic acid
a four-carbon compound of Krebs cycle that combines with acetyl CoA to form citric acid.
When muscle cells do not recieve enough oxygen this is formed
lactic acid
faculatative anaerobes
having the ability to use either aerobic respiration or anaerobic fermentation to create energy.
Aerobic Respiation
Requires oxygen in order to generate energy (ATP).
Anabolic Pathway
Uses smaller molecules to make larger ones-BUILDS UP!!!
Electron transport
most of the ATP from cellular respiration is powered by the Electron transport
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Pyruvic acid from glycolisis is converted into lactic acid
The energy released is trapped in the form of _______ for use by all the energy-consuming activities of the cell.
ATP
consosto of a double layer of phospholipeds
outer membrane
What is Aerobic respiration?
It's respiration that requires the presence of oxygen to break down glucose
Cellular Respiration
C.R. is the complex process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds.
Locateion in prokaryotes & eurkaryotes
Prokaryotes : cytosol eukaryotes: mitchondria
The main part of an ATP molecule is made up of 1 molecule of adenine joined to 1 molecule of _______
Ribose
Electron Acceptors
A substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction.
Of the three main stages of cellular respiration which one uses oxygen directly to extract chemical energy to make ATP?
electron transport
aerobic respiration
the process in which pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP; the part of the respiration that is carried out in the presence of oxygen.
What does pyruvate form in the kreb cycle
acetyl CoA
The electron transport chain is composed of what?
A series of redox reactions
One of these packaging molecules is called _____________________________.
Adenosine Triphosphate or ATP.
Glycolysis Reactants and Products
glucose + 2NAD + 2ADP + 2P
aerobic resp ration three components
glycolysis the kerbs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
What is the purpose of modification?
To remove pyruvates from cells, because it is toxic to cells.
Where is the electron transport chain embedded?
In the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Electron Transport Chain Reactants and Products
3 ATP and a H20 MOLECULE.
The first several steps of glycolysis require ___. this changes glucose in prep fo
input of energy subsequent steps
What will all the carbon from glucose end up as?
part of CO2 (carbon dioxide)
Krebs Cycle Reactants and Products
CO2, CoA, NAD, NADPH+H, ATP, FADH2 and acetyl CoA
What are the three main chemical pathways needed for aerobic respiration?
1) Glycolsis2) Citric acid cycle (the krebs cycle)3) Oxidative Phosphorylation
Heres an example of an ATP equation.
 With 12 pairs of electrons removed from each glucose molecule, 10 by NAD+ (so 10x3=30); and
2 by FADH2 (so 2x2=4),
this could generate 34 ATPs. Add to this the 4 ATPs that are generated by the 3 exceptions and one arrives at 38.
what are produced in the kreb cycle and what is released
3 NADH and 1 FADH co2
How much more efficient is aerobic respiration than anaerobic respiration? why?
20x; because Aerobic lets out 36 ATP molecules and anaerobic only lets out 2
THE TOTAL atp COUNT FROM 1 ORIGINAL GLUCOS APPEARS TO BE __ HOWEVER THE NUBER IS REDUCES TO 36 BECAUSE
38 BECASUE THE 2 NADH TATH ARE PRODCUED IN THE CYTOPLAM DURING GLYCOLYSIS MUST BE TRANSPORTED INTO THE MITOCHONDRIA FOR OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
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