century 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions








 







 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 










Chapter 63: Debussy and Impressionism

Key Points


 Impressionism was a French movement developed
 by painters who tried to capture their \"first impression\" of a
 subject through varied treatments of light and color.
 The literary
 response to Impressionism was Symbolism, in which writings
 are suggestive of images and ideas rather than literally descriptive.
 Impressionism
 in music is characterized by exotic scales (chromatic, whole tone),
 unresolved dissonances, parallel chords, rich orchestral color, and
 free rhythm, all generally cast in small-scale programmatic forms.
 The most
 important French Impressionist composer was Claude Debussy. His orchestral
 work, Prelude to \"The Afternoon
 of a Faun,\" was inspired by a Symbolist poem.
 Debussy, along
 with other late Romantic composers, was highly influenced by new sounds of
 non-Western and traditional music styles heard at the Paris World
 Exhibition of 1889.
 1. The Impressionist Painters
 
 Impressionism
 was a French movement developed by painters
 
 Claude
 Monet, Edouard Manet, Camille Pissarro, Edgar Degas, Auguste Renoir
 
 \"First
 impression\" of a subject captured by use of light and color
 Abandoned
 grandiose subjects of Romanticism
 
 2. The Symbolist Poets
 
 Literary
 response to tradition
 
 Charles
 Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud
 
 All
 influenced by American poet Edgar Allan Poe
 
 Concern
 with the sound of a word as well as its meaning
 Achieved an
 abstract quality in the text
 
 
 3. Impressionism in Music
 
 Sentiment
 that the possibilities of the major/minor system had been exhausted
 
 Attraction
 to ancient scales (church modes of the Middle Ages), exotic scales
 (chromatic, whole tone)
 
 Interest in
 non-Western music flourished
 
 Moorish
 music of Spain, Javanese, and Chinese orchestras (as heard at the 1889
 World Exposition in Paris)
 
 A departure
 from Classical harmony is witnessed in Impressionism
 
 Unresolved
 dissonances, parallel chords, ninth chords 
 Use of the
 chromatic scale and whole-tone scale parallel chords, ninth chords 
 
 Orchestral
 color was exploited in new ways
 The pulse in
 Impressionist music tended to be obscured
 The large
 forms of the past were abandoned in favor of short lyric forms 
 
 4. Claude Debussy (1862–1918): His Life and
 Music
 
 French
 composer, trained at the Paris Conservatory
 
 Rebelled
 against compositional traditions at Paris Conservatory
 At age 22,
 won the Prix de Rome with cantata The
 Prodigal Son
 
 Fame came
 after the premiere of his opera Pelléas
 and Mélisande (1902)
 WWI robbed
 him of his interest in music
 
 Died in
 1918 during German bombardment of Paris
 
 Composed
 slowly, relatively small output
 
 Most
 recognized works
 
 Orchestral: La mer, three nocturnes, Prelude to
 \"The Afternoon of a Faun\"
 Piano: Clair de lune, Evening in Granada,
 Reflections in the Water, The Sunken Cathedral
 
 
 He also
 composed chamber music and French songs
 
 French
 song: independent of the German Lied
 Chamber
 music: String Quartet in G minor, sonatas for cello and piano; violin
 and piano; flute, viola, and harp
 
 
 5. Debussy: Prelude
 to \"The Afternoon of a Faun\" (Listening Guide 39)
 
 Symphonic poem,
 based on a Mallarmé pastoral poem
 
 Mythological
 faun
 
 Free ternary
 form
 Chromatic
 melody
 Rich
 orchestration creates evocative mood expressing poem's sensuality
 


Chapter 64: Main
Currents in Early-Twentieth-Century Music

Key Points


 The diverse
 artistic trends of the early twentieth century were a reaction against
 Romanticism.
 Early-twentieth-century
 artistic trends explored simplicity and abstraction (interest in non-
 Western arts, Dadaism, Cubism) and the world of dreams and the inner soul
 (Surrealism, Expressionism).
 Expressionism
 was the German response to French Impressionism; in music, composers such
 as Schoenberg and Webern explored new harmonic systems and the extreme
 registers of instruments.
 The
 Neoclassical movement sought to revive balance and objectivity in the arts
 by returning to formal structures of the past.
 1. The Reaction against Romanticism
 
 Early-20th-century
 music was the product of a reaction against Romanticism
 
 Sought to
 escape refinement, adopt primitive, uninhibited, spontaneous style
 
 Turned
 towards non-Western sources (Africa, Asia, eastern Europe) for primal,
 powerful rhythms, and fresh concepts
 
 2. New Trends in the Arts
 
 Futurism,
 Dadaism, Cubism
 
 3. Expressionism
 
 Expressionism
 was German response to Impressionism
 
 Explores
 the worlds of the subconscious, hallucinations, and dreams
 
 Artists:
 Kandinsky, Klee, Kokoschka, Munch
 Composers:
 Schoenberg, Berg, Webern
 Musical
 characteristics:
 
 Expressive
 harmony
 Extreme ranges
 Disjunct
 melodies
 
 
 4. Neoclassicism
 
 Revival of
 balance and objectivity in the arts
 A return to
 formal structures of the past
 Began in the
 early 1920s
 Composers
 preferred absolute to program music
 


Chapter 65: New Elements of Musical Style

Key Points


 Early-twentieth-century
 composers revitalized rhythm by increasing its complexity—using, for
 example, polyrhythm, polymeter, changing meters, or irregular
 meters.
 Melody was no
 longer the focus of a composition; the style was often more
 \"instrumental\" in character.
 New concepts
 of harmony (polychords, polytonality, atonality) pressed music beyond
 the traditional systems of tonality.
 The twelve-tone
 method (or serialism) devised by Arnold
 Schoenberg was an important and influential compositional technique.
 Linear
 movement replaced vertical, chordal conceptions, and extreme dissonance
 became part of the sound palette.
 The
 early-twentieth-century orchestra grew smaller and focused on winds,
 percussion, and piano rather than on strings.
 Composers
 absorbed influences from ragtime, jazz, and other popular styles, which
 invigorated their works.
 1. The New Rhythmic Complexity
 
 Revitalization
 of rhythm
 Polyrhythm, polymeter,
 changing meter, irregular meters
 
 2. The New Melody
 
 Becomes
 instrumental, not vocal, in character
 
 Abounds in
 wide leaps and dissonant intervals
 
 
 3. The New Harmony
 
 Beyond
 traditional systems of tonality
 Polychords,
 polyharmony
 New
 Conceptions of Tonality
 
 The
 major-minor system was no longer dominant
 
 It was
 expanded, combined, and avoided
 Perceived
 drive toward the tonic is weakened
 
 Polytonality:
 presentation of two or more simultaneous keys
 Atonality:
 abandonment of tonality, all 12 tones are equal in importance
 
 The
 Twelve-Tone Method
 
 Also known
 as serialism or dodecaphonic composition
 Atonal
 method devised by Schoenberg
 Strict
 system based on and unified by tone row
 
 Tone row:
 arrangement of all 12 chromatic tones
 Forms of
 the row: transposed, inverted, retrograde, retrograde inversion
 
 
 The
 Emancipation of Dissonance
 
 Extreme
 dissonances become a normal part of the sound
 No
 obligation to resolve to consonance
 Texture:
 Dissonant counterpoint
 Sparse
 linear texture (counterpoint)
 
 Orchestration
 
 Leaner,
 smaller orchestra
 String
 section no longer the \"heart\" of the orchestra
 Composers
 favored the darker instruments (viola, bassoon, trombone)
 Emphasis on
 rhythm brings percussion to the foreground
 Piano
 becomes an orchestral instrument
 
 New
 Conceptions of Form
 
 Composers
 revisit Classical ideals of tight organization and succinctness
 Revival of
 older forms (toccata, fugue, concerto grosso, suite, etc.)
 Formalists
 valued form over expressiveness
 
 


Chapter 66: Stravinsky and the
Revitalization of Rhythm

Key Points


 Russian
 composer Igor Stravinsky experimented boldly with rhythm and new
 instrumental combinations.
 Stravinsky's
 musical language also explores the percussive use of dissonance, as well
 as polyrhythms and polytonality.
 Stravinsky's
 early works, including his ballets The
 Firebird, Petrushka, and The
 Rite of Spring, are strongly nationalistic; the last of these
 re-creates rites of ancient Russia.
 Stravinsky's
 style evolved throughout his life; he explored Neoclassical and serial
 (twelve-tone) techniques.
 1. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971): His Life
 
 Stravinsky
 embodied the most significant impulses of his time
 Russian
 composer, studied at the University of St. Petersberg
 
 Left law
 studies for career in music
 Studied
 with Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov
 
 Serge
 Diaghilev (impresario of Ballets Russes)
 commissioned 3 ballets from Stravinsky
 
 Firebird (1910), Petrushka (1911), The
 Rite of Spring (1913)
 The Rite of Spring incited a near riot on
 opening night
 
 1920:
 Stravinsky settled in France
 1939:
 visited the U.S. (Harvard University)
 At the
 outbreak of WWII, decided to stay in U.S.
 
 Settled in
 Southern California, outside of Los Angeles
 1945 became
 an American citizen
 
 Died in 1971
 at the age of 89
 
 2. Stravinsky's Music
 
 His music
 reflects changing trends (post-Impressionism, classicism, serialism,
 etc.)
 Leader in
 the revitalization of rhythm
 Considered
 one of the great orchestrators
 Early works
 
 His music
 reflects nationalism
 Reacted
 against the restless chromaticism of Romanticism
 Three
 ballets for the Ballets Russes,
 The Soldier's Tale
 
 Neoclassical
 period
 
 Oedipus Rex: opera-oratorio
 Symphony of Psalms: for chorus and orchestra
 The Rake's Progress: opera based on a series of
 engravings by Hogarth
 
 12-tone music
 
 Threni: Lamentations of the
 Prophet Jeremiah
 
 
 3. Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring (Listening Guide 40)
 
 Subtitled Scenes of Pagan Russia
 
 Primitive-like
 theme, matched by primitive rhythms
 
 Expanded
 ensemble
 
 8 French
 horns, 5 trumpets, 5 of each woodwind, a battery of percussion
 
 Melodies
 modeled after Russian folk songs
 Music is
 liberated from constraints of metric regularity
 Part I: Adoration of the Earth
 
 Begins with
 bassoon melody in the uppermost range
 The Dance of the Youths and
 Maidens
 
 Strings
 play dissonant chords, elemental pounding heightened by the use of
 polytonal harmonies
 
 Game of Abduction
 
 Uses
 Russian folk theme against ostinato
 
 Section
 closes with Dance of the Earth
 
 Part II: The Sacrifice
 
 Bitingly
 dissonant harmonies
 Closes with
 frenzied climax, Sacrificial Dance
 
 


Chapter 67: Schoenberg and the Second
Viennese School

Key Points


 Arnold
 Schoenberg, along with his students Alban Berg and Anton Webern, comprise
 the Second Viennese School.
 Schoenberg was
 highly influenced by German Expressionism and was himself
 an Expressionist painter and playwright.
 Schoenberg
 experimented with abandoning the tonal system; his twelve-tone, or serial,
 method revolutionized twentieth-century composition.
 His song cycle,
 Pierrot lunaire, represents his
 atonal-Expressionist period, which preceded his twelve-tone period.
 In Pierrot lunaire, Schoenberg joins
 the text and music through the vocal technique of Sprechstimme (spoken
 voice), accompanied by highly disjunct instrumental lines (Klangfarbenmelodie).
 1. The German Expressionist movement was
 manifested in the music of Arnold Schoenberg and his followers
 
 The Second
 Viennese School is comprised of Schoenberg and his students
 
 2. Arnold Schoenberg (1874–1951): His Life
 
 Austrian
 composer, conductor, teacher, artist
 Largely
 self-taught composer
 Proponent of
 atonality and serial composition
 Teacher of
 Alban Berg, Anton Webern
 Emigrated to
 the U.S.
 
 On faculty
 of USC and UCLA in Los Angeles
 
 
 3. Schoenberg's Music
 
 Three style
 periods
 
 Early works
 reflect post-Wagnerian Romanticism
 
 Transfigured Night
 
 Second
 period reflects Atonal-Expressionism
 
 Pierrot lunaire
 
 Third
 period reflects the creation of the 12-tone method and his time in
 America
 
 A Survivor from Warsaw
 
 
 
 4. Schoenberg: Pierrot lunaire (Listening Guide 41)
 
 Song cycle
 from 1912
 
 Texts by
 Albert Giraud (in German translation)
 
 Tale of a
 sad clown obsessed with the moon
 
 All in rondeau
 form
 
 For voice
 and varied chamber ensemble
 Atonal work:
 no home key
 
 No distinction
 between consonance and dissonance
 
 Use of Sprechstimme (spoken voice)
 
 Klangfarbenmelodie (tone-color-melody)
 
 No. 18, The Moonfleck
 
 For voice
 and 5 instruments
 Highly
 contrapuntal and dissonant
 Pierrot's
 frustration is heard in the atonality
 
 


Chapter 68: Bela Bartok and the European
Tradition

Key Points


 Twentieth-century
 composers used more authentic folk and traditional elements in their
 nationalistic music than nineteenth-century composers.
 National
 \"schools\" of composition developed across Europe in France,
 Russia, England, Germany, Spain, Scandinavia, and in various Eastern
 European countries.
 Hungarian composer
 Béla Bartók collected traditional songs and dances from his native land,
 and incorporated many of these elements into his compositions.
 Bartók's music
 displays new scales and rhythmic ideas and a modern, polytonal harmonic
 language, all set in Classical forms.
 His Concerto for Orchestra is a
 programmatic work that uses the whole ensemble as the \"soloist.\"
 1. Twentieth-century nationalism differed from
 19th-century trends
 
 Composers
 approached traditional music with a scientific spirit
 
 New
 students of folklore took recording equipment into the field for
 authenticity
 
 
 2. National Schools
 
 French: Les Six (Satie, Milhaud, Honegger,
 Tailleferre, Poulenc, Auric)
 Russian:
 Rachmaninoff, Scriabin, Shostakovich, Prokofiev, Khachaturian
 English:
 Elgar, Delius, Vaughan Williams, Britten
 German:
 Hindemith, Orff, Weill
 Hungarian: Bartók,
 Kodály
 Czech:
 Janáček
 Nordic:
 Sibelius
 
 3. Béla Bartók (1881–1945): His Life and Music
 
 Hungarian
 composer
 Sought to
 end domination of German musical culture
 Separated
 true Hungarian music from music of Roma (Gypsies)
 Studied
 folklore
 Emigrated to
 the U.S. in 1940
 Suffered
 from leukemia, received help from ASCAP
 Died in New
 York City at 64
 Musical
 characteristics
 
 Adhered to
 the logic and beauty of Classical from
 Musical
 language based on Eastern European traditional music
 New scales,
 polytonal harmonic language
 Fought the
 \"tyrannical rule of the major and minor keys\"
 Rhythmic
 innovator, changing meters, syncopations
 
 
 4. Bartók: Concerto
 for Orchestra (Listening Guide 42)
 
 Commissioned
 by the Boston Symphony Orchestra
 Five
 movements
 
 I:
 Introduction, sonata-allegro, use of folklike pentatonic scale
 II: Game of Pairs, featuring
 different pairs of winds
 III: Elegia, contemplative and
 rhapsodic nocturne
 IV: Interrupted Intermezzo, one theme
 borrowed from Shostakovich's Symphony No. 7
 V:
 Sonata-allegro form
 
 


Chapter 69: American Musical Traditions

Key Points


 Music
 publications in early America were largely devotional; some were written
 in a shape-note system designed for easy reading.
 The parlor and
 minstrel songs of nineteenthcentury composer Stephen Foster were very
 popular during his lifetime and remain so today.
 The great
 bandmaster and composer John Philip Sousa fostered the American wind band
 tradition, an outgrowth of the British military band.
 Charles Ives
 drew on the music of his New England childhood—hymns, patriotic songs,
 brass band marches, and dance tunes—which he set in a very modern style,
 using polytonality and polyrhythms.
 African-American
 composer William Grant Still broke numerous racial barriers, earning a
 number of firsts for blacks in classical music. His Afro-American Symphony was the first work by an
 African-American to be performed by a major symphony orchestra.
 1. Many 20th-century nationalists
 based their works on traditional and popular music
 2. Popular Music in Late-Nineteenth-Century
 America
 
 Strong
 tradition of devotional music (spirituals and gospel hymns)
 Music
 publications were largely devotional, \"white spirituals\"
 
 Shape-note
 system designed for easy reading of music
 Tunes were
 set in simple 4-part harmonizations
 
 Parlor and
 minstrel songs of Stephen Foster were popular and remain popular
 
 Oh, Susannah! Camptown Races,
 Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair
 
 By the Civil
 War era, the military marched to the sounds of brass groups
 
 After the
 war, members of military bands formed concert and dance groups
 
 Bandmaster
 John Phillip Sousa promoted and fostered the American wind band
 
 Conducted
 the U.S. Marine Band and formed the group \"Sousa's Band\"
 Wrote over
 130 marches for band, dance music, and operettas
 Sousa
 created a national music for the U.S.
 
 
 3. Charles Ives (1874–1954): His Life and Music
 
 American
 composer and businessman
 Drew on
 music of New England (hymns, patriotic songs, brass band, and dance
 music)
 
 4. William Grant Still: His Life and Music
 
 A major part
 of the \"Harlem\" Renaissance, an early-20th-century movement
 His Afro-American Symphony was the
 first work by an African-American composer to be performed by a major
 symphony orchestra
 Sought his
 voice in the music of his black cultural heritage
 


Chapter 70: Nationalism in the Americas:
Aaron Copland and Silvestre Revueltas

Key Points


 American
 composer Aaron Copland was inspired by songs of the Old West, and by
 Mexican dance music; his orchestral works and ballets (Billy the Kid) established his
 popularity.
 The music of
 Mexican composer Silvestre Revueltas is expressively nationalistic, with
 colorful, folkloric rhythms and melodies set in a modern, dissonant idiom.
 Revueltas'
 orchestral work Homenaje a Federico
 García Lorca pays homage to a Spanish writer who was executed in 1936
 during the Spanish Civil War.
 The mariachi
 ensemble originated in the Mexican state of Jalisco as a
 theatrical orchestra of violins, harps, and guitars; the group played and
 sang son, the popular dance songs of the day.
 1. Aaron Copland (1900–1990): His Life and Works
 
 American
 composer, born in Brooklyn
 Studied in
 Paris with Nadia Boulanger
 Incorporated
 jazz idioms in his works
 Experimented
 in Neoclassicism and 12-tone composition
 Composed
 piano pieces, orchestral works, ballets, film scores
 
 2. Copland: Billy
 the Kid, Scene 1, Street in a
 Frontier Town (Listening Guide 43)
 
 Ballet on
 the story of William Bonney
 Later
 arranged the ballet as a concert suite
 Music
 includes tunes of the Wild West and Mexican dance (jarabe)
 
 3. Silvestre Revueltas and Art Music Traditions
 in Mexico
 
 Mexican
 culture is a mixture of Amerindian, African, and Hispanic cultures
 Catholic
 Church has maintained a high profile since 1519
 The Mexican
 Revolution of 1910 served to stir up a strong sense of patriotism
 
 Manuel
 Ponce and Carlos Chávez were leaders in the new nationalist movement
 
 Chávez
 also directed the Orquesta Sinfónica de Mexico and the National
 Conservatory, promoting the music of Mexican composers
 
 
 
 4. Silvestre Revueltas (1899–1940): His Life and
 Music
 
 Mexican
 composer, born in Durango
 Child
 prodigy (violin), studied at the National Conservatory and in San
 Antonio, Texas
 Returned to
 Mexico as the assistant conductor of the Orquesta Sinfónica de Mexico
 Traveled to
 Spain to support the Loyalist government during the Spanish Civil War
 
 Inspired to
 compose the Homenaje a Federico
 García Lorca
 
 Returned to
 U.S. in 1937, periods of depression, alcoholism, and self-destruction
 Died at age
 40 of alcohol-induced pneumonia
 His music is
 colorful and folkloric, without actually borrowing from known traditional
 songs
 Mexican mestizo
 music is evoked through lyrical, direct melodies
 
 Mariachi
 sound is gained by pairing melodic lines in thirds
 
 Political
 themes abound in his music
 
 Homenaje is an overt anti-Fascist
 statement
 Orchestral work
 Sensemayá inspired by verses
 of the anti-Fascist Afro-Cuban poet Nicolás Guillén
 
 
 5. Revueltas: Homenaje a Federico García Lorca (Listening Guide 44)
 
 I: Baile (Dance), a quick-paced
 duple-meter dance
 
 Bears both indigenous
 and mestizo musical influences
 
 II: Duelo (Sorrow), based on soulful
 emotional melody
 III: Son (traditional dance), evocative
 of mariachi ensemble
 
 Rondo-like
 form, celebrates Lorca's life in dance
 Evokes
 flavor of rural dance and sound of mariachi
 
 
 6. Music from the Mariachi Tradition
 
 Origins of
 mariachi are found in west Mexican state of Jalisco
 
 Music is mestizo,
 a mixture of European and indigenous characteristics
 
 Early
 mariachi were small groups
 
 Violins,
 guitars (including the guittarón and vihuela), sometimes harp
 
 After1930,
 mariachi added trumpets and more violins
 
 Exposure in
 film popularized mariachi across Mexico and in U.S.
 
 Mariachi
 Vargas de Tecalitlán is the most famous from film and radio
 
 
 After 1950s,
 mariachis wear a traje de charro,
 the costume of a stylized rancher
 
 Instrumentation
 consists of violins, trumpets, vihuela, guitars, guitarrón and sometimes
 diatonic harp
 
 Mariachi
 repertory consists mostly of dance music
 
 Rhythm
 alternates between a triple and duple feel, called sesquialtera
 One of the
 most famous dance pieces is the Jarabe
 tapatío (known as the Mexican Hat dance)
 
 Mexican son is mixture of indigenous,
 Spanish, and African traditions
 
 Many
 regions have distinct son
 style and regional folkloric dance as well
 
 The son from Jalisco, the birthplace
 of mariachi, is the son jalisciense
 
 Dance style
 for the son jalisciense is the
 zapateado
 
 Modern
 mariachi play all types of music
 
 Mambo, salsa,
 cumbia, and other popular styles
 
 Mariachi
 festivals are popular in Mexico and in the southwestern U.S.
 
 Many U.S.
 universities sponsor mariachi ensembles in their music programs
 
 
 7. Son jalisciense: El Cihualteco (The Man from
 Cihuatlán) (Listening Guide 45)
 
 A popular son jalisciense
 Standard
 verse/chorus structure
 
 Four-line
 verses (coplas) alternate with
 chorus (Ay sí sí, ay no no)
 
 Verses
 are witty and flirtatious
 
 
 Melodic
 lines played in parallel thirds
 Sesquialtera
 provides restless unpredictability in the beat
 


Chapter 71: Ragtime, Blues, and Early Jazz

Key Points


 Jazz arose in the early twentieth century
 and drew elements from African traditions and from Western popular and art
 music.
 Its roots are
 in West African music (including calland- response singing) and in
 nineteenth-century African-American ceremonial and work songs (CP 19).
 Ragtime developed from an
 African-American piano style characterized by syncopated rhythms and
 sectional forms.
 Scott Joplin,
 often considered the \"king of ragtime,\" is the first
 African-American composer to win international fame; he is remembered for
 his piano rags, especially Maple
 Leaf Rag.
 Louis
 Armstrong is one of the great early jazz performers (on trumpet); he also
 introduced scat singing (singing on syllables without meaning).
 Armstrong was
 first associated with New Orleans–style jazz, which
 is characterized by a small ensemble of players improvising
 simultaneously.
 Blues is an American genre of folk
 music based on a simple, repetitive, poetic-musical form with three-line
 strophes set to a repeating harmonic pattern of twelve bars.
 Billie Holiday
 was one of the leading female jazz singers, and was a composer as well.
 1. Jazz is a 20th-century American musical style
 
 
 Drew from
 African traditions and traditions from the West, began in New Orleans
 Roots of
 jazz are in West African music (call-and-response), and 19th-century
 African-American ceremonial and work songs
 Ragtime, a
 precursor to jazz, developed from African-American piano style
 characterized by syncopated rhythms and sectional forms
 
 2. Scott Joplin (1868–1917) and Ragtime
 
 American
 Composer
 \"The
 king of ragtime\"
 Joplin and
 ragtime gained notice during a performance at the 1893 World Exposition
 (Chicago)
 Left St.
 Louis for Chicago, then went to New York
 Active in
 New York as teacher, composer, performer
 Sought to
 elevate ragtime to a serious art form
 After poorly
 received opera premiere (Treemonisha),
 fell into period of depression
 Died in New
 York in 1917
 Revival of Treemonisha in 1972 earned Joplin
 a posthumous Pulitzer Prize
 Some of his
 piano rags are preserved on recordings made by Joplin on Steinway player
 piano rolls
 
 3. Joplin: Maple
 Leaf Rag (Listening Guide 46)
 
 Regular
 sectional form
 Four
 strains, each repeated
 Syncopated
 rhythms
 
 4. Blues and New Orleans Jazz
 
 Blues: an
 American form of folk music based on a simple, repetitive, poetic-musical
 structure
 The term
 refers to a mood as well as harmonic progression
 
 Harmonic
 progression is usually 12 (or 16) bars in length
 Characteristic
 is the blue note (slight drop in pitch)
 Blues texts
 typically consist of a 3-line stanza, the first 2 lines are the same
 
 Vocal style
 derived from work songs
 The art of
 improvisation is critical in blues
 
 5. Louis Armstrong (1901–1971) and Early Jazz
 
 American
 musician (cornet and trumpet)
 Great
 improviser
 Recording of
 Heebie Jeebies introduced scat
 singing (syllables without literal meaning)
 Jazz chorus
 is a single statement of a melodic-harmonic pattern
 
 Armstrong
 introduced solo rather than ensemble choruses
 
 Style
 influenced generations of musicians
 
 6. The Jazz Singer Billie Holiday (1915–1959)
 
 American
 blues and jazz singer
 
 Nickname
 \"Lady Day\"
 Tragic
 childhood
 
 Discovered
 by talent scout, sent to record with Benny Goodman
 
 Sang with
 the top jazz musicians of her day
 
 Life
 deteriorated into drug and alcohol abuse
 Died at 44
 from cirrhosis of the liver
 Recognizable
 singing style
 
 7. Holiday: Billie's
 Blues (Listening Guide 47)
 
 Recorded
 with Artie Shaw on clarinet and Bunny Berigan on trumpet
 12-bar blues
 
 Short
 introduction and six choruses
 
 Begins with
 3-line strophe, but becomes freer
 Demonstrates
 her masterful rhythmic flexibility
 




Chapter 72: The Swing Era and Beyond

Key Points


 The 1930s saw
 the advent of the swing era (or big
 band era) and the brilliantly composed jazz of Duke Ellington.
 In the late
 1940s, big band jazz gave way to smaller group styles, including bebop,
 cool
 jazz, and West Coast jazz.
 Charlie Parker
 (alto saxophone) and Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet) led the bebop movement, and
 Miles Davis (trumpet) established the lyrical cool jazz style.
 Third stream jazz, developed in the 1950s,
 combines elements of art music (instruments, forms, and tonal devices) and
 jazz to produce a new style.
 Recent trends
 include fusion, Neoclassical style, free jazz, and new-age
 jazz. Interactive technology (including MIDI) has been influential
 in modern jazz performance as well.
 Many art and popular
 music composers have been influenced by ragtime, blues, and jazz,
 including Stravinsky, Ravel, Copland, and George Gershwin.
 Known for his
 Tin Pan Alley songs and musical theater productions, Gershwin also sought
 to unite jazz and classical music in his instrumental works, including Rhapsody in Blue and his Three Piano Preludes.
 1. Early jazz gave way to the swing, or big
 band, era of the 1930s and 1940s
 
 Jazz
 provided new opportunities for black musicians
 
 2. Duke Ellington (1899–1974) and the Big Band
 Era
 
 American
 composer, pianist, orchestrator, and big-band leader
 
 Advent of
 big band brought a need for arranged (written-down) music
 
 Ellington
 was a brilliant orchestrator
 
 His
 orchestral palette included a larger ensemble
 
 One of the
 Ellington Orchestra's most popular tunes was Take the A Train
 
 3. Bebop and Later Jazz Styles
 
 Rebellion
 against big band results in bebop and cool jazz
 Bebop (also
 known as bop) mimics the trademark 2-note phrase of the style
 
 Leaders of
 the style included: Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet), Charlie Parker
 (saxophone), Bud Powell, and Thelonious Monk (both piano)
 
 Bebop
 includes the subtypes
 
 Cool jazz:
 Miles Davis
 West Coast
 jazz: Dave Brubeck Quartet, Gerry Mulligan Quartet
 hard bop,
 soul jazz
 
 Latin
 American bandleaders brought Latin dance music into the mainstream
 (rumba, mambo, chachacha)
 
 4. Gillespie/Parker: A Night in Tunisia (Listening Guide 48)
 
 Charlie
 Parker (\"Bird\") on saxophone, Miles Davis on trumpet
 
 Improvisation
 is key to this work
 Introduction
 is marked by an ostinato in the bass
 
 Tune is
 presented in Chorus 1 (A-A-B-A)
 form
 
 Three
 improvised choruses follow
 
 Coda (same ostinato
 as Intro) closes the work
 
 5. George Gershwin and the Merger of Classical
 and Jazz Styles
 
 European and
 American composers were drawn to ragtime, blues, and jazz
 
 Debussy,
 Stravinsky, Ravel, Copland
 
 George
 Gershwin (1898–1937) mastered the fusion of jazz and classical styles
 
 Accomplished
 pianist and songwriter
 
 Tin Pan
 Alley pianist
 
 Musical
 theater productions: Girl Crazy,
 Porgy and Bess
 Great
 success in vocal works, often collaborated with brother, Ira
 Instrumental
 works were also popular
 
 Rhapsody in Blue, Concerto in F, An American in Paris
 
 
 


Chapter 73: Musical Theater

Key Points


 American
 musical theater has roots in European operetta, which was brought to
 America by emigré composers.
 Musicals
 feature romantic plots (some taken from novels), comic moments, appealing
 melodies, and large ensembles and dance numbers.
 The great
 composer/lyricist teams include Rodgers and Hart (Babes in Arms), Rodgers and Hammerstein (The Sound of Music), Lerner and Lowe (My Fair Lady); other well-known composers of musicals are
 Stephen Sondheim (Into the Woods),
 Andrew Lloyd Webber (Phantom of the
 Opera), and Claude-Michel Schonberg (Les Misérables).
 Leonard
 Bernstein is remembered today as a conductor and composer of symphonic and
 choral music, film music, and musical theater works. His West Side Story, set in New York
 City amid turf wars of rival street gangs, updates the Romeo and Juliet
 legend.
 Dance music
 from Latin America and the Caribbean has enjoyed continued popularity and
 has influenced many musical genres, including Bernstein's West Side Story (CP 20).
 1. The development of American musical theater
 
 Roots in
 European operetta (Gilbert and Sullivan)
 Romantic
 plots, comic moments, appealing melodies, large ensemble, and dance
 numbers
 Early plots
 were often contrived and silly
 Composers
 soon turned to sophisticated literary sources for plots
 Composer/lyricist
 teams emerged
 
 Rodgers and
 Hart, Rodgers and Hammerstein, Lerner and Loewe
 
 Rock
 musicals emerged in the late 1960s 
 1970s:
 Stephen Sondheim's musicals increased in sophistication
 European
 composers took over the American genre
 
 Andrew
 Lloyd Webber, Claude-Michel Schonberg
 
 Disney has a
 strong tradition of animated musicals and Broadway shows (Beauty and the Beast, The Lion King)
 Dance
 musicals are also popular (Riverdance,
 Contact, Stomp) 
 \"Jukebox\"
 musicals feature songs by a popular artist or group (Mamma Mia)
 
 2. Leonard Bernstein (1918–1990)
 
 American
 composer and conductor
 Appointed
 assistant conductor of the New York Philharmonic at age 25
 At 40,
 became first American-born and youngest conductor of NY Philharmonic
 His music
 combines the worlds of serious and popular music
 
 Composed
 symphonic and choral music, film music, and musical theater works
 
 In West Side Story, Bernstein
 attempted a union of jazz with musical theater
 
 3. Bernstein: West Side Story, excerpts (Listening Guide 49)
 
 Based on the
 story of Romeo and Juliet
 Lyrics by
 Stephen Sondheim
 Set among
 street gangs of New York City
 
 Jets vs.
 Puerto Rican rivals, the Sharks
 
 Influence of
 Latin dance music and jazz
 Favorite
 tunes: Mambo (Afro-Cuban dance)
 Tonight love duet in A-A-B-A
 form found in jazz
 


Chapter 76: The New Virtuosity of the
Modern Age

Key Points


 Contemporary
 music often calls for innovative and highly virtuosic instrumental or
 vocal effects that challenge performers to new expressive and technical
 levels.
 In his song
 cycle Ancient Voices of Children,
 which uses the voice as a virtuosic instrument, American composer George
 Crumb set texts by the Spanish poet Federico García Lorca.
 1. Contemporary music calls for new and highly
 virtuosic technique
 
 Some
 performers specialize in avant-garde music
 
 Cathy Berberian,
 Jan DeGaetani
 
 
 2. George Crumb (b. 1929) and Avant-Garde
 Virtuosity
 
 American
 Composer, numerous awards and honors
 
 Pulitzer,
 Grammy Award
 
 Emotional,
 dramatic, expressive music
 Professor of
 composition at the University of Pennsylvania until 1999
 Affinity for
 the poetry of Federico García Lorca
 
 3. Crumb: Ancient
 Voices of Children (Listening Guide 51)
 
 Cycle of
 songs for soprano, boy soprano, oboe, mandolin, harp, electric piano,
 percussion
 Voice is
 used like an instrument
 Opens with a
 vocalise (wordless melody)
 Includes
 singing into an amplified piano, singing microtones
 Percussion
 includes instruments from around the world
 Mysterious
 music reflects dark intimations of poetry
 


Chapter 77: Contemporary Composers Look to
World Music

Key Points


 Composer John
 Cage invented the prepared piano to simulate the
 sound of the Javanese gamelan orchestra.
 The gamelan
 is an ensemble of metallic percussion instruments played in
 Indonesia (on the islands of Java and Bali, in particular).
 The music of
 Chinese-American composer Bright Sheng merges Eastern and Western sound
 material and concepts.
 The Moon Reflected on the Second Springs is a traditional Chinese piece
 for the two-string fiddle (erhu).
 Improvisation,
 where the performer takes a role in the compositional process, is common
 not only in jazz but also in the solo genres of various Asian countries,
 including China, India, and Iran (CP 22).
 1. The West has always felt the influence of
 other cultures 
 
 A number of
 composers responded to the philosophy of the Far East
 
 In
 particular, Californians Henry Cowell, Harry Partch, and John Cage
 
 
 2. Important Experimenters
 
 Henry Cowell
 (1897–1965) drawn to a variety of non-Western musics
 
 Student of
 the music of Japan, India, Iran, rural Ireland and America
 Experimented
 with foreign scales
 Innovations
 include tone clusters
 
 Adjacent
 tones are struck with the fist, palm, etc.
 
 
 Harry Partch
 (1901–1974)
 
 Serious
 proponent of microtonal music (he devised a scale of 43 pitches)
 Unique now
 instruments (cloud-chamber bowls, diamond marimba, etc.)
 
 
 3. The Music of John Cage (1912–1992)
 
 American
 Composer
 Student of Henry
 Cowell and Arnold Schoenberg
 Invented the
 prepared piano to simulate the sound of the Javanese gamelan
 
 Consisted
 of items (nails, bolts, etc.) inserted in the piano strings
 
 Preoccupied
 with East Asian philosophy
 Quest for
 tranquility pervades his life and work
 Composed
 music based on chance (indeterminacy)
 Explored the
 role of silence: 4'33\" (a
 piece of silence)
 
 4. Cage: Sonata V, from Sonatas and Interludes (Listening Guide 52)
 
 A group of
 16 pieces for the prepared piano
 
 Bits of
 materials inserted in between strings
 Approximates
 the sounds of the Javanese gamelan
 
 Captures the
 meditative character of Oriental thought
 Set in
 binary form (A-A-B-B)
 
 5. The Javanese Gamelan
 
 Indonesia
 comprises many diverse cultures and musical traditions
 The gamelan
 is central to the musical traditions
 
 Composed of
 melodic percussion instruments
 
 Music is
 played from memory, passed as an oral tradition
 Played for
 ritual ceremonies (court, shadow-puppet theater)
 Two tunings:
 sléndro (5-note), pélog (7-note)
 
 6. Javanese Gamelan Music: Patalon (Listening Guide 53)
 
 Patalon
 serves as an overture to the shadow puppet play
 In shadow
 puppet theater (wayang), a
 master puppeteer
 
 Operates
 the puppets
 Narrates
 and sings the songs
 Leads the
 gamelan
 
 The
 performance begins in the early evening and continues until dawn
 Rhythmic
 structure is cyclic (colotomic
 structure)
 Melodic
 framework (balungan) interacts
 with rhythmic structure
 Instruments
 played are metallophones (metallic percussion)
 


Chapter 78: Music for Films

Key Points


 Music sets the
 mood, helps establish the characters, and creates a sense of place and
 time in a film.
 There are two
 principal types of music in a film—underscoring and source
 music.
 Silent films
 were generally accompanied by solo piano or organ.
 Film music may
 be newly composed or may borrow from Classical or popular repertory; rock,
 country/western, and jazz gained favor in film music after the late 1940s.
 The late 1930s
 is considered the Golden Age of films and film music.
 The Russian
 composer Sergei Prokofiev wrote scores for two epic films—Alexander Nevsky (1938) and Ivan the Terrible (1944–45)—both
 about Russian historical figures and both directed by Sergei Eisenstein.
 Post–World War
 II films used music sparingly, and composers explored more modern special
 effects.
 The film music
 of John Williams marks a return to full orchestral resources and the use
 of leitmotifs (recurring themes) associated with characters
 or situations.
 In the 1980s,
 the synthesizer had a significant influence on the film music industry.
 6. Beyond Star
 Wars
 
 Star Wars (1977) revolutionized the industry in terms of
 visual and aural effects
 The score by
 John Williams was immensely popular
 
 Incorporated
 full symphony orchestra, use of leitmotifs
 
 John
 Williams (b. 1932)
 
 Wrote for
 television in the 1950s and 1960s
 Began to
 compose for films in the 1960s
 1970s
 successes
 
 Star Wars, Close Encounters
 of the Third Kind, Superman
 
 1980s,
 1990s, and the present:
 
 Indiana Jones, Jurassic
 Park, Harry Potter films, Munich 
 
 
 James Horner
 (b. 1953)
 
 Studied in
 Los Angeles (University of Southern California, UCLA)
 Successes
 include Star Trek II & III, Apollo 13,
 Titanic, etc.
 
 Synthesizers
 were a major part of the sound of 1980s film scores
 
 Synthesizers
 are largely the domain of popular musicians
 
 Danny Elfman
 (b. 1953)
 
 Founder of
 the rock group Oingo Boingo
 Worked with
 director Tim Burton
 Successful
 scores for many films
 
 Beetlejuice, Batman, Men in
 Black, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
 
 
 Hans Zimmer
 (b. 1957)
 
 Comes from
 a popular music background
 Successes
 include: Rain Man, The Lion King,
 Gladiator, Pearl Harbor, Madagascar, Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead
 Man's Chest
 
 Rachel
 Portman (b. 1960)
 
 First woman
 to win an Academy Award for Best Music (Emma, 1996)
 Successes
 include: The Joy Luck Club, The
 Cider House Rules, The Manchurian Candidate
 
 During the
 1990s and into the 21st century, American composers of art music turned
 to film
 
 John Corigliano,
 The Red Violin; Tan Dun, Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon; Elliot
 Goldenthal, Frida
 
 Minimalism
 made its way into film in the 1990s
 
 The Matrix and The Hours with scores by Philip Glass
 
 
 7. Williams: Raiders
 March, from Raiders of the Lost
 Ark (Listening Guide 56)
 
 Heard in its
 entirety during the closing credits of Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)
 
 Fashioned
 from two leitmotifs in the film (Indiana Jones and Marion)
 
 Three-part
 form (Indiana Jones theme, Marion's theme, Indiana Jones theme)
 Instrumentation
 and beat of a traditional march
 


Chapter 79: Technology and Music

Key Points


 Musique concrète, which began in the late
 1940s, used natural sounds recorded on magnetic tape as a new medium for
 composition.
 In the early
 1950s, the German school of electronische Musik created
 compositions using electronically generated sounds.
 By the late
 1960s, smaller, cheaper synthesizers were available to many musicians and
 composers.
 Digital
 technology, beginning with the invention of FM synthesis in the 1970s,
 revolutionized the world of electronic music.
 Computers can
 generate sounds, create compositions, and interact with synthesizers via
 the Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI).
 One of the
 most innovative composers of interactive music is Tod Machover, who writes
 for electronically enhanced hyperinstruments.
 Modern
 composers are moving toward interactive performances involving a live
 audience, either directly or via the Internet.
 1. The Technological Revolution
 
 Two trends
 emerged simultaneously in the late 1940s and early 1950s
 Musique concrète: Paris-based movement headed
 by Pierre Schaeffer
 
 Relied on
 recordings of natural sounds that were manipulated through external
 devices 
 The
 American offshoot of tape music incorporated artificially generated sounds
 
 Electronische
 Musik: Cologne-based movement headed by Herbert Eimert
 
 Major
 proponent was Karlheinz Stockhausen
 The heart
 of the system was the oscillator (electronic waveform generator)
 
 Waveforms
 were subjected to many types of manipulation
 
 
 Eventually
 the many components were combined into a synthesizer
 Synthesizers
 
 RCA first
 delivered the synthesizer in 1955
 A second
 version was delivered to Columbia-Princeton's Electronic Music Center in
 1959
 
 Robert Moog
 and Donald Buchla created a more compact and affordable synthesizer in
 the 1960s
 First
 electronic piece commissioned by a record company: Morton Subotnik's Silver Apples of the Moon (1967)
 Widespread
 popularity of the synthesizer came after the 1968 recording Switched-On Bach by Walter (later
 Wendy) Carlos
 Digital
 frequency modulation synthesis replaced analog systems (developed by John
 Chowning at Stanford)
 
 Chowning
 sells rights to Yamaha—developed Yamaha DX7 (1983)
 
 Musical
 Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) adopted in 1983
 Technology
 became affordable in the mid-1980s
 Digital
 samplers re-created realistic sounds of any noise
 Composers
 combined computer savvy with musical inspiration
 Hiller and Issacson's
 software MUSIC generated musical compositions (1956)
 
 2. Important Figures in Electronic Music
 
 Edgard
 Varèse (1883–1965), French expatriate in the U.S.
 
 Turned to
 electronic medium late in life
 Poème electronique (1956–58)
 
 Commissioned
 for a sound-and-light show at Philips Pavilion at the 1958 Brussels
 World's Fair
 Consisted
 of electronic and concrète sounds recorded on a multi-channel tape
 Pavilion
 was designed by Le Corbusier and Iannis Xenakis (who later became a
 composer)
 Music
 accompanied the lighting effects and projected images
 The piece
 was played on more than 400 speakers in the pavilion
 2 million
 people experienced the composition by the end of the World's Fair
 
 
 Mario Davidovsky
 (b. 1934)
 
 Argentine-born
 American composer
 Combines
 electronic sounds with live music
 Director of
 the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in New York
 Currently
 teaching at Harvard University
 Best-known
 works: Synchronisms (1963–88)
 
 


Chapter 80: Some Current Trends

Key Points


 The more
 recent compositional styles of minimalism and New
 Romanticism seek to appeal to audiences that have been alienated
 by highly intellectual and structural approaches to contemporary music.
 Minimalist music is based on repetitive melodic,
 rhythmic, or harmonic patterns with few or slowly changing variations. The
 music can sound hypnotic (as in new age music) or motor-driven and
 frenzied. The most important exponents are Steve Reich and Philip Glass.
 Spiritual
 minimalism is
 a recent trend characterized by a simple, nonpulsed music that springs
 from deep religious convictions. Estonian composer Arvo Pärt's choral
 music (including Cantate Domino
 canticum novum) represents this style.
 American
 composer John Adams takes an eclectic approach that combines elements of
 minimalism with traits of New Romanticism (using a lush harmonic
 language), forging a post-minimalist style.
 New Romanticism favors the harmonic language of
 the late Romantic era; the music is often coupled with a highly virtuosic
 style and novel instrumental combinations. Libby Larsen's song cycle Sonnets from the Portuguese, set to
 the poetry of Elizabeth Barrett Browning, exemplifies this approach. 
 1. Highly intellectual music caused reactionary
 trends that seek immediate audience appeal
 
 Minimalism
 and New Romanticism are primary movements
 
 2. Minimalism and Post-Minimalism
 
 Minimal art
 first found expression in painting and sculpture
 Composers of
 this style stripped their compositions down to the barest essentials
 
 Features:
 repetition of melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic patterns with very little
 variation 
 
 The
 listener's attention is focused on a few basic details
 Turns away
 from the highly intellectual style of the serialists
 Minimalists
 often incorporate non-Western ideas
 Widely known
 composers of minimalism: Steve Reich (b. 1936), Philip Glass (b. 1937)
 Spiritual
 minimalism: offshoot of minimalism
 
 Mainly a
 European trend, deeply meditative
 Nonpulsed
 music inspired by religious beliefs
 Expressed
 in chains of lush modal or tonal progressions
 Primary
 composers: Arvo Pärt, Henryk Górecki, John Taverner
 
 
 3. Arvo Pärt (b. 1935) and Spiritual Minimalism
 
 Estonian composer
 Concert,
 film, and stage composer
 Explored
 20th-century techniques (Neoclassicism, serialism)
 Religious
 convictions made life in the Soviet Union difficult
 Left for
 West Berlin
 Composes
 Latin and Orthodox Church choral music
 Created a
 new style called tintinnabulation (from
 the Latin word for ringing of bells)
 
 4. Pärt: Cantate
 Domino canticum novum (Listening Guide 58)
 
 Inspired by
 medieval chant
 Latin text,
 based on Psalm 95
 Uses
 notation system similar to Gregorian chant, not traditional notation
 Scored for
 SATB chorus and organ
 Tintinnabular
 (bell) style
 Incorporates
 word painting
 Varied
 texture, use of counterpoint
 
 5. John Adams (b. 1947) and Post-Minimalism
 
 American
 composer
 Educated at
 Harvard, steeped in serialism
 Influenced
 by rock music
 Moved to San
 Francisco
 
 Advocate
 for contemporary music in the Bay Area
 Taught at
 the San Francisco Conservatory
 
 Incorporates
 late Romantic expressive harmonies in minimalist music
 Often
 collaborates with director Peter Sellars
 
 6. Adams: Tromba
 Lontana (Distant Trumpet) (Listening Guide 59)
 
 Short
 orchestral fanfare
 
 One of two
 fanfares written in 1986
 
 Short Ride in a Fast Machine
 = exuberant
 and propulsive
 Tromba lontana = quiet and introspective
 
 
 Commissioned
 by the Houston Symphony
 
 Includes 2
 solo trumpets placed at opposite sides of the stage
 
 Evokes
 Eastern music with sues of crotales
 and string harmonics
 Mesmerizing,
 repetitive accompaniment in the orchestra
 
 7. The New Romanticism
 
 New
 Romanticism is a reaction to the intellectual and alienating 12-tone movement
 New
 Romanticism favors a harmonic language from the late Romantic era
 Precursors
 to the movement include Samuel Barber
 





Rubens
17th Century
Austo-Prussian War
19
14th century
Black Death
Netherlands's Golden Age
17
paul revere, copley, 1772
Musical Context
Sound Recording, World Music
People's Charter
Written by Chartists
-demanded universal male suffrage and secret ballot
Bangladesh
formerly East Pakistan, independence in 1972
Polyrhythm
simutaneous use of several rhythimic of metric patterns
Calonne
Louis XVI's financial minister who came up with a plan to tax the 1st &2nd Estate. The government convened the Assembly of Notables to try and convince them it was a good idea, but they weren't happy. The Estates General was called to vote his plan down.
Ricardo
Iron Law of Wages
-because of population growth, wages would be set to just high enough to keep workers from starving
Glasnost
1984 "openess" Gorbachev's plan to allow more freedom of expression. People allowed to openly criticize government
Religious meditation
thoughtful consideration of matters relating to the church and to God.in Meditation 17 by John Donne he talks about how the church applies to every human being when the church bell rings about when someone's dying, you should use it as if it was your own bell.
mercantilism
Economic theory & practice common in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century that promoted governmental regulation of a nation's economy for the purpose of augmenting state power at the expense of rival
national powers.
baldachino
Canopy on columns usually over an alter
Louis XVIII (18)
French monarch restored after Napoleonic Wars. Instituted the Charter of 1814, which elected legislature known as the Chamber of Deputies. Kept people happy
Duma
1905 Name of the Russian Parliament, which actually had no power because Nicolas kept dissolving it until it was filled with only his supporters.
Green Revolution
introduction of improved seed strains, fertilizers, irrigation for higher yields in corn, rice, wheat (dense Asia)
Who worked for the Mutual Insurance Co?
Ives
fantage
large ruffle that women would where as a hair ornament
Victor Hugo
French Romantic author who focused on cruelty of 19th century society. Wrote "Les Miserables"
the idea that the goal of society should be for the greatess happiness for the greatest amount of people
Utilitarianism
Frank Lloyd Wright, Broadacre City Project, 1934.
Wright's attitude
Anti-urban attitude
Disappearing City (1932)
Strict hierarchical structure
Families live in single-family houses; no skyscrappers
Very spread out, large
Depended on private transportation; American dream, American model
What are byproducts of the Enlightenment?
Democracy and Romanticism
cresting
Ornamental ridge at the top of a wall or roof peak
Concert of Europe
Metternich's idea to keep peace in Europe. The idea that all European leaders would sit down and discuss their disagreements rather that go to war.
The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
T. S. Eliot
E. GRANADOS 1867-1916
"Goyescas" - suite of 6 mvmts (laments, improvisatory nature) (died after delaying return to perform for Woodrow Wilson)
Antoni Gaudí, Casa Vicens, Barcelona 1883-1885 and Palau Güell, Barcelona 1885-
1889
Barcelona became important center; important political movements
Class in Barcelona wanted to invest in innovative design
-- Gaudí developed close relationship with Güell (trader)
Preferred medevial references than classical
-- Casa Vicens; Güell Palaos
Very intricate design in Casa Vicens
Fragments of colored tiles
Ragtime was the music of...
the sporting life. leisure, everyone's at their o
Hector Guimard, Paris Metro, Porte Dauphine Station, 1899-1904, view and detail.
Exemplify the art nouveau movement; rejecting historical references; bimorphic and natural style
-- Changes thanks to wide book distribution, transfer of ideas
Metro: like train, it is important; Paris came late into subway construction
Louis Armstrong's second wife and what she convinc
Lillian Hardin, Move to NYC
Civil War and Oliver Cromwell
it caused people like thomas gray to write about his ruthless ways of dictatorship.
What book did Joplin write? About what?
"School of Ragtime"- laid out the case a
"New Imperialism"
-
Sluter
15th Century
Protestantism began
16
Protectorate
Crowmwell's government
-Religious toleration (even Jews!)
-prohibition of public entertainment (strict puritan values)
-Crushing an Irish rebellion
-Mercantilist laws (Navigation Acts)
Robinson Crusoe
Daniel Defoe
20th century
The Great Depression
War of Spanish Succession
18
16th century
Golden Age of Spain
movement of people to cities
Urbanization
A Farewell to Arms
Earnest Hemmingway
Sprechstimme
Type of vocal performance between speech and song. (Schoenberg)
Francis Joseph
ultra conservative Austrian emperor who crushed nationalist rebellions among different ethnic minorities
German philosopher; starter of Communism
Karl Marx
Ruhr
France's refusal to reduce war payments after WWI led to a general strike in this coal laden area of Germany. When this happens, the French government tries to force them back into working by surrounding and blockading the area
1645
royal forces defeated by parliament's forces
Mambo
Afro-Cuban dance in a lively quatruple meter
Mary Wollstonecraft
Wrote first British work demanding women to have right to vote
Delacroix
One of the leading Romantic painters. Best known for large canvas commemorating JULY REVOLT of 1830, Liberty Leading the People.
made boiler that wouldn't explode under pressure
James Watt
fourth republic
1946- 1959 French gov after WWI
-strong legislature, but president had little power
-caused inefficiency
-first republic where women can vote in France
Tone
The expression of a literary speaker's attitude to his listener.
seneca falls convention
the first women's rights convention
Louis XIII
Cardinal Richelieu was the adviser to this French king.
Adam Smith
1776 Liberal opinion was based off this Scottish economist.
-Father of capitalism
-Businessman could make a profit when operating his business as he saw fit, lead to greater production.
Maastrich Treaty 1991
European Union. Move towards political equality.
-many nations afraid to ratify for fear of loss of national sovereignty
Heroic Couplet
Lines of iambic pentameter which rhyme in pairs. Epic content. Closed couplet: end of two lines ended a sentence or thought.
Transcendentalism
Closer to Creator by being close to Creation- Geor
Thirty Years War
This war began with the defenestration of Prague. Started as war over religions, but so wound up a balance of power war against the Hapsburgs.
Single Europe Act
1989 committed all EC members to remove trade barriers by 1993. movement towards "single market"
Who wrote nonteleologic music?
Satie- it's without a goal
president james polk
a believer in manifest destiny, he acquired most of the land west of the louisiana territory for the us
Coal and Steel Community
1951 formed when France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxemburg and Netherlands the 2 resources most necessary for making war.
-first step towards European unity
"Duke Bluebeard's Castle"
written by Bartok. Not quite an opera, but writte
War of attrition
when both sides of war are so evenly matched that they have to concentrate on wearing down the other side.
What was Pictures of Dorian Grey about?
It contradicted Victorianism- where everything is
What attitude is important in Ragtime
Stately- these people are 1 generation away from s
/ 71
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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